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Author Haider, W.; Riley, J.; Mostegl, N.,
Title The Sea-to-Sky playground: individual outdoor recreation and commercial recreation on public land in winter Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 277-277
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor recreation, winter recreation, landuse
Abstract The so-called “Sea-to-Sky Corridor” in British Columbia, Canada, spreads from Vancouver via Squamish beyond Whistler. Its superb scenery nestled between ocean and glaciers attracts residents of Vancouver and international visitors alike. Most of the area is public land, and a major regional landuse plan is just about to be completed. While forestry has been the main traditional use, now summer and winter recreation feature very prominently in these plans. The plans separate much of the motorized and non-motorized activities, but other potential conflicts such as between commercial recreation and independent outdoor recreationists have been addressed to a lesser extent. In order to obtain some insights into the number of visitors and describe some of their characteristics, we undertook an intensive user count at the main staging areas, combined with a short intercept survey about the types of activities pursued, distances travelled, specific locations and expenditures. In the presentation I will elaborate on the method used for estimating site specific and regional user numbers, associated expenditures, and perceived and actual conflict. The presentation will compare motorized and nonmotorized users, as well as clients of commercial operations and independent travelers, and link these findings to the already existing zoning for the region. The presentation will conclude with identifying remaining shortcomings of information for future landuse decisions in light of expected future use increases, as both the demand from the metropolitan Vancouver as well as from the resort community of Whistler will continue to grow
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1012 Serial 2627
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Author Hennig, S.,
Title The recreation perspective. A recreationalists typology on visitors and their behaviour by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 183-187
Keywords MMV4, visitor characteristics, recreational behaviour, typologies, management, statistical analysis
Abstract To perform its tasks management needs information on visitors. They provide insight into the recreational situation of protected areas and support management decisions. Therefor, data on visitor use and visitation behaviour have to be analyzed and mapped. However, information on visitors should not be reduced on singular variables. It is important to combine these different characteristics and build up types of visitors respectively visitor behaviour. In favour of this the approach of recreation perspective is elaborated. The concept takes account of existing typologies on (nature-based) tourism and their attributes (e.g. size, age). Furthermore, visitor behaviour is integrated. Distinguished in macro and micro behaviour it is expressed by choice of activity, destination, type, location and duration of extended stops etc.. Considering these aspects visitors can be categorized into several types. The recreation perspective is worked out and applied to the German Berchtesgaden National Park.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 968 Serial 2605
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Author Hunziker, M.; Schletti, D.,
Title How to involve retailers into sensitization of end-users for ecologically responsible behavior – results of a snow-shoe-seller survey Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 116-120
Keywords MMV4, ecological conflicts, outdoor recreation, persuasion, questionnaire, theory of planned behavior
Abstract The outdoor activity snow-shoe walking is experiencing an increase in popularity and is more and more frequently practiced. This tendency represents a desirable development of soft tourism, contributes to the regional economical development of remote areas and enables people to experience pure nature. However, snow-shoe walking is rather problematic from the perspective of nature conservation. Therefore, the willingness of snow-shoe walkers to change their behavior has been investigated in several studies. One opportunity to influencing the behavior of snow-shoe walkers is when they buy or rent the snow shoes. However, the question remained whether shop owners and their staff are willing to adopt this role. The aim of our study was to answer this question and to identify the drivers of their willingness to contribute to persuading snow-shoe walkers to behave in an ecologically responsible way. A questionnaire was sent to 754 sports shops in Switzerland to measure the willingness to apply measures of persuasion and to measure the drivers of this willingness. The questionnaire data show that the willingness to contribute to persuasion campaigns is rather small. In particular, the potential for participation in the persuasion work is quite low for contributions that require high efforts or costs,. The variables “subjectively perceived social norms”, “attitude to the behavior” and “attitude to information about the protection of nature and landscape” represent the strongest predictors of the willingness to contribute to the campaign. On the basis of the results, suggestions for measures to persuade snow-shoe sellers to support persuasion of snow-shoe walkers were developed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 940 Serial 2591
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Author Itami, R.M.,
Title Level of sustainable activity: bottom up vessel traffic management Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 155-159
Keywords MMV4, Vessel Traffic Management, Level of Sustainable Activity, RBSim, Recreation Behaviour Simulation, Bottom Up Decision Making
Abstract This paper presents a decision-making framework called “Level of Sustainable Activity”(LSA) which is a user-based approach to vessel traffic planning and management of high volume multiple use urban waterways. The method is adapted from the US Federal Highway Administrations “Level of Service” for traffic capacity. However the LSA framework links user estimates of traffic density to quality of service objects and a risk management framework to identify social and environmental risk factors. The results of the method are then used to interpret simulations of existing and projected use for making management decisions. The LSA framework was developed to define traffic capacity to urban waterways, however a spinoff of the method has been improved stakeholder buy-in into the process and a much stronger basis for management decision making. This is a direct result of the “bottom up” approach taken to both developing behavioural simulation models and the methods of obtaining information from users for populating and validating the simulation model. This paper advocates the LSA approach for a wider range of management applications by taking a user-based approach for describing existing conditions, projecting future growth, identifying key issues, and developing management actions. A case study of a vessel traffic management plan for Hobson’s Bay in Melbourne, Australia is used to demonstrate the concepts described in this paper.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 956 Serial 2599
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Author Jochem, R.,
Title Building the model right and building the right model: Verification and validation of the recreation simulation model MASOOR Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 160-160
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour simulation, MASOOR, recreation model, behavioural rules and preferences
