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Author Colson, V.; Lejeune, P.,
Title A regional travel model for predicting the number of visitors in forests: application to the Walloon region Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-421
Keywords MMV4, decay curve, forest recreation, GIS, travel model, Wallonia
Abstract The Walloon forests are visited by local people and tourists but the importance of forest recreation is very different from one part of the Region to another. As it was particularly difficult to obtain quantified information by counting, a model has been built by GIS and taking results from different surveys (telephone survey and face-to-face interviews) into account. This model makes the distinction between local visitors and one-day tourists coming from the neighbouring regions (in a buffer zone of 50 km). A decay curve based on travel time is used for predicting the number of visits throughout all Walloon forests from each departure point. An attraction function is added to the model to attribute each visit to a woodland and different scenarios have been tested to obtain a distribution of people by regions of provenance as similar as the results of surveys. At a regional level, this model is a good alternative for counting and gives a good overview of the forests for which recreation activities are more relevant and have to be taken into account in forest management plans.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1066 Serial 2654
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Author Cottrell, S.P.,
Title Perceptions, attitudes and perceived benefits of local residents about tourism development in and around European Protected Area Network Parks Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 72-76
Keywords MMV4, Sustainability, tourism, indicators, monitoring
Abstract This paper presents the European Protected Area Network (PAN Parks) approach (mixed methods) for monitoring resident beliefs about the benefits of PAN Parks status and satisfaction with tourism development. Comparison of results and lessons learned from studies done in Poland, Bulgaria, and Finland are given. Hypothesizes imply that economic, socio-cultural, ecological, and institutional dimensions of sustainable tourism influence perceived benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development. As residents’ satisfaction with the economic, socio-cultural, institutional and ecological aspects of sustainable tourism increase, so do beliefs about the benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development in the PAN Park regions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 914 Serial 2579
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Author Duke, D.; Quinn, M.,
Title Methodological considerations for using remote cameras to monitor the ecological effects of trails users: lessons from research in Western Canada Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 441-445
Keywords MMV4, Remote cameras, access management, monitoring methods, wildlife
Abstract The Livingstone River Area in southwestern Alberta, Canada is an ecologically significant area of public land that provides an important connection between adjacent protected areas. Most of the area is zoned for multiple use; which means the area is available for resource extraction and recreational activity. Recreational use in this area consists primarily of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, random access camping and fly fishing. Recreational use is largely unmanaged and increasing. The proliferation of trails and campsites has become extensive in the past decade. Furthermore, much of this activity is concentrated along critical riparian movement corridors and in sensitive montane, subalpine and alpine environments. Human use and associated linear disturbance is recognized as among the most significant habitat fragmentation factor limiting sensitive wildlife (especially large carnivores) in the region. We have developed a sampling method that employs remote digital infrared cameras on known human trails and wildlife trails. The cameras have proven to be very effective for monitoring all trail use. We provide a review of our methods, report on the effectiveness of the cameras and provide some guidance on the use of cameras based on the lessons we have learned.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1074 Serial 2658
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Author Eder, R.; Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Assessment of a passive infrared counter with a remote data transfer facility Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 480-482
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, remote data transfer, video monitoring
Abstract This study evaluated the reliability of the Ecocounter – Ecotwin© equipped with a remote control facility (Eco-GSM-unit) under different conditions. The counter is connected to a modem, which allows transferring data from the counter to the office via internet. We will discuss the reliability of the modem and the influences of the different locations and surroundings on it.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1090 Serial 2666
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Author Eisenhut, A.; Haller, R.; Raper, J.,
Title How does topography influence the use of the mobile guide WebParkSNP in the Swiss National Park? Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 433-437
Keywords MMV4, Location based services, Swiss National Park, Visitor management, Visitor monitoring
Abstract Since 2005, the Swiss National Park offers a mobile information system called WebParkSNP which provides content about the users surroundings using smart phone services and GPS. Up to now, little is known about the use of Location Based Services (LBS) by visitors of remote and protected areas and about the contents they are interested in. WebParkSNP logs time, location and content of each action the user conducts. Contents are not only pushed but can be accessed from every location. With the consent of 419 users, WebParkSNP’s log files of the summer season 2007 have been analysed in order to compare the user’s actions with the topography of the Park. Topography is composed of specific places (vegetation classes, aspect, and slope of the trail), facilities (resting areas, huts) and viewpoints. The results show that clustering of access occurs on steeper slopes, within facilities, and on viewpoints on certain routes. The content accessed differs between facilities and other places. Nevertheless, these patterns are not only determined by topography but also by behavioural aspects; the use of the guide depends on the daytime and on the distance from the starting point of the walk as well. These results allow the evaluation and improvement of LBS concerning content and locations. In addition, conclusions can be drawn about the development and improvement of other offers in the Park. Further analysis and the integration of other visitor surveys like census and questionnaires will show the potential for more general insights into visitor behaviour in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1072 Serial 2657
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Author Elmazi, L.; Gorica, K.,
Title Economic effect of alternative tourism. Events and festivals Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 368-372
Keywords MMV4, Economic effects, alternative tourism, multicultural communities
Abstract The analyze of the tourism cities within Albania show that communities as emerged tourism destination offer culture, tradition and events, and also, show us that events and festivals have the capacity to celebrate community identity particularly in multi-cultural events and festivals. The involvement of local community in creating opportunities and furthermore, competitive advantages, is very important for management and marketing of events and festivals, especially in multi-cultural communities. The research investigates the different interpretations of community, the concept of communities and the role of events and festivals in articulating community identity within distinct localities. It is necessary the compilation of a strategic marketing plan which will involve the community in tourism events and festivals, which at last will follow up with sustainability. Drafting perfect marketing strategies is always one side of the management task that should not be underestimated. This task becomes extremely difficult since in many cases a direct conflict exists between the site managers who to keep restricted numbers of visitors for preservation reasons, local people who look the events as a way to generate revenues, and national governments who like to use its image as a marketing device. Heritage and Cultural Tourism is the most important part of the Albanian tourism product and successful element of the national economy. Albania is considered as a new cultural destination in the tourism marketplace, as a Balkan country of dramatic natural beauty, with a wealth of historic buildings and ancient archaeological sites that can compare, for interest and variety with any in the Mediterranean world.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1050 Serial 2646
