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Author Ishiuchi, T., Kawamoto, Y., Huruie, I. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Study on Comfort Evaluation using Brain Waves and Questionnaire Survey in Outdoor Spaces Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 326-327  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Modern society can be stressful, and there is growing interest in the creation of comfortable living space. Many studies of urban space have focused on ways of creating relaxing space and comforting environments. For example, green space at highway rest facilities has been found to ease driver stress (Iwasaki et al., 2007). In recent years, devices for measuring biological information that were originally used in the field of medicine have become generally available and are being used in a variety of research fields. Research into the evaluation of urban space is no exception, and many researchers are now using biological information to quantify the effects of spatial recognition on the human body. Examples are the measurement of salivary amylase levels (Nakagawa et al., 2014) and brain waves in moving subjects (Miura et al., 2005). Here, we quantified the difference between the healing effects and stress-reduction effects of green space and general street space (including space at a train station), by a using inexpensive EEG (electroencephalography or “brain wave”) machine. Our aim was to quantitatively verify the healing and stress-reduction effects of these spaces by using EEG measurement and a psychological analysis performed with a questionnaire survey.  
  Call Number Serial 3962  
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Author Melichar, J., Kaprova, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Measuring recreation benefits of forest quality change with contingent behavior model Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 319-322  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In this study, a single site travel cost model is applied to infer recreational values placed by visitors on Jizerské hory Mountains (JH), one of the oldest landscape protected areas in the Czech Republic. Observed and stated behavior of recreationists are analyzed and used to estimate welfare changes associated with four hypothetical programs that improve or degrade the environmental quality in the area. The hypothetical scenarios are (i) decline of the forest quality of the existing spruce wood in the near future because of continuing air pollution (70% of spruce forest destroyed), (ii) change of forestry composition to 80% of broad-leaved trees which are more resistant to air pollution than spruce wood, (iii) the designation of the bird area as a Natura 2000 network which will cover 40% of the area and increases the number of birds, and (iv) charging an entrance fee into the bird area of 30 CZK.  
  Call Number Serial 3960  
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Author Skornik, I., Makovec, M. pdf  url
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  Title Environmentally friendly visitation to Secovlje Salina Nature Park Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 317-318  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Secovlje Salina Nature Park is a national territory of high natural, cultural, economic and aesthetic values, the biodiversity of which can be maintained and regulated through sustainable management. The visitors in Secovlje Salina Nature Park are invited to experience the Park through various forms of guidance (information centres and points, information boards, trails, mobile applications), guided tours, workshops in nature, creative workshops and different education programs and lectures. Most suitable forms of recreation are those subjected to the Parks basic purposes. Our guests are recommended to visit the park on foot. To them, the park boards are intended, whereas from June 2016 onwards the Nexto mobile application, which enables an individual guided tour of the park, will also be available to them. The mobile guide is a good technological solution, as it helps us to conserve nature and cultural heritage without invasively encroaching upon it. The higher the number of the mobile application users visiting the natural features, the lower the number of information boards in the Park, which are unnecessary and often spoil the environment.  
  Call Number Serial 3959  
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Author Livina, A., Grinfelde, I. pdf  url
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  Title Comparison of local and foreign visitor`s choices in two national parks in Latvia Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 314-316  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The park managers should be aware of the needs of their visitors so that they are satisfied with their experience during the visit. The park managers should balance the needs of nature preservation and interests of visitors in order to ensure preservation of nature values for the next generations because every visit leaves some kind of impact on the visited territory (Eagles 2009, Beardmore 2015). The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas (ECSTPA) is of good assistance in retaining this concept in practical management. The goal of the present article is to show needs of local and foreign visitors and assessment of their visits in two national parks (NP) in Latvia. One of them, the Kemeri National Park (KNP), has earned (2012) the certificate of ECSTPA (Livina&Atstaja, 2015).  
  Call Number Serial 3958  
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Author Hoglhammer, A., Muhar, A., Stokowski, P., Schauppenlehner, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Perceptions of individuals and organized stakeholders on immigrants’ barriers to nature-based recreation Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 311-313  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Nature-based recreational areas provide important functions for today’s society.In particular, for people living in dense urban areas, outdoor nature-based areas offeropportunitiesfor recreation and relaxation and therefore support healthylifestyles, thus contributing to the physical and mental wellbeing of their users. Such spaces are usually open for the general public, though several access barriers have been identified for different user groups. Immigrants from non-western countries are recognized to be underrepresented in larger recreational areas, though often these people are very visible in public parks in cities.This underrepresentation has been recognized by recent scholars (Jay et al., 2012, Kloek, Buijs, Boersema, & Schouten, 2013), and several socio-economic, socio-spatial and ethnic cultural factors have beenidentified asdeterminants.As nature based recreation areas are often financed from public funds, decreasing such access barriers is a matter of social justice.  