Abstract MASOOR (Multi Agent Simulation Of Outdoor Recreation) is a multi-agent recreational behaviour simulation model. MASOOR is developed to evaluate both existing management policies and effects of various management actions. In addition, it can serve as a communication tool in participatory processes. By visualizing recreational behaviour on maps the model helps different stakeholders (recreationists, managers, scientists) to interpret the complex patterns of visitor use and support the discussion among those stakeholders. However, it is important that the model is verified and validated. Verification can be defined as the process of testing whether or not the logic of the model is acceptable. It involves checking that the model behaves as expected and it is sometimes referred to as testing the ëinner validityí of the model. Verification deals with building the model right. Validation relates to the extent that the model adequately represent the actual situation that is modeled. Validation deals with building the right model. Validity can be ascertained by comparing the output of the model with comparable data collected from a real-world system using a various statistics. In this paper we verify MASOOR by an assessment of recreational path use at different numbers of replications. We validate MASOOR by comparing the modeled output with real world data. Finally, we focus the validation on specific behavioural rules such as preference for path type and chunking direction
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 958 Serial 2600
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Author Jodlowski, M.,
Title Climbing management in protected areas of southern Poland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 484-484
Keywords MMV4, Rock climbing, climbing management, environmental impact, bolts, Southern Poland
Abstract Hundreds of rock cliffs and isolated rocks can be found in Southern Poland within upland, mid-mountain or high-mountain landscapes. Most of these sites are, to a various extent, protected by law – within national parks, landscape parks, nature reserves or nature monuments. They are major tourist attractions for visitors of the respective protected areas who generally do not interfere with cliffs ecosystems. This is not the case with climbing activities which remain a subject of an unremitting controversy.This work focuses on the analysis of the climbing management with respect to the assessment of the impact of climbing activities on cliff environment. Polish environmental law does not regulate climbing management, referring it to the competence of protected area managers. However, in the majority of protected areas management consists only in a total closure of some areas to any climbing activities. Trees have been frequently planted in the vicinity of rocks; rock surfaces on which climbing had been curtailed are now overgrown with mosses and herbaceous vegetation, while natural xerophyte and heliophyte communities have been destroyed. Resulting landscape changes largely decreased many geosites’ attractiveness not only for climbing but tourism in general. Only recently in some climbing areas trees and shrubs in the vicinity of cliffs have been cleared, however, frequently such actions are not previously consulted with reserve or national park managers. With the growing popularity of this type of qualified tourism, it is necessary to create a modern system of climbing management, based on environmental conservation. Conservation and management plans for protected areas should contain detailed regulations of access to particular geosites where climbing activities are to be allowed. Such regulations may impose seasonal closure of particular cliffs or parts of cliffs to climbing during bird nesting periods or closures due to protection of cliff plant communities. Specified should be the types of permitted climbing activities together with protection method. Finally, monitoring of climbing intensity and environmental impact should be carried out for sustainable tourism development
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1094 Serial 2668
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Author Jodlowski, M.; Depta, L.; Wójcik, P.,
Title Climbing impact on the relief and vegetation of the Tatra National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 85-85
Keywords MMV4, Tatra National Park, climbing impact, relief, vegetation
Abstract The Tatra Mts. are the only high-mountain range in Poland, protected as a national park since 1954. The environment of rock cliffs, and especially the vegetation is unique within the mountain ecosystem. However, harsh environmental conditions result in high level of ecosystem vulnerability. In the Tatra National Park climbing activity encompasses all of its disciplines: sport climbing on equipped routes, both short and multi-pitched, traditional climbing as well as the alpine climbing. Recently, new climbing disciplines, such as dry-tooling and bouldering, have also became popular. The climbing impact has been a subject to competitive debate between national park managers, naturalists and climbers, although it has been relatively weakly studied. This study focuses on the landscape changes resulting from climbing activities on the cliff ecosystems located in forest, subalpine and alpine geoecological belts, both on carbonate and crystalline substrate. Within some crags climbing activity is permitted by law, however the others are a subject to illegal exploration. The basis for this study was surveying the existing climbing routes (and state of protection. e.g. bolts and pitons) as well as monitoring of the climbing intensity on specific crags. The landscape changes were identified by geomorphic mapping of cliffs and adjacent slopes as well as botanical studies. Observed landscape changes caused by climbers result mainly in mechanical damage of vegetation, growing instability of slope covers, and micro-relief alteration. The impact significantly differs with reference to climbing disciplines and geological substrate. The largest changes encompassing complete removal of vegetation layer and soil cover result from dry-tooling on limestone cliffs, whereas sport climbing on granite cliffs causes only limited removal of weathered rocks and restraining of lichens succession.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 920 Serial 2582
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Author Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title A comparison of passive infrared counter results with time lapse video monitoring at a shared urban recreational trail Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 485-489
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, shared trail, video monitoring, Vienna
Abstract This study compared two visitor counting methods at a heavily used multi-use access trail to the Donau-Auen National Park in Vienna, Austria. We compared visitor numbers gained by video monitoring with passive infrared counter results (Ecocounter – Ecotwin©). Both devices were installed at the same place and recorded the recreation use along the trail between December 2007 and January 2008. During daylight the video camera took pictures every 1.6 seconds. Counting by Ecotwin resulted in 3477 counts, while the total amount of counts by video monitoring was 4405. We will discuss causes for the differences in visitor numbers, and the pro and cons of both methods.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1096 Serial 2669
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Author Kalisch, D.; Klaphake, A.,
Title The dilemma of recreational use versus nature protection – Responses from National Park authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 404-408
Keywords MMV4, national park tourism, recreation management, visitor activities, monitoring
Abstract National Parks in Central Europe, which attract millions of visitors annually, are being threatened by a wide variety of negative impacts. In this highly populated region, we find numerous hazards caused by infrastructure, agriculture and tourism. For this reason, preserving the environment is the main goal of the National park authorities. As visitor numbers increase, there is a consequential increase in environmental impacts and conflicts between different visitor groups. In order to balance tourism and conservation and to reduce and minimize negative effects on the ecosystem, authorities implement visitor management strategies. These require specified knowledge about visitor flows, visitor numbers and the main activities undertaken by visitors. Over the past years most european National Parks have adopted periodical visitor monitoring, to gather data about visitor numbers and characteristics. There exists however differences in quality and extent of monitoring programs. With this in mind, we surveyed a number of National Park authorities to gauge their perception of recreation use level, different National Park activities and the application of management tools in the parks. Overall we asked 21 authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland to complete a questionnaire which includes questions about current and expected visitor numbers, monitoring of the current recreation use and impacts, measures to control the recreational use, conflicts between nature and tourism and cooperation with other stakeholders in the area. The result of the survey suggests that most of the authorities (81%) simply estimate the recreational use in national park. More than half of authorities anticipate an increase of visitor numbers (especially in National Parks founded in the late 1990s) and none expect that numbers will decrease. They report various suitable protective measures that are in operation and accepted by the National Park visitors. All in all, the authorities consider any negative environmental impacts of visitor activities to be moderate.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1062 Serial 2652