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Author English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Bowker, J.M.,
Title Trap shyness in onsite visitor surveys; evidence from the U.S Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 135-138
Keywords MMV4, Estimation bias, onsite surveys, recreation visitation, trap shyness
Abstract In onsite surveys of visitors, whether the purpose is estimating visitation volume or characteristics of the visit population, those who visit the area multiple times per year are candidates to be surveyed more than one time. In such surveys, each visit represents a unique sampling unit. However, individuals may be unwilling to be surveyed after the first contact. The phenomenon is similar to ‘trap shyness’ in wildlife studies wherein an animal learns to avoid traps after the initial experience. If trap shyness exists, it has the potential to bias the results for either or both visitation estimation or describing the average visit characteristics. There is some anecdotal evidence that trap shyness does exist, and could be problematic for long-term surveys such as the National Visitor Use Monitoring program used by the US Forest Service. This paper describes the conceptual framework for how trap shyness can affect both visitation estimates and visit characteristics, identify empirical hypotheses to be tested that provide evidence of trap shyness, present results for the hypotheses, and describe possible improvements to sampling processes that could determine it existence and extent. Data for the paper come from onsite surveying collected during the period October 2004 – September 2007 for about three dozen National Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 948 Serial 2595
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Author Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L.,
Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143
Keywords MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring
Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596
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Author Figueiredo, E.,
Title Quiet struggles – conflicts between residents, visitors and protected and recreational areas’ administrations Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 26-32
Keywords MMV4, remote rural areas, rural protected and recreational areas, social conflicts, social perceptions
Abstract The paper aims to discuss the conflicting situations which can occur between residents, visitors and political and administrative entities in protected and recreational areas, particularly in the ones located in remote rural spaces. Rural areas (both legally protected and without protection status) are increasingly valued in contemporary societies as environmental reserves. Consequently rural areas are progressively perceived as amenities and as objects of consumption mainly by urban or non local populations. The visitors’ demands and consumptions of rural protected and recreational areas tend to prevail over the local populations’ needs and aspirations in terms of socioeconomic development. The non coincidence between the desired and the lived rural environment tends to create a number of conflicts among the various stakeholders. These areas tend to become the scenario for both latent and manifest struggles, considering the contradictory perceptions, needs, interests and desires held by the different social actors. Based on empirical evidence from some Portuguese rural protected and recreational areas we will debate not only the existence of two clearly contrasting visions, but also the consequences these can have in terms of future social and economic development and environmental protection strategies.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 890 Serial 2567
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Author Fredman, P.; Ernerfeldt Burman, L.,
Title Outdoor recreation in change. A Swedish program on outdoor recreation research Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 483-483
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor, recreation, change, sweden
Abstract Outdoor Recreation in Change is an interdisciplinary research program which will analyze current dynamics of outdoor recreation and nature based tourism in Sweden, forming a thorough knowledge base for future research and monitoring. The program is organized into six projects to emphasize the diversity of outdoor recreation research. (1) The research is integrated through a common empirical arena that includes case studies of recreation landscapes and a national survey to provide information on outdoor recreation activities, participation and constraints. This will give a comprehensive input to five deepening projects: (2) Outdoor recreation patterns (motives, access, urban-rural tensions, gender, immigrants, youth, non-users and trends); (3) Urban proximate nature (outdoor recreational opportunities, economics and health); (4) Outdoor recreation in spatial planning (land use, conflict resolution, impact assessment and local management); (5) Outdoor recreation and nature conservation (integrated land management, environmental education and guiding); and (6) Nature-based tourism for regional development (demand, supply, impacts, protected areas and governance). Communication at three levels (information, dialogue and collaboration) will establish strong linkages and ensure that results are disseminated to a broad group of external stakeholders and practitioners. The program, which is financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, is planned for six years and involves 18 researchers at seven universities in Sweden. This presentation will give an overview of the program, current program activities, and highlights of recent results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1092 Serial 2667
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Author García-Ventura, D.; Tejedo, P.; Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Potential interpretation index: a tool for assessing landscape diversity from pathways Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 510-510
Keywords MMV4, Landscape, pathways, ecological divesity index
Abstract Nowadays, a well developed net of pathways allows people to enjoy nature in countryside. Into natural protected areas, the pathway network is generally used to bring closer natural /cultural values and visitors. However, the design of these interpretation pathways usually doesn’t bear in mind how much representative are them to make a complete visit through all landscapes of the natural protected area. We have developed an index based on useful and popular ecological diversity index (Shannon-Wiener, 1948), which has been applied to 56 pathways open to visitors in 6 Spanish National Parks. This Potential Interpretation Index takes into account several factors with high attractiveness to visitors, like environmental units, water bodies and slopes. In addition, we consider these topics either crossed by the pathways than observed from these ones. Spatial data was processed by GIS tools in order to obtain landscape diversity and viewshed from each pathway in these National Parks. The result of this work is an index easier to apply in natural protected areas and the whole countryside, in order to asses its significance for interpretation activities and for guaranteeing a representative visit to the area. This tool could be added to others planning models in natural protected areas management, with the aim of reconcile conservation and visitors use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1112 Serial 2677
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Author Ghelichipour, Z.; Muhar, A.,
Title Visitor risk management in core zones of protected areas: First results from a survey of European park administrations Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 107-111
Keywords MMV4, Conservation regulations, European Protected Areas, Questionnaire, Visitor Risk Management