  Call Number Serial 3957  
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Author Pietila, M. pdf  url
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  Title Exploring environment-experience relations in Oulanka National Park using participatory mapping Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 308-310  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Managing recreational use in conservation areas targets the outcomes of outdoor recreation.A worldwide aim of conservation area managersis to enhance the benefits of outdoor recreation while preventing or mitigatingitsnegative impacts (Driver, 2008). Managers are, however, not able to create these outcomes on behalf of visitors. They can only provide opportunities –environments and activities–that will encourage desired outcomes and improve visitors’ experiences. Therefore, we need to understand how conservation area visitorsperceive and interact withthe settingsthey encounter. Geographically accurate information on recreational outcomes aids this understanding and helps managers focus on specific areas of concern. This study uses novel spatial techniques to more accurately measure and analyze visitor experiences. Field research was conducted in Oulanka National Park (NP) and its surrounding areas. Oulanka NP is located in northeastern Finland near the Russian border and the Arctic Circle. It is the fourth most visited national park in Finland with approximately 200,000 annual visits. The park allows numerous outdoor activities, including: hiking, canoeing, skiing, fishing and wildlife viewing. Despite the park’s pristine landscape, recreation infrastructure in Oulanka NP is well developed.  
  Call Number Serial 3956  
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Author Klanjscek, J., Gecek, S., Marn, N., Legovic, T., Klanjscek, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Relating daily change of visitor number to crowding perception and overall satisfaction in Nature Park Telascica, Croatia Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 305-307  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Nature Park Telašcica is a protected area situated in the southeastern part of the island of Dugi Otok. It has been protected since 1980 due to valuable plant and animal life, geological and geomorphologic phenomena, and valuable archaeological heritage. There are strong daily and seasonal oscillations in visitor numbers. Seasonally, visitor numbers peak from mid-July to mid-August. During that period, visitor numbers peak daily between 11:00 h and 15:00 h because numerous excursion ships bring large numbers of visitors into the Park during that time. Large number of visitors at a same time, often resulting in crowding, has been hypothesized to be detrimental to visitor experience. The perception of crowding, however, does not correlate linearly with the actual number of people, but highly depends on the context of the experience. While in concert halls only extremely high densities reduce experience (and some crowding may be essential to a positive experience), even small crowds can be detrimental to an experience in nature, where solitude is sought for. Salt lake Jezero Mir locality of the Park has been suggested to be susceptible to such detrimental effects of crowding because it is a relatively small area frequented by 82% of the Parks visitors.  
  Call Number Serial 3955  
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Author Gudmundsson, R. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Analyses of overseas tourists in Vatnajokull National Park, Iceland 2010-2015 Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 303-304  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The number of overseas tourists visiting Iceland has grown from 500.000 in the year 2010 to nearly 1.300.000 in the year 2015, which means a 160% growth in five years. In 2010 52% of the tourists came to Iceland in the three summer months (June, July, August) but 48% the other nine months of the year (off season). In 2015 only 41% came in the summer months but 59% outside the summer season.  
  Call Number Serial 3954  
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Author Perrin-Malterre, C., Chanteloup, L., Gruas, L. pdf  url
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  Title Perceptions and behavior of winter sports participants in Regional Natural Park of Bauges Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 300-302  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The development of ski touring and snow shoeing has led to an increasing human presence in mountains in wintertime. Wintertime is a difficult time for wildlife, due to rough weather conditions that cause animalsdifficulty to move and higher energy expenditure at a time where food is scarce.Yet, territory managers have very few data concerning the perception of wildlife by visitors. In addition, their impact (extensive travelling, displacement of feeding and resting areas)on wildlife is difficult to quantify. A research program has been led on the Bauges mountain range in order to deal with these issues. As local managers became interested in the impact of winter recreational activities, the Regional Natural Park got involved in the campaign « Respect to Protect » to promote a more respectful visitor behaviour.Thus, a partnership was set up with EDYTEM lab in order to get a better understanding about these visitors, their types of practice and their perceptions. .  