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Author Kangas, K.; Siikamäki, P.; Luoto, M.; Ihantola, A.,
Title Does tourism affect bird populations in protected areas? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 344-346
Keywords MMV4, Birds, Disturbance, Protected areas, Tourism
Abstract Human induced disturbance can have various impacts on birds. Disturbance has been found to affect for example behaviour, breeding success, species composition and density of birds. Despite of the growing number of disturbance research, little is known about impacts of recreation on forest bird communities as the focus has been mainly on behavioural responses of single species. There is a need for research on tourism-induced changes in bird communities in protected areas, as they are important for many rare and threatened species preferring natural habitats. We studied impacts of tourism on birds in Oulanka National Park, north-eastern Finland. Data on breeding bird pairs were collected with line transect method in hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas. We used general additive models (GAM) to investigate the importance of the tourism-related variables, i.e. visitor numbers in hiking trails and the area of infrastructure, as well as the habitat variables in explaining the variation in bird communities. The preliminary results show that the current tourism pressure has not caused substantial changes in bird communities of Oulanka NP. However, open-cup nesters showed negative response to the number of visitors.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1040 Serial 2641
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Author Karacsonyi, J.; Karacsonyi, Z.,
Title Solutions for a new challenge in the field of visitor flows: paragliding and nature protection Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 490-490
Keywords MMV4, Paragliding, visitor flows, harmonization efforts, stakeholders’ workshop
Abstract One segment of the increasing number of visitors of nature areas are the visitors with sporting purpose. Among these the technical sports have essentially different characteristics. The relationship between exercisers of technical sports and nature, landscape involves the possibility of a non-harmonic relation and notrarely the fact of that. We delineate the characteristics of the paragliding sport its practice and its relationship with nature, landscape by examining the Hungarian situation. We review the status of the paragliding sport, the increasing number of sportsman and the paragliding clubs. We introduce the decisive authorisation procedures of paragliding (Civil Aviation Authority of Hungary, nature conservation) and its adaptation and problems. Presentation of the outcome of the workshop organized with the presence of the concerned parties (paragliders, national parks, aviation authorities) which was set up to formulate and negotiate the interest and opinion of the actors. It was the first time that a workshop gave the opportunity for the reconciliation, harmonization of the two differing demand. Tasks of the near future was formulated for create a long lasting co-operation between the paragliding sport and the demand for protecting the natural values.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1098 Serial 2670
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Author Keirle, I.,
Title An importance-performance study of visitor opinions concerning access into the countryside of Ceredigion Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-255
Keywords MMV4, Access, Importance-Performance Analysis, infrastructure, service quality
Abstract It is important that countryside resource managers gain a full understanding of visitor needs and develop suitable facilities and infrastructure to respond to them. Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) is a simple and effective technique that can be used to identify those attributes of a product or service that visitors consider to be important and to gain responses on how these attributes are performing. This study based in the county of Ceredigion in Wales, used IPA to find the relationship between importance and performance for a range of attributes relating to the management of access into the countryside, covering the areas of infrastructure, information and product acceptability. The results indicated that attributes relating to infrastructure such as signposting and stiles were not performing to visitor expectations and issues relating to dog mess caused visitors the greatest concern. When sub-divided by user type the results showed a clear segregation as to what different user types considered important and their perception of performance.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1000 Serial 2621
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Author Kissling, M.,
Title The impact of experimental trampling on the biodiversity of beech forests: basic knowledge for the management of urban forest for recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 491-491
Keywords MMV4, Experimental trampling, soil enzyme activity, outdoor recreation, urban forest, ground vegetation
Abstract In the last few years forests became an important function as natural recreation sites, especially in the surroundings of urban areas. Nowadays, large numbers of forest visitors can lead to conflicts between recreation and nature conservation The extent of damage to the forest vegetation depends not only on the kind of recreational activity and frequency of visitors, but also on the type of soil and forest vegetation. The effects of trampling on soil microorganisms and the level of disturbance that will cause changes are mostly unknown. In order to gain a better understanding of these relationships I investigated the effect of different trampling regime – single trampling versus repeated trampling – on the ground vegetation, soil microbial biomass and the activity of dehydrogenase (an indicator for the total metabolic activity of soil micro-organisms), glucosidase and phosphomonoesterase (both key enzymes in the nutrient cycle)
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1100 Serial 2671
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Author Koscak, M.,
Title Slovenia: a case-study in sustainable rural development for agriculture and tourism Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 257-261
Keywords MMV4, Heritage Trails, Dolenjska, Bela krajina, Slovenia, planning, carrying capacity, marketing
Abstract This paper deals with the concept of the heritage trail which main purpose is rural regeneration through sustainable tourism. A heritage trail is a regional network of natural and cultural heritage sites, activities and tourism facilities which is created with a well defined product identity in order to support an interesting and varied tourist visit up to one week. The heritage trail does not necessarily have a single theme, with the visitor following a pre-determined route. It can be designed as a coherent menu of natural, cultural and landscape attractions, out of which visitors can create their own itinerary. The aim of heritage trail marketing is to attract the visitor to the region in the first place, by offering a specific and attractive experience. Once in the region, other facilities and experiences can be offered which are not featured in the heritage trail promotion itself
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1004 Serial 2623
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Author Kruger, L.E.,
Title Affinity to place and serious leisure: implications of amenity migration for nearby recreational and protected areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 256-256