Abstract Effective visitor risk management practices play an important role in the management of outdoor recreation. Many forms of outdoor recreation have inherent risks associated with them, indeed for many recreational activities risk and challenge are integral components. In many European countries, the administrations of protected areas are legally liable for some kinds of visitors’ injuries, e.g. caused by falling trees or damaged handrails. Sometimes this liability may cause legal problems for the managers, as management measures (e.g. removal of trees) might be in conflict with conservation regulations. These problems are particularly serious in core zones of protected areas, because of their stronger conservation status. In this study, visitor safety management and likely conflicts with conservation regulations in different European protected areas has been surveyed. The findings imply that today visitor risk management is not considered as an important aspect of the management process in core zones of protected areas. This might change in the future: In many core zones of European parks regular forest management for timber production has only recently been discontinued, which will lead to an increased visitor risk when natural processes of ecosystem development take over.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 934 Serial 2589
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Author Goossen, M.,
Title What do people want in National Landscapes Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 211-211
Keywords MMV4, European Landscape Convention, protection, policy, Netherlands
Abstract The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is the first European Treaty that is aimed specifically at the landscape. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning. A main point is that the landscape contributes to the shaping of local cultures. Landscape is a basic component of European nature and cultural heritage. Landscape contributes to the well-being of people and the strengthening of the European identity. This produces everyone rights and responsibilities for protection, management and planning of the landscape. The ELC promotes the involvement of citizens at “their” landscape and stimulates the regional and national governments in Europe to create good conditions for the development and the management of the landscape. The ELC cover all landscapes, urban or rural, nicely or ugly. On the 10th of June 2005 the Dutch minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food quality announced that The Netherlands will ratify the European Landscape Convention. The Dutch landscape policy has been renewed and is entirely in line with this Convention. There are 20 National Landscapes in the Netherlands, which cover approx. 25% of the surface. In the Netherlands important spatial changes are in preparation, varying from new house construction projects to catching the impact of climate change. So involvement of citizens is very important. Therefore the government was interested in the opinion of inhabitants of these National Landscapes, and what their attitude is and what their preferences are. An on-line research with 4000 respondents was carried out to give the answers. The most important result is that the inhabitants agree with the policy. Their attitude is that (economic) development must continue, but with great care of the typical characteristics of the landscape. The preferences depend on the different recreation motives, but the desire for nature development is very popular.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 978 Serial 2610
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Author Griffin, T.; Moore, S.A.; Darcy, S.; Crilley, G.,
Title Developing a national approach to visitor data collection, management and use for protected areas: thoughts from Australian research and practice Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 305-309
Keywords MMV4, Benchmarking, national approach, performance indicators, protected area management, visitor data
Abstract Information on visitor numbers, activities, expectations and satisfaction is vital for protected areas managers on two counts: to assist in the provision of the services and facilities that visitors need and want; and to determine if managers have been efficient and effective in meeting these demands. This paper builds on a recently completed national study in Australia of visitor data collection and usage, and the future visitor data needs, of protected area management agencies. Australia is a federation of states and provides a challenging backdrop for developing a national approach as most responsibilities for protected areas rest with the states rather than the national government. Thus, the success of such an approach rests on cooperation rather than an overarching national regulatory responsibility. The study found that all protected area agencies collected visitor data, however, their approaches were highly variable in what was measured, how the measurements were applied and how data were managed and used. This variability was problematic because it becomes very difficult to determine issues of general importance for protected area management or to benchmark performance across areas. Based on these findings and knowledge of the institutional settings for protected area management in Australia, this paper poses some ideas for progressing a national approach for standardising the measures and measurement of key variables so that comparisons and benchmarking become possible and reliable. Core and supplementary visitor data variables can be identified, with the former being of national interest and hence requiring collection and storage under national coordination and guidance. Implementing such an approach will require working creatively and collaboratively within the current institutional settings.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1024 Serial 2633
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Author Grigel, F.P.,
Title Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose: visit types across Canada’s National Parks Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 310-314
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour patterns, national parks, latent class modelling, trip diaries, activities
Abstract Parks Canada is continuing to use latent class analysis to identify behaviour-based ‘visit type’ segments (created through the analysis of reported activities and the places visited) in different national parks. The current paper reviews three studies conducted in different national parks. We will discuss improvements in the efficiency of data collection and highlight the consistency in visit type segments across different national parks. The appearance of consistent visit type segments across national parks serves to reinforce Parks Canada’s move to behaviour-based segmentation. These visit type segments contrast with the different visitor profiles of each national park (as measured by origin and motivations for visiting). Identifying consistent visit type segments across different national parks allows Parks Canada to develop regional-level programs and products for each of these groups, rather than continuing to develop products for each park in isolation.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1026 Serial 2634
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Author Haider, W.; Riley, J.; Mostegl, N.,
Title The Sea-to-Sky playground: individual outdoor recreation and commercial recreation on public land in winter Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 277-277
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor recreation, winter recreation, landuse
Abstract The so-called “Sea-to-Sky Corridor” in British Columbia, Canada, spreads from Vancouver via Squamish beyond Whistler. Its superb scenery nestled between ocean and glaciers attracts residents of Vancouver and international visitors alike. Most of the area is public land, and a major regional landuse plan is just about to be completed. While forestry has been the main traditional use, now summer and winter recreation feature very prominently in these plans. The plans separate much of the motorized and non-motorized activities, but other potential conflicts such as between commercial recreation and independent outdoor recreationists have been addressed to a lesser extent. In order to obtain some insights into the number of visitors and describe some of their characteristics, we undertook an intensive user count at the main staging areas, combined with a short intercept survey about the types of activities pursued, distances travelled, specific locations and expenditures. In the presentation I will elaborate on the method used for estimating site specific and regional user numbers, associated expenditures, and perceived and actual conflict. The presentation will compare motorized and nonmotorized users, as well as clients of commercial operations and independent travelers, and link these findings to the already existing zoning for the region. The presentation will conclude with identifying remaining shortcomings of information for future landuse decisions in light of expected future use increases, as both the demand from the metropolitan Vancouver as well as from the resort community of Whistler will continue to grow
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1012 Serial 2627
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Author Hennig, S.,
Title The recreation perspective. A recreationalists typology on visitors and their behaviour by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 183-187