  Call Number Serial 3953  
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Author Probstl-Haider, U., Haider, W., Mostegl, N. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Skiing unlimited? Acceptance of resort extension by skiers in Tyrol/Austria Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 297-299  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Many ski-resorts in the European Alps hope to increase their visibility and attractiveness when expanding their respective resorts by developing new slopes and/or by merging with others. Examples like the Zermatt-Matterhorn-Ski-Paradise in Switzerland, the “Helm-Rotwand” in Sexten Italy, or the Ski-world “Wilder Kaiser” and the “Skicircus Saalbach -Hinterglemm – Leogang – Fieberbrunn” in Austria illustrate this trend. The main motives for the expansion and cooperation are expected marketing opportunities, synergetic management, and a higher overall financial stability (Zegg 2015). Also, climate change adaptation seems to be an argument in favor of increasing resort sizes (Steiger and Abegg 2013). The expansion or merging of ski resorts leads to impacts into the sensitive alpine environment and a permanent disturbance by the new infrastructure. The presented study aims to analyze the perception of the winter tourists and daily skiers concerning these changes and discusses recommendations for future resort development.  
  Call Number Serial 3952  
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Author Arnason, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Wild thoughts – exploring the meaning(s) of wilderness among Icelandic outdoor recreationists Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 294-296  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Wilderness protection in Iceland dates back to the Nature Conservation Act of 1999 (Johannsdottir, 2016). However, to date no areas in Iceland have been formally protected as wilderness per se, partly because the identification of such areas has so far been very rudimentary. Wilderness areas in Iceland have thus up until now mainly enjoyed protection if present within the boundaries of national parks or other protected areas, in particular withinVatnajokull National Park which covers an area of 13,500 km2,, mostly in the Central Highland. According to the working criteria adopted by government agencies, the largest potential wilderness areas in Iceland are located in the Central Highland, an uninhabited region in the middle of the island which covers roughly 40.000 km2 or 40% of its total land area.  
  Call Number Serial 3951  
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Author Monteiro, L., Vitek, O. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Developing standard procedures for visitor counters calibration in Czech Protected Landscape Areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 290-292  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Monitoring visitor use is critical to protect the protected area resources for future generations and provide high-quality experiences for visitors (Loomis, 2000, Manning, 2008). In the Czech Republic, protected landscape areas (PLAs) are one of core components of the conservation strategy and, as such, visitor data are needed to inform and support sustainable management of these areas. With this effect, automated counting devices have been used since 2009 as means for estimating visitor use and today there are more than 100 automated visitor counters located in 17 protected landscape areas (out of 26 PLAs in total) and other protected areas managed by the Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic (NCA).  
  Call Number Serial 3950  
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Author Krzan, P., Krol, M., Zieba, S., Sitarz, M., Zwijacz Kozica, T., Zieba, A., Ziobrowski, S. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor monitoring in practices. Few examples from the Tatra National Park (Poland) Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 288-289  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Tatra National Park (TNP, south Poland) comprises the entire Polish part of the Tatra Mountains (200 km2), the highest and most western part of the Carpathians. In both polish and national parks, human activities are restricted to especially designated areas, such as hiking and skiing trails or climbing areas. The rest is protected as nature reserves, access to them is allowed only with special permit from the national park administration, however, illegal trespassing is quite common. Particularly in TNP, human influence is really high, with about three million tourists visiting the park every year (data from TNP).  
  Call Number Serial 3949  
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Author Stastna, P., Pacak, J., Kala, L., Nejedly, O. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title First Experience with Automated Counting System in the Krkonose Mts. National Park Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 286-287  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Krkonoše Mts. (Giant Mts.) are situated on the north border of the Czech Republic. Even the mountains are not too high (the highest top called Snezka Mt. isonly 1603 m a. s. l.) the locality forms a first barrier in the south and eastdirectionfrom sea for the prevailing winds.The climate there is therefore very oceanic, characterizedby humid and foggy weather,rich in precipitations. In the winter is the surface of protuberant objects in upper parts is often covered by thick layer of ice because of the humid winds.We have started counting with automated counters at 27 localities since the year 2012. 22 of themhas been situated at the entrances of the most protected area of the national park (the first zone), which is predominantly situated in the upper part of mountains, close or above the tree line.The movement of visitors is regulated there becausethese parts are higly visited. 4 of these counting point has been also combined for counting of cyclists or motor vehicles.  