Keywords MMV4, Recreational and protected areas, place’s affinity, leisure
Abstract People have long been attracted to places with high amenity values. The first Baby Boomers have begun to collect Social Security checks and many more will follow. Increasing retirees who make up a growing numbers of migrants are moving into communities fortunate to have highly valued environmental and cultural resources and recreation opportunities. Tourists and retirees are drawn to natural amenities and opportunities for both tranquillity and adventure. Wilderness can be especially attractive and introduces people to rural and remote locations. Resort real estate, full and fractional ownership arrangements (time shares), residence clubs, and a variety of other options provide an array of investment possibilities. Rapid growth of retirees has implications for communities and public land managers. For land managers, growth is likely to increase population density in proximity to public lands, increase pressure on riparian and other environmentally sensitive areas and increase the demand for recreation opportunities and facilities. The changing values within the neighbouring community may change the issues and concerns residents have about recreational and protected area management. Healthy retirees are looking for a variety of recreation and volunteer opportunities. Communities need to consider infrastructure, especially in health and transportation sectors. As amenity migrants settle in their new community, the physical changes are readily apparent: new homes, new business, new roads, rising real estate values. Rising levels of disposable income among the middle and skilled working classes and the growth of a “leisure society” with time for recreation and travel have fueled demand for recreation. What are the implications for recreational and protected area management? This paper explores concepts of place and serious leisure as they are related to amenity migration and implications for management of recreational and protected areas near amenity communities. How can these concepts inform our understanding of the changing demands of amenity migration communities? In what ways are concepts of place attachment and sense of place useful in planning for change in high amenity communities and the surrounding recreational and protected areas?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1002 Serial 2622
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Author Lee, J.-H.; Bürger-Arndt, R.,
Title A comparative study of offers for recreation in nature parks in Germany and in recreation forests in Korea Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 86-88
Keywords MMV4, comparative study, German Nature Park, internet search, Korean Recreation Forest, recreation, recreational offer, recreational use
Abstract This comparative study was designed to search for the difference in recreational use and recreational offers between German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests. To review current recreational offers, a complete search of the websites of all German Nature Parks and 50% of Korean Recreation Forests was undertaken. The result is compared per category of offers. Hiking is offered as a recreational forest activity in nearly all Nature Parks in Germany (95%) and Recreation Forests in Korea (98%). Apart from hiking, biking (92%) and horse riding (71%) were offered by most of the German Nature Parks whereas Walking (96%) and Fitness trail (76%) activities were mostly offered in Korea. Swimming (66%), canoeing (62%), fishing (43%) and sailing (38%) were very famous water activities in German Nature Parks. However, there are very few water activities except swimming (74%) in Korean Recreation Forests. Environmental education plays an important role in nature friendly recreation. In terms of quantity and quality, there were better offers in environmental education in Germany than in Korea. Nature educational trails were offered by 68% of German Nature Parks compared to 26% of Recreation Forests in Korea. Various environmental education programs for children were 63% in German and only 40% in Korea. Furthermore, there were more offers in German Nature Park, for example environmental guide (56%), environmental education program (47%) and environmental touring (26%). There were nine tour themes in German Nature Parks with the largest proportion (66%) dedicated to experience with nature and 8% for the disabled people. On the other hand, the Korean Recreation Forest has not so many tour themes as in German Nature Parks. Nevertheless, the activities comprise of nature experience (80%), cultural history (72%) and wellness (32%). The demand of recreation users on Infrastructures is very high, therefore almost all of Korean Recreation Forests have Toilet (94%), Kitchen & Water (80%) and shower rooms (68%). They exhibit passive recreation and the environmental education program is less compared to that of German Nature Park, but the infrastructure plays a very important role in nature recreation of Koreans. It sums that, German Nature Parks have more of almost all kinds of recreational offers than Korean Recreation Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 922 Serial 2583
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Author Leung, Y.-F.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Lu, D.-J.,
Title Does recreation ecology have a place in East Asia? Some insights from Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 54-54
Keywords MMV4, Recreation ecology, nature-based tourism, East Asia, visitor impact
Abstract The significance of East Asian protected areas to support biodiversity conservation and nature-based tourism is increasingly recognized, so is the tension between these two objectives. Recreation ecology, the scientific study of visitor impacts in protected areas and their effective management, seems to have a role to play in resolving this conflict. At the last MMV conference, the general status of recreation ecology research in East Asia was summarized (Leung 2006). Three major developmental stages of this area of research development and some key challenges were identified. This presentation at MMV4 is intended to follow up with this line of dialogue by examining recreation ecology research on Taiwan Island as a case example. In Taiwan, the common occurrence of visitor impacts in forest recreation areas has long been acknowledged by managers and researchers. There were significant concerns about extensive soil and water conservation problems associated with recreation facility development in sensitive mountain areas in the 1980s. Such concerns led to focused research efforts carried out by several researchers since the 1990s. However, the diversity of topics and research methodology remained low and many of these earlier studies had a weak connection to management practice. Many studies were short-term investigations with limited management utility, mirroring the nature of research funding mechanism. Despite the constraints, several recent projects are showing signs that some protected area administrators may be more receptive of the role of recreation ecology research and long-term impact monitoring in supporting a more proactive approach to visitor management in protected areas. These projects, the trends they may represent, and the implications to the East Asian region in regard to challenges and opportunities will be highlighted
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 900 Serial 2572
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Author Lewis, A.R.,
Title Sustainable camping at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: overcoming methodological challenges Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 278-282
Keywords MMV4, Australia, environmental impacts, methods, Ningaloo, recreation