Keywords MMV4, visitor characteristics, recreational behaviour, typologies, management, statistical analysis
Abstract To perform its tasks management needs information on visitors. They provide insight into the recreational situation of protected areas and support management decisions. Therefor, data on visitor use and visitation behaviour have to be analyzed and mapped. However, information on visitors should not be reduced on singular variables. It is important to combine these different characteristics and build up types of visitors respectively visitor behaviour. In favour of this the approach of recreation perspective is elaborated. The concept takes account of existing typologies on (nature-based) tourism and their attributes (e.g. size, age). Furthermore, visitor behaviour is integrated. Distinguished in macro and micro behaviour it is expressed by choice of activity, destination, type, location and duration of extended stops etc.. Considering these aspects visitors can be categorized into several types. The recreation perspective is worked out and applied to the German Berchtesgaden National Park.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 968 Serial 2605
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Author Hunziker, M.; Schletti, D.,
Title How to involve retailers into sensitization of end-users for ecologically responsible behavior – results of a snow-shoe-seller survey Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 116-120
Keywords MMV4, ecological conflicts, outdoor recreation, persuasion, questionnaire, theory of planned behavior
Abstract The outdoor activity snow-shoe walking is experiencing an increase in popularity and is more and more frequently practiced. This tendency represents a desirable development of soft tourism, contributes to the regional economical development of remote areas and enables people to experience pure nature. However, snow-shoe walking is rather problematic from the perspective of nature conservation. Therefore, the willingness of snow-shoe walkers to change their behavior has been investigated in several studies. One opportunity to influencing the behavior of snow-shoe walkers is when they buy or rent the snow shoes. However, the question remained whether shop owners and their staff are willing to adopt this role. The aim of our study was to answer this question and to identify the drivers of their willingness to contribute to persuading snow-shoe walkers to behave in an ecologically responsible way. A questionnaire was sent to 754 sports shops in Switzerland to measure the willingness to apply measures of persuasion and to measure the drivers of this willingness. The questionnaire data show that the willingness to contribute to persuasion campaigns is rather small. In particular, the potential for participation in the persuasion work is quite low for contributions that require high efforts or costs,. The variables “subjectively perceived social norms”, “attitude to the behavior” and “attitude to information about the protection of nature and landscape” represent the strongest predictors of the willingness to contribute to the campaign. On the basis of the results, suggestions for measures to persuade snow-shoe sellers to support persuasion of snow-shoe walkers were developed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 940 Serial 2591
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Author Itami, R.M.,
Title Level of sustainable activity: bottom up vessel traffic management Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 155-159
Keywords MMV4, Vessel Traffic Management, Level of Sustainable Activity, RBSim, Recreation Behaviour Simulation, Bottom Up Decision Making
Abstract This paper presents a decision-making framework called “Level of Sustainable Activity”(LSA) which is a user-based approach to vessel traffic planning and management of high volume multiple use urban waterways. The method is adapted from the US Federal Highway Administrations “Level of Service” for traffic capacity. However the LSA framework links user estimates of traffic density to quality of service objects and a risk management framework to identify social and environmental risk factors. The results of the method are then used to interpret simulations of existing and projected use for making management decisions. The LSA framework was developed to define traffic capacity to urban waterways, however a spinoff of the method has been improved stakeholder buy-in into the process and a much stronger basis for management decision making. This is a direct result of the “bottom up” approach taken to both developing behavioural simulation models and the methods of obtaining information from users for populating and validating the simulation model. This paper advocates the LSA approach for a wider range of management applications by taking a user-based approach for describing existing conditions, projecting future growth, identifying key issues, and developing management actions. A case study of a vessel traffic management plan for Hobson’s Bay in Melbourne, Australia is used to demonstrate the concepts described in this paper.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 956 Serial 2599
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Author Jochem, R.,
Title Building the model right and building the right model: Verification and validation of the recreation simulation model MASOOR Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 160-160
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour simulation, MASOOR, recreation model, behavioural rules and preferences
Abstract MASOOR (Multi Agent Simulation Of Outdoor Recreation) is a multi-agent recreational behaviour simulation model. MASOOR is developed to evaluate both existing management policies and effects of various management actions. In addition, it can serve as a communication tool in participatory processes. By visualizing recreational behaviour on maps the model helps different stakeholders (recreationists, managers, scientists) to interpret the complex patterns of visitor use and support the discussion among those stakeholders. However, it is important that the model is verified and validated. Verification can be defined as the process of testing whether or not the logic of the model is acceptable. It involves checking that the model behaves as expected and it is sometimes referred to as testing the ëinner validityí of the model. Verification deals with building the model right. Validation relates to the extent that the model adequately represent the actual situation that is modeled. Validation deals with building the right model. Validity can be ascertained by comparing the output of the model with comparable data collected from a real-world system using a various statistics. In this paper we verify MASOOR by an assessment of recreational path use at different numbers of replications. We validate MASOOR by comparing the modeled output with real world data. Finally, we focus the validation on specific behavioural rules such as preference for path type and chunking direction
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 958 Serial 2600
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Author Jodlowski, M.,
Title Climbing management in protected areas of southern Poland Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 484-484
Keywords MMV4, Rock climbing, climbing management, environmental impact, bolts, Southern Poland
Abstract Hundreds of rock cliffs and isolated rocks can be found in Southern Poland within upland, mid-mountain or high-mountain landscapes. Most of these sites are, to a various extent, protected by law – within national parks, landscape parks, nature reserves or nature monuments. They are major tourist attractions for visitors of the respective protected areas who generally do not interfere with cliffs ecosystems. This is not the case with climbing activities which remain a subject of an unremitting controversy.This work focuses on the analysis of the climbing management with respect to the assessment of the impact of climbing activities on cliff environment. Polish environmental law does not regulate climbing management, referring it to the competence of protected area managers. However, in the majority of protected areas management consists only in a total closure of some areas to any climbing activities. Trees have been frequently planted in the vicinity of rocks; rock surfaces on which climbing had been curtailed are now overgrown with mosses and herbaceous vegetation, while natural xerophyte and heliophyte communities have been destroyed. Resulting landscape changes largely decreased many geosites’ attractiveness not only for climbing but tourism in general. Only recently in some climbing areas trees and shrubs in the vicinity of cliffs have been cleared, however, frequently such actions are not previously consulted with reserve or national park managers. With the growing popularity of this type of qualified tourism, it is necessary to create a modern system of climbing management, based on environmental conservation. Conservation and management plans for protected areas should contain detailed regulations of access to particular geosites where climbing activities are to be allowed. Such regulations may impose seasonal closure of particular cliffs or parts of cliffs to climbing during bird nesting periods or closures due to protection of cliff plant communities. Specified should be the types of permitted climbing activities together with protection method. Finally, monitoring of climbing intensity and environmental impact should be carried out for sustainable tourism development