  Call Number Serial 3948  
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Author Vitek, O. pdf  url
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  Title Methodological questions raised from visitor monitoring in the Czech Republic Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 283-285  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic (NCA) manages 25 protected landscape areas and the most of national nature reserves and monuments. Visitor monitoring using modern automated counters began in 2009 and has developed so far into a centrally controlled system. In 2016 there are more than 100 permanently monitored profiles. Data and its evaluation is outsourced, two companies have been successful in the contract competition. Basic methodology is given in contracts, but the companies differ from each other in detail. Similar visitor monitoring is realised in four Czech National Parks as well, know-how is shared between NCA and NP authorities. Adjustment of new contracts rises several methodological questions discussed in the contribution. The aim is to share the best practice and notify scientists about questions to be solved by applied research.  
  Call Number Serial 3947  
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Author Miyasaka, T., Oba, A., Akasaka, M., Tsuchiya, T. pdf  url
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  Title Feasibility of using mobile phone GPS for visitor monitoring in a national park: a case study in Oku-Nikko, Japan Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 280-282  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Global positioning system (GPS) tracking has become a promising method for visitor monitoring in protected areas around the world. High-resolution data, including not only simple patterns of visitor movement but also walking speed and duration of stops, can be collected by distributing GPS receivers to individual visitors. This method, however, also has disadvantages, such as the high cost of distributing a large number of GPS receivers, risk of loss, and constraints on visitor movement for device distribution and collection. Our study focused on using the GPS equipped in many mobile phones today as an alternative tool. The use of mobile phone GPS functions could reduce the noted costs, risks, and constraints, because this method would use visitors’ own devices. Meijles et al. (2014) mentioned that the use of smartphone GPS functions could improve data acquisition, but to the best of our knowledge, no research has yet been published on the use of GPS in mobile phones and smartphones for visitor monitoring in a protected area. Our objective was therefore to test the feasibility of these uses of the technology.  
  Call Number Serial 3946  
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Author Lupp, G., Forster, B., Naumann, J., Honert, C., Kantelberg, V., Koch, M., Pauleit, S. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Using trigger trail cameras for visitor monitoring – Applications in Bavaria Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 277-279  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The evaluation of visitor management actions is dependent on profound data about visitor flows and visitor numbers (Clivaz et al. 2013). Stakeholders in the Urban Forest 2050 project were interested in more qualitative data to evaluate their visitor management and offers for specific target groups. Managing authorities were interested to get numbers of joggers, Nordic walkers and dog walkers, as well as prams and wheelchairs. Also user numbers of dog walkers and especially off leash dogs was considered important, since they are a source for potential conflicts with both other user groups and cause interference with wildlife. Finally, also the share of the persons reading information boards had to be assessed. A number of visitor counts and monitoring with camera-based systems have been described (e.g. Janowsky & Becker 2003). Rapid technological development has led to a wide availability of trigger trail cameras for wildlife observation at budget prices, so we opted for these cameras to test options and limitations of such cameras for visitor monitoring. Two urban proximate forests in Freising and the southwestern mountain slope of the Grunten Mountain in the southwest of Bavaria were selected as a study area.  
  Call Number Serial 3945  
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Author Walden-Schreiner, C., Leung, Y.-F. pdf  url
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  Title Incorporating the digital footprints of visitors in protected area use and impact monitoring: Case studies from the USA and Australia Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 274-276  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Advances in mobile and internet-based technologies haveencouraged examinations of non-traditional spatial data products and innovative data collection methods for research in a variety of disciplines. User-generated spatial content (UGSC) is increasingly leveraged to help address questions involving human-environment interactions (Sui, Elwood, & Goodchild, 2013). Protected areas (PAs) are an especially relevant context in which to explore the capacity of UGSC given the central role PAs represent in biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provisioning, including recreation and tourism. To fulfill management objectives designed to minimize use-related impacts to natural resources, while providing opportunities for visitors, managers require timely and accurate data on not only the extent of different resource impacts, but also the precipitating or contributing factors such as visitor use activities, densities, and distribution (Hammitt, Cole, &Monz, 2015).  