Abstract This paper outlines issues relating to campsite assesment along the Ningaloo coastline, Western Australia. A solution to methodological challenges, through the utilisation of both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques are suggested. The Ningaloo coastline is gaining popularity as a remote camping destination in Western Australia. Camping activities in this semi-arid environment are largely unrestricted, and gradual environmental degradation is observable in many locations. The following factors make the Ningaloo camping experience unique within Australia: A remote, semi-arid environment; multiple management/ownership of land; off-road vehicle accessibility to campsites; elaborate camp set-ups (often with a campervan and four-wheel drive); and the long average length of stay (47 days). Existing literature largely focuses on camping impacts within a wilderness environment, with short visitor stays, pedestrian-only access and a single management regime. This research will undertake an initial environmental assessment of sample campsites within different locations along the Ningaloo coast. Campers’ daily activities, resource (water, energy) use and waste production will also be determined. This research is highly significant from a local and regional perspective, given government plans to develop multiple camping ‘nodes’ along the Ningaloo coast by 2015. The data will therefore contribute to a stronger understanding of campsite sustainability, with regard to campsite placement and facilities. This research will also address information gaps within the field of recreation ecology
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1014 Serial 2628
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Author Li, C.-L.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Absher, J.D.,
Title Re-examine the measure of values Cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 177-182
Keywords MMV4, Hofstede’s measure of values, Kahle’s List of Values, customer service, parks and recreation
Abstract Parks and recreation areas around the world increasingly serve as international visitor attractions and play an important role in the international tourism industry. Given the increasingly diverse visitors, changes in racial and ethnic composition have confronted the management of parks and recreation areas. Since values presumably influence perceptions and behaviors among members of different cultures, studying values among culturally diverse visitors are important if we are to understand their influence on perceptions as well as parks and recreation behavior. We are not aware of any measure of recreation or leisure values that has been validated cross-culturally. In order to better understand this issue, the purposes of this study are to examine two different types of broad values measures (i.e., Hofstede’s measures of values and Kahle’s List of Values [LOV]) that have been validated cross-culturally, and test values’ utility to predict service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, both in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In 2005-2008, the visitors to Pokfulam Country Park in Hong Kong and Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed. Using a convenient purposive on-site sampling approach, at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample combining the Hong Kong and Taiwan recreation visitors. The results from data analyses showed that Hofstede’s measure of values, as employed in the park and recreation context, needs to be further elaborated and refined to provide acceptable validity and reliability. On the other hand, we found the LOV to be a meaningful and useful measure of values in both settings. The findings also showed LOV’s four dimensions of values, i.e., Respect, Harmony, Achievement, and Hedonism, predicted visitors’ perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Discussion of the findings and implications are provided.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 966 Serial 2604
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Author Ligtenberg, A.; Van Marwijk, R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.,
Title Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 422-427
Keywords MMV4, GIS, Movement Behavior, Spatial Temporal Analyses
Abstract This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking visitors. Two examples are presented for a case study carried out in the Dutch National Park Dwingelderveld. About 461 visitors were tracked using a GPS device. Based on these GPS recordings their trajectories have been reconstructed. The relation between the type of landscape in terms of openness and the speed of movement have been analyzed. Additionally a similarity analyses based on Fréchet analysis shows clusters of movements.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1068 Serial 2655
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Author Lupp, G.; Konold, W.,
Title Landscape preferences and perception in Mueritz National Park (Germany) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 373-377
Keywords MMV4, Landscape preferences and perception, lifestyle groups, national park, user survey
Abstract In Mueritz National Park, Germany, landscape changes are ongoing due to wetland restoration, reduction of agricultural acticvities and abandonment of timber oriented forest management. This study assesses the perception of the landscape and landscape preferences of both local visitors and tourists. Passers-by were interviewed at five different places inside the park. Preferences and perception of landscapes were identified in three steps: general preferences, perception of the scenery at the interview site and by using pictures. The results were differentiated and compared according to residents, first time visitors and regular visitors as well as lifestyle groups. Lakes, traditionally maintained farmland and ancient lately unmanaged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), containing deadwood, are preferred most. The results show that background knowledge about natural processes is essential for a positive perception of these landscape features.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1052 Serial 2647
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Author Luthe, T.; Roth, R.,
Title Extended vulnerability of ski tourism to global change Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords MMV4, Extended Vulnerability Factors, Global Change, Ski tourism, Sustainable Adaptation
Abstract The current and forecasted outcomes of global change put ski destinations under different stresses. Climate change is the most discussed and the most obvious factor that directly affects the economic success of ski areas. Latest since the last OECD report a broad discussion about such ski areas that will lose from climate change, namely the lower and smaller ones, and those potentially winning being the higher and bigger ski areas, got started. This discussion has been focusing on the main vulnerability factors elevation, size and snow making capacity. Technical snow making is the main kind of adaptation to climate change being discussed and applied. But in addition to climate change there are socioeconomic and demographic developments that lead to other grades of vulnerability for ski tourism. In the research project SkiSustain we aim to develop a sustainability management framework for ski destinations responding to global change. In the supply side part we did personal qualitative interviews in thirty six ski areas of four Alpine countries after the extremely warm winter of 2006/07. Ski areas were picked for interviews as the main drivers of investments and employment in ski destinations. Research questions were about the perception of vulnerability to global change and strategies and possibilities of adaptive capacity. In the interviews ski area managements were confronted with recent results from the customer demand survey Save-Snow to find out about the possibilities to drive changes to chances, for example by softer means of adaptation and more mitigation and partnering more with the customer. Results show that the view on vulnerability of ski destinations needs to be extended from a current climate change and elevation focused view to a much more diverse one. Current means of adaptation will not be suitable to tackle the sum of challenges from global change.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 924 Serial 2584
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Author Magro, T.C.; Santiago, C.D.M.; Robim, M.D.J.,
Title Finding a balance: applied ecology is not a second-class research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 55-56
Keywords MMV4, Applied research, recreation ecology, research financial support
Abstract Nevertheless the recreation ecology research provides answers to current environmental and social problems; we need a challenge to gains social recognition. The consequences of not been positively evaluated in academic circles and in governmental financing agencies is that the research institutions staff who also have charge of protected areas are not being able to request financial support for research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 902 Serial 2573