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1094 Serial 2668
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Author Jodlowski, M.; Depta, L.; Wójcik, P.,
Title Climbing impact on the relief and vegetation of the Tatra National Park Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 85-85
Keywords MMV4, Tatra National Park, climbing impact, relief, vegetation
Abstract The Tatra Mts. are the only high-mountain range in Poland, protected as a national park since 1954. The environment of rock cliffs, and especially the vegetation is unique within the mountain ecosystem. However, harsh environmental conditions result in high level of ecosystem vulnerability. In the Tatra National Park climbing activity encompasses all of its disciplines: sport climbing on equipped routes, both short and multi-pitched, traditional climbing as well as the alpine climbing. Recently, new climbing disciplines, such as dry-tooling and bouldering, have also became popular. The climbing impact has been a subject to competitive debate between national park managers, naturalists and climbers, although it has been relatively weakly studied. This study focuses on the landscape changes resulting from climbing activities on the cliff ecosystems located in forest, subalpine and alpine geoecological belts, both on carbonate and crystalline substrate. Within some crags climbing activity is permitted by law, however the others are a subject to illegal exploration. The basis for this study was surveying the existing climbing routes (and state of protection. e.g. bolts and pitons) as well as monitoring of the climbing intensity on specific crags. The landscape changes were identified by geomorphic mapping of cliffs and adjacent slopes as well as botanical studies. Observed landscape changes caused by climbers result mainly in mechanical damage of vegetation, growing instability of slope covers, and micro-relief alteration. The impact significantly differs with reference to climbing disciplines and geological substrate. The largest changes encompassing complete removal of vegetation layer and soil cover result from dry-tooling on limestone cliffs, whereas sport climbing on granite cliffs causes only limited removal of weathered rocks and restraining of lichens succession.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 920 Serial 2582
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Author Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title A comparison of passive infrared counter results with time lapse video monitoring at a shared urban recreational trail Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 485-489
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, shared trail, video monitoring, Vienna
Abstract This study compared two visitor counting methods at a heavily used multi-use access trail to the Donau-Auen National Park in Vienna, Austria. We compared visitor numbers gained by video monitoring with passive infrared counter results (Ecocounter – Ecotwin©). Both devices were installed at the same place and recorded the recreation use along the trail between December 2007 and January 2008. During daylight the video camera took pictures every 1.6 seconds. Counting by Ecotwin resulted in 3477 counts, while the total amount of counts by video monitoring was 4405. We will discuss causes for the differences in visitor numbers, and the pro and cons of both methods.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1096 Serial 2669
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Author Kalisch, D.; Klaphake, A.,
Title The dilemma of recreational use versus nature protection – Responses from National Park authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 404-408
Keywords MMV4, national park tourism, recreation management, visitor activities, monitoring
Abstract National Parks in Central Europe, which attract millions of visitors annually, are being threatened by a wide variety of negative impacts. In this highly populated region, we find numerous hazards caused by infrastructure, agriculture and tourism. For this reason, preserving the environment is the main goal of the National park authorities. As visitor numbers increase, there is a consequential increase in environmental impacts and conflicts between different visitor groups. In order to balance tourism and conservation and to reduce and minimize negative effects on the ecosystem, authorities implement visitor management strategies. These require specified knowledge about visitor flows, visitor numbers and the main activities undertaken by visitors. Over the past years most european National Parks have adopted periodical visitor monitoring, to gather data about visitor numbers and characteristics. There exists however differences in quality and extent of monitoring programs. With this in mind, we surveyed a number of National Park authorities to gauge their perception of recreation use level, different National Park activities and the application of management tools in the parks. Overall we asked 21 authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland to complete a questionnaire which includes questions about current and expected visitor numbers, monitoring of the current recreation use and impacts, measures to control the recreational use, conflicts between nature and tourism and cooperation with other stakeholders in the area. The result of the survey suggests that most of the authorities (81%) simply estimate the recreational use in national park. More than half of authorities anticipate an increase of visitor numbers (especially in National Parks founded in the late 1990s) and none expect that numbers will decrease. They report various suitable protective measures that are in operation and accepted by the National Park visitors. All in all, the authorities consider any negative environmental impacts of visitor activities to be moderate.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1062 Serial 2652
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Author Kangas, K.; Siikamäki, P.; Luoto, M.; Ihantola, A.,
Title Does tourism affect bird populations in protected areas? Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 344-346
Keywords MMV4, Birds, Disturbance, Protected areas, Tourism
Abstract Human induced disturbance can have various impacts on birds. Disturbance has been found to affect for example behaviour, breeding success, species composition and density of birds. Despite of the growing number of disturbance research, little is known about impacts of recreation on forest bird communities as the focus has been mainly on behavioural responses of single species. There is a need for research on tourism-induced changes in bird communities in protected areas, as they are important for many rare and threatened species preferring natural habitats. We studied impacts of tourism on birds in Oulanka National Park, north-eastern Finland. Data on breeding bird pairs were collected with line transect method in hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas. We used general additive models (GAM) to investigate the importance of the tourism-related variables, i.e. visitor numbers in hiking trails and the area of infrastructure, as well as the habitat variables in explaining the variation in bird communities. The preliminary results show that the current tourism pressure has not caused substantial changes in bird communities of Oulanka NP. However, open-cup nesters showed negative response to the number of visitors.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1040 Serial 2641
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Author Karacsonyi, J.; Karacsonyi, Z.,
Title Solutions for a new challenge in the field of visitor flows: paragliding and nature protection Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 490-490
Keywords MMV4, Paragliding, visitor flows, harmonization efforts, stakeholders’ workshop