  Call Number Serial 3944  
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Author Kangas, K., Tolvanen, A., Tarvainen, O., Nikula, A., Nivala, V., Tyrvainen, L., Tuulentie, S., Huhta, E., Jakalaniemi, A. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title A novel GIS –based approach to reconcile the needs for nature conservation, tourism and recreation Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 267-269  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 3942  
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Author Monteiro, L. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Using GPS data from Web 2.0 platforms to assess informal trail network and its impacts in protected areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 270-272  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract VGI represent today a significant form of user-generated content compiling information about locations (e.g. places of interest), a phenomena or information (e.g. GPS tracking of bike and hiking routes), and can be stored into interactive track management services (e.g. Web 2.0 platforms) (Rinner et al., 2008). The present explores the use of GPS-based visitor tracking data organized in a Web 2.0 platform as an alternative resource to assess the spatial distribution of informal trails networks and their level of impacts in protected areas. It has is application in Arrábida Natural Park (PNA), an important protected area in Portugal, located 37 km south of Lisbon, where informal trails are a constant management concern due to a lack of a structured and formal trail system, leading to some impacts and extensive areas of disturbance.  
  Call Number Serial 3943  
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Author Lupp, G., Brockard, M., Melber, M., Pauleit, S. pdf  url
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  Title Geocaching – A harmless recreational activity of digital natives or a threat for forest conservation? Case studies from Bavaria Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 260-262  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Forest managers in Bavaria often had no idea about this activity until hunters and other stakeholders like nature conservationists complained about persons sneaking around in the forest at unusual times behaving in a strange manner (Kaufer 2014), disturbing wildlife and habitats such as tree cavities. In interviews carried out in urban proximate woodlands (Lupp et al. 2016), about only one out of 300 interviewees indicated geocaching as a reason for their visit to the forest. However, geocachers may not always admit their activity when interviewed because the cache should be hidden from “Muggels”.  
  Call Number Serial 3940  
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Author Taczanowska, K., Zieba, A., Hibner, J., Makaruk, W., Brandenburg, C., Muhar, A., Latosinska, B., Preisel, H., Gonzalez, L.M., Garcia, X., Toca-Herrera, J.L., Ziobrowski, S. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Application of GPS-tracking to analyse the spatial behaviour of cable car users – a case study from the summer season in the Tatra National Park, Poland Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 263-266  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the spatio-temporal distribution of visitors ina popular cable car destination -KasprowyWierchin the Tatra National Park. The main focus of this paper is the analysis of individual trip itineraries of the most numerous visitor group in the study area – cable car users purchasing return tickets.  
  Call Number Serial 3941  
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Author Kobryn, H.T., Strickland-Munro, J., Brown, G., Moore, S. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Evaluating conflict potential in the marine and coastal areas of the Kimberley region of northern Australia through public participation GIS Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 255-257  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Marine spatial planning (MSP) has been emerging as an approach to plan and maintain a balance between different human uses and conservation goals. Large, remote areas present a number of challenges for conservation managers. The Kimberley region in northern Western Australia extends ten degrees of longitude, eight degrees of latitude, and in our study spanned over 13,300 km of complex coastline. The region is remote, with a low population, and a history of economic development including agriculture, mining, fishing, and more recently oil and gas exploration. It is also renown for its rich Aboriginal culture and heritage, biodiversity and wilderness (Wilson, 2014, Wilson, 2013). Most conservation planning, including MSP, suffers from the lack of social data (St Martin and Hall-Arber, 2014), hence the aim of this study was to evaluate, through the well established method of public participation GIS (e.g. Brown and Pullar, 2012), areas of conflict potential using human values associated with the marine and coastal region of Kimberley.  
  Call Number Serial 3939  
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Author Hodl, C. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Geocaching in protected areas – a survey of potential negative effects on the natural environment and implications for future management in the Donau-Auen National Park, Austria Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-254  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Geocaching originated in the year 2000 in the USA as a leisure activity, which requires the recreationists to find containers (so-called geocaches) based on their coordinates posted online. Since geocaches are often hidden off-trail in natural environments, protected areas are likely to be affected by this activity (Brost & Quinn 2011). Previous analysis has shown that the Donau-Auen National Park, which is partly located within the boundaries of Austria’s capital city of Vienna and which is under a large amount of public use pressure (Arnberger & Hinterberger 2003, Tazcanowska et al. 2006), is most heavily affected by geocaching amongst all six Austrian national parks – both in terms of the number of caches hidden and in terms of the number of visits logged online (Hodl 2013).  