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Author Mahat, T.J.; Koirala, M.,
Title Assessing nature of visitors flow and revenue generation at the Central Zoo of Nepal Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 231-231
Keywords MMV4, Economic valuation, Nepal, payment of environmental services, travel cost method, zoo
Abstract The only zoo of Nepal, Central Zoo, receives over 800,000 visitors annually. Economic valuation of the zoo was conducted to identify contributions made by the zoo to the economy as well as environmental awareness level of the visitor. The relevant information was collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct observation, direct count and focus group discussion. Several economic tools, including travel cost method, were employed for analysis. The study shows that a higher proportion of school children and adolescents visit the zoo in comparison to other age groups and professions. Brahmin, Chhetri and Newar were the dominant visiting caste-groups. Access to economical public transports such as buses, tempos and microbuses has facilitated arrivals of high proportion of visitors with relatively low income to the zoo. Most of the visitors are Nepalese and expatriates. The educational level of the visitors and their affiliation with environment related organizations are not significant determinants of the number and nature of their visits. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between the travel cost and the number of zoo visits. The per capita economic value of the zoo was estimated at US $ 3.15. The study recommends that a) the environmental hygiene inside the zoo be improved, b) the satisfaction level of the visitors be assessed, and c) fund raising sources be identified to expand zoo services as well as its territorial area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 988 Serial 2615
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Author Mann, C.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Crowding in European forests: Status quo and implications for forest management and research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 67-67
Keywords MMV4, Crowding, Europe, forest recreation, methods, scales, social impacts
Abstract Providing forests on a sustainable basis include knowledge about recreation quality of forest visitors and perceived impacts. While ecological impacts have been a central topic for forest recreation research, social impacts such as use-conflict and crowding were rarely investigated. This paper analyses research attempts in European forests dealing with visitors’ crowding perceptions at a first time. For data collection, the Cost Action E33 “Forest for recreation and nature tourism” network, as well as a focused literature research was used. Compared to recreation research in the United States, where crowding is a prominent topic, only 16 European crowding studies were identified since the 1980s, predominantly carried out in Central and Northern Europe. Reported crowding- perceptions ranged from 1064%. Among these, correlations between use-levels and crowding perceptions were yielded, as well as manifold significant influences of setting attributes and visitor characteristics. Most studies used a theoretical foundation oriented towards the US recreation crowding literature, but differ in their methods of measuring crowding. As a result, the use of different scales and data collection methods, restrict a nation-and European-wide comparisons. In most Southern, Eastern and several Central European countries, crowding is not recognized as an issue for forest recreation research and management. Besides less political willingness and financial constraints, general access rights to forests, and the lack of legal requirements are considered among the main obstacles of putting more emphasis on recreation crowding research. Due to the ongoing societal demands for outdoor recreation together with trends to concentrate uses on fewer paths and areas for ecological reasons crowding may be of higher importance in the future. A need for standardized crowding research is stated to gain more insights of cultural differences and commonalities. Changes of the recreation systems, its uses and users can be better recognized for a sustainable, future-oriented forest recreation management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 910 Serial 2577
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Author Maracchi, G.,
Title Presentation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 11-11
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 881 Serial 2563
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Author Maracchi, G.,
Title Presentazione Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 13-14
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 884 Serial 2564
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Author Marandola, D.; Malvolti, M.E.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Biodiversity and rural development: the case-study of the “Shepherd’s walnut”. An action model for sustainable rural development shaped on the peculiar features of a rural area Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 494-496
Keywords MMV4, Biodiversity, local resources, rural development
Abstract Walnut tree, for nutritional value, wood and its connections to local culture and society, is a very typical product of the Apennine rural areas. Anyway, the economical value of the traditional/local varieties is today very reduced and this may expose rural areas to a loss of biodiversity, cultural values and landscape elements. FIMONT is a research project which aims to calibrate action models to increase the value of mountain traditional food products. The research, starting from some specific morpho-genetic analisys carried out by IBAF, has considered the possibility to increase the value of local walnut calibrating a model based on the peculiar features of the rural territory. An ancient path for sheeps transhumance has been choosen like a “red line” for the model.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1104 Serial 2673
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Author Marandola, D.; Raschi, A.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Are Natura2000 SPAs and SACs perceived by local communities like important elements for local development? The case study of Fortore-Alto Tammaro, a rural area on the mid-southern Apennines Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 492-493
Keywords MMV4, Natural resources, eco-agri-tourism, rural development
Abstract Apenninic areas cover a wide part of the italian surface and represent an important element of conservation for cultural, biological, economical and social diversity. Many difficulties, however, expose these internal areas to high risks of abandonment and loss of diversity. A long-run research project aims to calibrate action models for sustainable rural development based on eco-agri-tourism, also to promote conservation and knowledge of local natural resources.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1102 Serial 2672
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Author Marangon, F.; Spoto, M.; Visintin, F.,
Title Assigning economic value to natural protected areas: an environmental accounting model Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 232-236
Keywords MMV4, Ecosystem functions, environmental accounting, Long Term Financial Plan, natural marine reserve
Abstract The implementation of environmental accounting in Natural Reserves produced some significant results in terms of restrictions. First of all, environmental accounting introduced a limitation in scale, which was inapplicable on a micro scale. A second restriction concerned the physical unit measure that was used instead of a monetary unit measure. Finally, a third limitation was due to the fact that environmental accounting takes into account only costs, not environmental benefits. These three limitations led us to develop an environmental accounting model that considered resources in the Natural Reserve, both consumed and produced. The model applied to Miramare Natural Marine Reserve (Italy) aimed to supplement monetary accounting based on cost and revenue with environmental accounting which reflects not only environmental cost but also environmental revenues, i.e. environmental benefits. Environmental cost took into account anthropic presence, raw materials use, consumption of fuel for motor vehicles and heating fuel, consumption of electricity, water consumption, and administration expenses. Environmental benefits assessed ecosystem functions: gas regulation, nutrient cycling, biological control, food production, recreation, and culture. The difference between costs and benefits, both economic and environmental, represented the value produced or consumed by the Natural Reserve. The model demonstrated that the net benefit for the Reserve was approximately €654,000 covering the amount of public transfer (about €610,000) completely.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 990 Serial 2616