Abstract One segment of the increasing number of visitors of nature areas are the visitors with sporting purpose. Among these the technical sports have essentially different characteristics. The relationship between exercisers of technical sports and nature, landscape involves the possibility of a non-harmonic relation and notrarely the fact of that. We delineate the characteristics of the paragliding sport its practice and its relationship with nature, landscape by examining the Hungarian situation. We review the status of the paragliding sport, the increasing number of sportsman and the paragliding clubs. We introduce the decisive authorisation procedures of paragliding (Civil Aviation Authority of Hungary, nature conservation) and its adaptation and problems. Presentation of the outcome of the workshop organized with the presence of the concerned parties (paragliders, national parks, aviation authorities) which was set up to formulate and negotiate the interest and opinion of the actors. It was the first time that a workshop gave the opportunity for the reconciliation, harmonization of the two differing demand. Tasks of the near future was formulated for create a long lasting co-operation between the paragliding sport and the demand for protecting the natural values.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1098 Serial 2670
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Author Keirle, I.,
Title An importance-performance study of visitor opinions concerning access into the countryside of Ceredigion Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-255
Keywords MMV4, Access, Importance-Performance Analysis, infrastructure, service quality
Abstract It is important that countryside resource managers gain a full understanding of visitor needs and develop suitable facilities and infrastructure to respond to them. Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) is a simple and effective technique that can be used to identify those attributes of a product or service that visitors consider to be important and to gain responses on how these attributes are performing. This study based in the county of Ceredigion in Wales, used IPA to find the relationship between importance and performance for a range of attributes relating to the management of access into the countryside, covering the areas of infrastructure, information and product acceptability. The results indicated that attributes relating to infrastructure such as signposting and stiles were not performing to visitor expectations and issues relating to dog mess caused visitors the greatest concern. When sub-divided by user type the results showed a clear segregation as to what different user types considered important and their perception of performance.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1000 Serial 2621
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Author Kissling, M.,
Title The impact of experimental trampling on the biodiversity of beech forests: basic knowledge for the management of urban forest for recreation Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 491-491
Keywords MMV4, Experimental trampling, soil enzyme activity, outdoor recreation, urban forest, ground vegetation
Abstract In the last few years forests became an important function as natural recreation sites, especially in the surroundings of urban areas. Nowadays, large numbers of forest visitors can lead to conflicts between recreation and nature conservation The extent of damage to the forest vegetation depends not only on the kind of recreational activity and frequency of visitors, but also on the type of soil and forest vegetation. The effects of trampling on soil microorganisms and the level of disturbance that will cause changes are mostly unknown. In order to gain a better understanding of these relationships I investigated the effect of different trampling regime – single trampling versus repeated trampling – on the ground vegetation, soil microbial biomass and the activity of dehydrogenase (an indicator for the total metabolic activity of soil micro-organisms), glucosidase and phosphomonoesterase (both key enzymes in the nutrient cycle)
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1100 Serial 2671
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Author Koscak, M.,
Title Slovenia: a case-study in sustainable rural development for agriculture and tourism Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 257-261
Keywords MMV4, Heritage Trails, Dolenjska, Bela krajina, Slovenia, planning, carrying capacity, marketing
Abstract This paper deals with the concept of the heritage trail which main purpose is rural regeneration through sustainable tourism. A heritage trail is a regional network of natural and cultural heritage sites, activities and tourism facilities which is created with a well defined product identity in order to support an interesting and varied tourist visit up to one week. The heritage trail does not necessarily have a single theme, with the visitor following a pre-determined route. It can be designed as a coherent menu of natural, cultural and landscape attractions, out of which visitors can create their own itinerary. The aim of heritage trail marketing is to attract the visitor to the region in the first place, by offering a specific and attractive experience. Once in the region, other facilities and experiences can be offered which are not featured in the heritage trail promotion itself
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1004 Serial 2623
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Author Kruger, L.E.,
Title Affinity to place and serious leisure: implications of amenity migration for nearby recreational and protected areas Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 256-256
Keywords MMV4, Recreational and protected areas, place’s affinity, leisure
Abstract People have long been attracted to places with high amenity values. The first Baby Boomers have begun to collect Social Security checks and many more will follow. Increasing retirees who make up a growing numbers of migrants are moving into communities fortunate to have highly valued environmental and cultural resources and recreation opportunities. Tourists and retirees are drawn to natural amenities and opportunities for both tranquillity and adventure. Wilderness can be especially attractive and introduces people to rural and remote locations. Resort real estate, full and fractional ownership arrangements (time shares), residence clubs, and a variety of other options provide an array of investment possibilities. Rapid growth of retirees has implications for communities and public land managers. For land managers, growth is likely to increase population density in proximity to public lands, increase pressure on riparian and other environmentally sensitive areas and increase the demand for recreation opportunities and facilities. The changing values within the neighbouring community may change the issues and concerns residents have about recreational and protected area management. Healthy retirees are looking for a variety of recreation and volunteer opportunities. Communities need to consider infrastructure, especially in health and transportation sectors. As amenity migrants settle in their new community, the physical changes are readily apparent: new homes, new business, new roads, rising real estate values. Rising levels of disposable income among the middle and skilled working classes and the growth of a “leisure society” with time for recreation and travel have fueled demand for recreation. What are the implications for recreational and protected area management? This paper explores concepts of place and serious leisure as they are related to amenity migration and implications for management of recreational and protected areas near amenity communities. How can these concepts inform our understanding of the changing demands of amenity migration communities? In what ways are concepts of place attachment and sense of place useful in planning for change in high amenity communities and the surrounding recreational and protected areas?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1002 Serial 2622
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Author Lee, J.-H.; Bürger-Arndt, R.,
Title A comparative study of offers for recreation in nature parks in Germany and in recreation forests in Korea Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 86-88
Keywords MMV4, comparative study, German Nature Park, internet search, Korean Recreation Forest, recreation, recreational offer, recreational use