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Author Maresi, G.; Didonato, F.,
Title Towards a sustainable tourism for the Italian mountains: the role of CAI Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 497-501
Keywords MMV4, Alpine club, climbing, hiking, refuges, protected area
Abstract Since its foundation in 1863, The “Club Alpino Italiano” has been playing an active and often decisive role for the invention, the spread and the development of mountain tourism either on Alps and Apennines. In the last years this role has been more and more related to a clear attention to sustainability and protection of mountain environment. Both Association’ activities (hiking, climbing, caving and sky-tourism) and structures (refuges and paths) were object of a practical and cultural work aimed to reduce impact especially in protected areas. For activities, the main work is still based on improving knowledge of mountain environment in association members during technical formation courses, focusing to all the attentions to be adopted to avoid damages at wildlife and vegetation. Refuges proved to be experimental sites for innovative application of alternative source of energy and new solution of waste management. Creation of new paths and management of old ones are now carried out following practical criteria adopted at national scale and aiming to reduce damages due to erosion and impact on vegetation and wildlife. A GIS approach for excursionist paths net has been adopted in different situation, proving effective as a tool for a environmentally sustainable planning and management. Parks and protected area were strongly supported by CAI in the last years, when the Association was between the more active promoters of new protected areas. A strong collaboration is now working on with Parks, both national and regional: the target is a responsible frequentation protection of mountain endangered habitat.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1106 Serial 2674
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Author Mayer, M.; Vogt, L.; Pütz, M.,
Title Regional economic impacts of nature-based tourism in Switzerland – the relevance of activities and landscape elements Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 237-238
Keywords MMV4, economic effects, nature-based tourism, activities, landscape, destination choice
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 992 Serial 2617
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Author Melendez, G.C.N.; Magro, T.C.,
Title Can tourism change the traditional use of Potsotaroki (Trichilia pallida)? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 505-509
Keywords MMV4, Asháninka People, Indigenous handcraft, Potsotaroki, Trichilia pallida
Abstract The traditional people who live from the resources that come from the forest had kept an almost symbiotic relation with their surrounding land, using the resources. However the contact with factors that are different from their culture, including tourism, can generate variations in the way of traditional handling, causing impacts in the environment. In this paper we analyze the traditional employment of the tree bark from “Potsotaroki” (Trichilia pallida), used as dye in the production of cotton handcrafts. The evaluated factors have the goal of registering the status of this forest species, and its relation with the natural process of insertion of the indigenous communities in the dominant social system. The research was done in an Asháninka community, from the high forest in the Peruvian Amazon.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1110 Serial 2676
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Author Moore, S.A.,
Title What is the place of democracy in recreation ecology? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 57-61
Keywords MMV4, democracy, practical wisdom, public, recreation ecology, visitors
Abstract What should be monitored and who decides has been debated for as long as recreation ecology has been with us. The early work on planning frameworks advocates consulting with visitors to determine what conditions are important to them and then derive resource and social indicators from this information. Any associated standards are then similarly set with visitors’ input. At the same time, recreation ecologists have selected indicators that allow measurement and predictions regarding the relationships between resource and social conditions and levels of visitor use. Where are we now regarding these choices? A democratic perspective would argue that visitors should have significant influence on indicator selection and the standards that might accompany them. But what role does this leave for scientists and institutionally derived scientific knowledge in recreation ecology? In this paper I argue that we are morally and societally bound to embrace a democratic approach to recreation ecology with scientists and managers working with visitors, and others with a vested interest in protected areas, to develop ‘practical wisdom’ that can be evoked as a central tenet of recreation ecology.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 904 Serial 2574
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Author Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Quality assessment of public use in National Parks. Application to the Spanish National Park System Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 112-115
Keywords MMV4, Visitor information and visitor management, Visitor monitoring methods, Public use quality
Abstract In recent years, we have observed how, worldwide, the goal of nature preservation has to be developed in a scenario of continuous increment in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing PA resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. It’s estimated that the whole Spanish PA receive over 50 million visitors a year, ten of them to the National Park System. The progressive influx of visitors in a short period of time has made administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it in the best way? In this context, this investigation defines an evaluation tool to asses the quality of public use programs developed in National Parks which has been applied to the Spanish National Park System, and could be applied to other parks and systems. It examines different trends and provides with some future recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 936 Serial 2590
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Author Müller, M.; Mayer, M.; Woltering, M.; Job, H.,
Title Visitor attitudes towards natural disturbance: the case of the bark beetle in Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 347-352
Keywords MMV4, perception, attitudes, natural disturbance, protected areas, tourism, bark beetles
Abstract Management authorities of protected areas have recently been faced with a considerable rise of natural disturbance such as fire or insect pests in ecosystems. Incorporating visitor experience of natural disturbance into management strategies is a crucial task. The present study uses multivariate statistical analysis to examine visitors’ attitudes towards large-scale bark beetle infestation in the case of Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Findings indicate that visitors have a neutral attitude towards the bark beetle and slightly reject controlling the bark beetle in the national park. Expectations of a successful recovery of the affected areas (green-up) and low personal issue salience are the two strongest predictors for support of not controlling the bark beetle. Our findings suggest that it is well possible to position protected areas as refuges where nature is supposed to follow its course without intervention rather than as landscaped representations of cultural ideal types. In order to communicate this idea of wilderness to visitors, park management authorities should design educational measures to raise visitors’ awareness of the ecological mandate of protected areas and of the role of disturbance agents in ecosystems.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1042 Serial 2642