Abstract This comparative study was designed to search for the difference in recreational use and recreational offers between German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests. To review current recreational offers, a complete search of the websites of all German Nature Parks and 50% of Korean Recreation Forests was undertaken. The result is compared per category of offers. Hiking is offered as a recreational forest activity in nearly all Nature Parks in Germany (95%) and Recreation Forests in Korea (98%). Apart from hiking, biking (92%) and horse riding (71%) were offered by most of the German Nature Parks whereas Walking (96%) and Fitness trail (76%) activities were mostly offered in Korea. Swimming (66%), canoeing (62%), fishing (43%) and sailing (38%) were very famous water activities in German Nature Parks. However, there are very few water activities except swimming (74%) in Korean Recreation Forests. Environmental education plays an important role in nature friendly recreation. In terms of quantity and quality, there were better offers in environmental education in Germany than in Korea. Nature educational trails were offered by 68% of German Nature Parks compared to 26% of Recreation Forests in Korea. Various environmental education programs for children were 63% in German and only 40% in Korea. Furthermore, there were more offers in German Nature Park, for example environmental guide (56%), environmental education program (47%) and environmental touring (26%). There were nine tour themes in German Nature Parks with the largest proportion (66%) dedicated to experience with nature and 8% for the disabled people. On the other hand, the Korean Recreation Forest has not so many tour themes as in German Nature Parks. Nevertheless, the activities comprise of nature experience (80%), cultural history (72%) and wellness (32%). The demand of recreation users on Infrastructures is very high, therefore almost all of Korean Recreation Forests have Toilet (94%), Kitchen & Water (80%) and shower rooms (68%). They exhibit passive recreation and the environmental education program is less compared to that of German Nature Park, but the infrastructure plays a very important role in nature recreation of Koreans. It sums that, German Nature Parks have more of almost all kinds of recreational offers than Korean Recreation Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 922 Serial 2583
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Author Leung, Y.-F.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Lu, D.-J.,
Title Does recreation ecology have a place in East Asia? Some insights from Taiwan Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 54-54
Keywords MMV4, Recreation ecology, nature-based tourism, East Asia, visitor impact
Abstract The significance of East Asian protected areas to support biodiversity conservation and nature-based tourism is increasingly recognized, so is the tension between these two objectives. Recreation ecology, the scientific study of visitor impacts in protected areas and their effective management, seems to have a role to play in resolving this conflict. At the last MMV conference, the general status of recreation ecology research in East Asia was summarized (Leung 2006). Three major developmental stages of this area of research development and some key challenges were identified. This presentation at MMV4 is intended to follow up with this line of dialogue by examining recreation ecology research on Taiwan Island as a case example. In Taiwan, the common occurrence of visitor impacts in forest recreation areas has long been acknowledged by managers and researchers. There were significant concerns about extensive soil and water conservation problems associated with recreation facility development in sensitive mountain areas in the 1980s. Such concerns led to focused research efforts carried out by several researchers since the 1990s. However, the diversity of topics and research methodology remained low and many of these earlier studies had a weak connection to management practice. Many studies were short-term investigations with limited management utility, mirroring the nature of research funding mechanism. Despite the constraints, several recent projects are showing signs that some protected area administrators may be more receptive of the role of recreation ecology research and long-term impact monitoring in supporting a more proactive approach to visitor management in protected areas. These projects, the trends they may represent, and the implications to the East Asian region in regard to challenges and opportunities will be highlighted
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 900 Serial 2572
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Author Lewis, A.R.,
Title Sustainable camping at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: overcoming methodological challenges Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 278-282
Keywords MMV4, Australia, environmental impacts, methods, Ningaloo, recreation
Abstract This paper outlines issues relating to campsite assesment along the Ningaloo coastline, Western Australia. A solution to methodological challenges, through the utilisation of both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques are suggested. The Ningaloo coastline is gaining popularity as a remote camping destination in Western Australia. Camping activities in this semi-arid environment are largely unrestricted, and gradual environmental degradation is observable in many locations. The following factors make the Ningaloo camping experience unique within Australia: A remote, semi-arid environment; multiple management/ownership of land; off-road vehicle accessibility to campsites; elaborate camp set-ups (often with a campervan and four-wheel drive); and the long average length of stay (47 days). Existing literature largely focuses on camping impacts within a wilderness environment, with short visitor stays, pedestrian-only access and a single management regime. This research will undertake an initial environmental assessment of sample campsites within different locations along the Ningaloo coast. Campers’ daily activities, resource (water, energy) use and waste production will also be determined. This research is highly significant from a local and regional perspective, given government plans to develop multiple camping ‘nodes’ along the Ningaloo coast by 2015. The data will therefore contribute to a stronger understanding of campsite sustainability, with regard to campsite placement and facilities. This research will also address information gaps within the field of recreation ecology
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1014 Serial 2628
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Author Li, C.-L.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Absher, J.D.,
Title Re-examine the measure of values Cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 177-182
Keywords MMV4, Hofstede’s measure of values, Kahle’s List of Values, customer service, parks and recreation
Abstract Parks and recreation areas around the world increasingly serve as international visitor attractions and play an important role in the international tourism industry. Given the increasingly diverse visitors, changes in racial and ethnic composition have confronted the management of parks and recreation areas. Since values presumably influence perceptions and behaviors among members of different cultures, studying values among culturally diverse visitors are important if we are to understand their influence on perceptions as well as parks and recreation behavior. We are not aware of any measure of recreation or leisure values that has been validated cross-culturally. In order to better understand this issue, the purposes of this study are to examine two different types of broad values measures (i.e., Hofstede’s measures of values and Kahle’s List of Values [LOV]) that have been validated cross-culturally, and test values’ utility to predict service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, both in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In 2005-2008, the visitors to Pokfulam Country Park in Hong Kong and Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed. Using a convenient purposive on-site sampling approach, at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample combining the Hong Kong and Taiwan recreation visitors. The results from data analyses showed that Hofstede’s measure of values, as employed in the park and recreation context, needs to be further elaborated and refined to provide acceptable validity and reliability. On the other hand, we found the LOV to be a meaningful and useful measure of values in both settings. The findings also showed LOV’s four dimensions of values, i.e., Respect, Harmony, Achievement, and Hedonism, predicted visitors’ perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Discussion of the findings and implications are provided.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 966 Serial 2604
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Author Ligtenberg, A.; Van Marwijk, R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.,
Title Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 422-427
Keywords MMV4, GIS, Movement Behavior, Spatial Temporal Analyses
Abstract This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking visitors. Two examples are presented for a case study carried out in the Dutch National Park Dwingelderveld. About 461 visitors were tracked using a GPS device. Based on these GPS recordings their trajectories have been reconstructed. The relation between the type of landscape in terms of openness and the speed of movement have been analyzed. Additionally a similarity analyses based on Fréchet analysis shows clusters of movements.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1068 Serial 2655
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Author Lupp, G.; Konold, W.,
Title Landscape preferences and perception in Mueritz National Park (Germany) Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 373-377
Keywords MMV4, Landscape preferences and perception, lifestyle groups, national park, user survey
Abstract In Mueritz National Park, Germany, landscape changes are ongoing due to wetland restoration, reduction of agricultural acticvities and abandonment of timber oriented forest management. This study assesses the perception of the landscape and landscape preferences of both local visitors and tourists. Passers-by were interviewed at five different places inside the park. Preferences and perception of landscapes were identified in three steps: general preferences, perception of the scenery at the interview site and by using pictures. The results were differentiated and compared according to residents, first time visitors and regular visitors as well as lifestyle groups. Lakes, traditionally maintained farmland and ancient lately unmanaged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), containing deadwood, are preferred most. The results show that background knowledge about natural processes is essential for a positive perception of these landscape features.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1052 Serial 2647
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Author Luthe, T.; Roth, R.,
Title Extended vulnerability of ski tourism to global change Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords MMV4, Extended Vulnerability Factors, Global Change, Ski tourism, Sustainable Adaptation
Abstract The current and forecasted outcomes of global change put ski destinations under different stresses. Climate change is the most discussed and the most obvious factor that directly affects the economic success of ski areas. Latest since the last OECD report a broad discussion about such ski areas that will lose from climate change, namely the lower and smaller ones, and those potentially winning being the higher and bigger ski areas, got started. This discussion has been focusing on the main vulnerability factors elevation, size and snow making capacity. Technical snow making is the main kind of adaptation to climate change being discussed and applied. But in addition to climate change there are socioeconomic and demographic developments that lead to other grades of vulnerability for ski tourism. In the research project SkiSustain we aim to develop a sustainability management framework for ski destinations responding to global change. In the supply side part we did personal qualitative interviews in thirty six ski areas of four Alpine countries after the extremely warm winter of 2006/07. Ski areas were picked for interviews as the main drivers of investments and employment in ski destinations. Research questions were about the perception of vulnerability to global change and strategies and possibilities of adaptive capacity. In the interviews ski area managements were confronted with recent results from the customer demand survey Save-Snow to find out about the possibilities to drive changes to chances, for example by softer means of adaptation and more mitigation and partnering more with the customer. Results show that the view on vulnerability of ski destinations needs to be extended from a current climate change and elevation focused view to a much more diverse one. Current means of adaptation will not be suitable to tackle the sum of challenges from global change.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 924 Serial 2584
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Author Magro, T.C.; Santiago, C.D.M.; Robim, M.D.J.,
Title Finding a balance: applied ecology is not a second-class research Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 55-56
Keywords MMV4, Applied research, recreation ecology, research financial support
Abstract Nevertheless the recreation ecology research provides answers to current environmental and social problems; we need a challenge to gains social recognition. The consequences of not been positively evaluated in academic circles and in governmental financing agencies is that the research institutions staff who also have charge of protected areas are not being able to request financial support for research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 902 Serial 2573
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Author Mahat, T.J.; Koirala, M.,
Title Assessing nature of visitors flow and revenue generation at the Central Zoo of Nepal Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 231-231
Keywords MMV4, Economic valuation, Nepal, payment of environmental services, travel cost method, zoo
Abstract The only zoo of Nepal, Central Zoo, receives over 800,000 visitors annually. Economic valuation of the zoo was conducted to identify contributions made by the zoo to the economy as well as environmental awareness level of the visitor. The relevant information was collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct observation, direct count and focus group discussion. Several economic tools, including travel cost method, were employed for analysis. The study shows that a higher proportion of school children and adolescents visit the zoo in comparison to other age groups and professions. Brahmin, Chhetri and Newar were the dominant visiting caste-groups. Access to economical public transports such as buses, tempos and microbuses has facilitated arrivals of high proportion of visitors with relatively low income to the zoo. Most of the visitors are Nepalese and expatriates. The educational level of the visitors and their affiliation with environment related organizations are not significant determinants of the number and nature of their visits. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between the travel cost and the number of zoo visits. The per capita economic value of the zoo was estimated at US $ 3.15. The study recommends that a) the environmental hygiene inside the zoo be improved, b) the satisfaction level of the visitors be assessed, and c) fund raising sources be identified to expand zoo services as well as its territorial area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 988 Serial 2615
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Author Mann, C.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Crowding in European forests: Status quo and implications for forest management and research Type
Year (up) 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 67-67
Keywords MMV4, Crowding, Europe, forest recreation, methods, scales, social impacts
Abstract Providing forests on a sustainable basis include knowledge about recreation quality of forest visitors and perceived impacts. While ecological impacts have been a central topic for forest recreation research, social impacts such as use-conflict and crowding were rarely investigated. This paper analyses research attempts in European forests dealing with visitors’ crowding perceptions at a first time. For data collection, the Cost Action E33 “Forest for recreation and nature tourism” network, as well as a focused literature research was used. Compared to recreation research in the United States, where crowding is a prominent topic, only 16 European crowding studies were identified since the 1980s, predominantly carried out in Central and Northern Europe. Reported crowding- perceptions ranged from 1064%. Among these, correlations between use-levels and crowding perceptions were yielded, as well as manifold significant influences of setting attributes and visitor characteristics. Most studies used a theoretical foundation oriented towards the US recreation crowding literature, but differ in their methods of measuring crowding. As a result, the use of different scales and data collection methods, restrict a nation-and European-wide comparisons. In most Southern, Eastern and several Central European countries, crowding is not recognized as an issue for forest recreation research and management. Besides less political willingness and financial constraints, general access rights to forests, and the lack of legal requirements are considered among the main obstacles of putting more emphasis on recreation crowding research. Due to the ongoing societal demands for outdoor recreation together with trends to concentrate uses on fewer paths and areas for ecological reasons crowding may be of higher importance in the future. A need for standardized crowding research is stated to gain more insights of cultural differences and commonalities. Changes of the recreation systems, its uses and users can be better recognized for a sustainable, future-oriented forest recreation management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 910 Serial 2577
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