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Author Nasa, M.; Emphandhu, D.; Pattanakiat, S.; Kitisin, S.,
Title Database system development of nature-based tourism in protected areas, Chiang Mai province Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 315-319
Keywords MMV4, Database System Development, Nature-based Tourism, Protected Areas, Chiang Mai Province
Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess the status of nature-based tourism resources, design and develop the database system and web application for tourism resources management in protected areas, Chiang Mai province. The data contained in the database system included tourism resource potential, recreation opportunity spectrum, and physical carrying capacity of the tourism sites in Chiang Mai’s protected areas. The tourism resource potential at 124 sites were assessed and classified into 72 conventional nature tourism (NT), 37 adventure tourism (AT), 5 ecotourism (ET), and 10 being qualified as both adventure and conventional nature tourism sites (NT/AT). The highest potential of the NT sites was identified as Keaw Mae Pan scoring 2.84 out of 3. While Mae Tang and Mae Cham – Tha Phra Sadej water rafting routes were the highest potentials for the AT (score 2.69), Doi Luang Chiang Dao for ET (2.46), and bicycling route Yod Doi Pui – Botanical Garden for the NT/AT (2.13). The recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) offered nature closely related experiences in primitive (P), semi-primitive non motorized (SPNM), and semi-primitive motorized (SPM) totalling of 77 sites while 47 sited in semi-developed and developed areas offered less nature experience. The system was designed as relational database by System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) for the target group identified as tourism resources planners and managers. The database and web application was developed by MySQL and the available program in php script language, in that order. For the User Interface design, the web browser through internet connection was employed for database management. The database system testing regarding techniques and design earned the score 64%. While the evaluation score of user interface capability and the usefulness of the information contained in the database given by the expert in database development and the PA managers was 81% and 84%, respectively.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1028 Serial 2635
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Author Naviglio, L.,
Title The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST) integrated with other voluntary tools can facilitate a more effective tourism management in Natural Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 212-216
Keywords MMV4, sustainable tourism, protected areas, voluntary tools, public/private shared strategies
Abstract The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST), promoted by Europarc in EU protected areas, considers the natural resources conservation as the reason for tourist attractiveness and tourism economy. The main goal is to create a network between public and private subjects in order to individuate and to promote new sustainable tourism offers and to define common, shared, strategies and action plans able to improve local economy preserving natural resources. The ECST implementation can be improved by using procedures and approaches typical of other voluntary tools like ISO 14001/EMAS and Local Agenda 21 (LA21). In particular, the environmental analysis should be more addressed to the existing relationships between pressures produced by tourism and other human activities and the state of the environment (the DPSIR scheme proposed by EEA could be useful for that). A evaluation of criticisms and a rank of priorities should be introduced in the process (as in ISO 14001) and local stakeholders involvement can be referred to LA21. ISO 14001/EMAS should provide references also for monitoring plans and for the management of procedures aimed at using the “park logo” (http://qualitypark. casaccia.enea.it) as award for best practices.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 980 Serial 2611
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Author Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.; Sievänen, T.,
Title National park visitors’ attachment to a place, quality perceptions and visit intention Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 378-383
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, place attachment, rural tourism
Abstract National parks are often national icons and destinations for nature tourists. Park tourism is seen as a substantial cultural, social and economic phenomenon, which is going to be even more important with decreasing space and expanding human populations. Structural changes, such as decreasing primary production, in the economic base of rural communities, have forced communities to seek alternatives in order to maintain their economic viability. Park tourism is identified as an opportunity to strengthen the rural economy in regions that can provide natural amenity values and recreation services. The case study from three national parks in Finland, Seitseminen, Linnansaari and Repovesi National Park, analyses how park visitors relate to the park and surrounding rural area. The purpose of the study was to examine how the place attachment with intervening factors of quality of services and recreation environment explain the intention to visit the area again in the future. Data (N=736) was gathered by a mail questionnaire for park visitors. The majority, 64-71% of visitors planned to visit the park in next five years and 55-68% the area. About 10% of the visitors felt attached to the surrounding countryside of a national park. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied here to test how the hypothesized causal structure fits to observed data. The preliminary results showed that place attachment interacted positively and statistically significantly with the perceived quality of services and recreation environment. Those who were keen to a place are more satisfied to the services and recreation environment. Park visitors’ attachment to a region and satisfaction with the local services and hospitality correlated positively with their intention to revisit the region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1054 Serial 2648
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Author Newman, P.; Manning, R.E.; Fristrup, K.,
Title Managing Soundscapes in National Parks: an adaptive management approach in Muir Woods National monument, California Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 353-353
Keywords MMV4, Soundscapes, visitor-caused noise, adaptive management Muir Woods National Monument, national parks
Abstract Research in national parks has begun to address the issue of human-caused noise and its resource and social impacts. This paper reports the results of a study conducted in the summer of 2007 that tested the efficacy and acceptability of management actions designed to reduce visitor-caused noise The study used an experimental or “adaptive” management” approach designed to test the effectiveness of temporal and spatial zoning to protect natural quiet in Muir Woods National Monument, California, an old growth redwood forest. The adaptive management experiment consisted of two treatments and an associated control. During all three periods, visitorcaused noise was recorded at a fixed location in the park and a visitor survey was conducted. The first treatment tested the effectiveness of a spatial zoning approach by establishing a “quiet zone” in Cathedral Grove through a series of park signs. The second treatment tested the effectiveness of a temporal zoning approach by establishing “quiet days” throughout the park through a series of park signs. The control period included neither of these treatments. Study findings indicate that both the “quiet zone” and “quiet day” treatments were effective in lowering the level of visitor-caused noise in the park as measured during the control period, and that visitors were highly supportive of these management actions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1044 Serial 2643
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