  Call Number Serial 3938  
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Author Draux, H., Olafsson, A.S., Kaae, B.C., Skov-Petersen, H. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Online participatory GIS mapping of marine recreation in Denmark: contrasting crowdsourced and representative survey approaches Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 248-251  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The lack of spatial information is a challenge to create a balanced and coherent planning and management of the sea, as framed in marine conservation planning andMarine Spatial Planning, MSP (Douvere & Ehler, 2009, Mazor et al 2014). The limited availability and quality of data on recreational marine uses is as an obstacle for implementing EU policy (EEA 2015).Innovative ways for documenting and mapping the missing ‘social landscape’ of the marine environment in terms of spatial attributes of recreational use are needed (Martin & Hall-Arber 2008). To find out the extent of use of the Danish waters for marine recreation activities, our research aimed to collect the spatial extent, diversity, and intensityof these activities.Here, we discuss the quality of the data collected through two sampling strategies: an online crowdsourcedsurvey and a commercial representative panel survey.  
  Call Number Serial 3937  
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Author Burns, R.C., English, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Testing the use of wild game cameras for US Forest Service recreational visitor monitoring in Oregon/Washington, USA Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 245-247  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In 2015 a university research groupbegan developing new methods for data collection using wildlife cameras (game cameras) for short-term (7-day) and long-term (year-round) data collection at pre-selected recreation sites. The pilot study is in support of the US Forest Service (Region 6) National Visitor Use Monitoring Program (NVUM) program. NVUM has been the sole method of understanding visitor use within the US Forest Service since 2000. The USFS NVUM program manager selected 13 sites across Region 6 for the pilot study. Game camera methodology includes 16 short-term data collection sites scheduled for data collection at various times throughout the FY 2016 (four sites per Forest). These are a selection of low use sites and the goal is to continue to collect better quality data, reduce potential safety concerns, and at a reduced financial cost. Long-term data collection involves deploying cameras for year-round data collection.These is a selection of Permanent Traffic Counter sites where other monitoring methods pneumatic and infrared counters) are not appropriate for long-term monitoring due to factors such as geography (e.g. destruction by snow-plows) and limitations of the units (e.g. failure of some infrared counters to register high use counts).For both short-term and long-term sites, cameras can be used to collect valuable data pertaining to trail use (group size, overnight or day use, length of stay, etc.) and vehicle use (vehicles counts entering/exiting the Forest, vehicle type, etc.). Accordingly, we sought to a) Determine appropriate interval settings for cameras based on site type (i.e. necessary frequency of the recording of images to capture use of trails, roads) and b) Gather more information to contribute to the protocol in development for short-term (7-day) and long-term sites.  
  Call Number Serial 3936  
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Author Jones, T., Yamamoto, K., Aikoh, T., Kobayashi, A. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Comparing Climber Monitoring Methods on Mount Fuji Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 242-244  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Monitoring visitation is fundamental to effective management of protected areas, directing limited budgets towards mitigation of high priority impacts, such as those related to trails, trash and congestion. Accurate data is fundamental to negotiate problematic ‘hotspots’ and minimize conflicts between visitor segments (Eagles, 2014). However, although considerable research efforts have been devoted to monitoring visitation, many protected areas still function with inaccurate or out-of-date visitation statistics, exacerbated by a lack of systematic data collection due to various problems (Cope et al., 2000, Cessford & Muhar, 2003, Buckley 2009, Aikoh & Gokita, 2015):- – lack of multi-year time series due to changing count methods and institutional arrangements, – under-reporting due to multiple entrances, multiple access roads or non-tourist traffic, – representativeness of sample days undermined by weather conditions, public holidays, etc, – ‘guesstimates’ based on perceptions of staff or local volunteers, indirect or anecdotal evidence. In the ongoing quest for reliable, cost-effective collection methods, the pros and cons of on-site staff versus automated counters is a perennial question which this paper aims to contextualize using the case study example of two parallel systems currently being utilized on Mount Fuji’s north face.  
  Call Number Serial 3935  
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Author Goossen, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Smart monitoring visitors National Parks Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 240-241  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Dutch government is reintroducing policy for the 20 National Parks. The aim is to develop the National Parks into a strong brand. The reason behind it is the claim that a National Park contributes to the regional economy. There is a clear need from the managers of National Parks to understand how that contribution works. Insights from the external factors, combined with information about its current users and stakeholders and market research data will help the manager, but also local enterprises to choose relevant target markets. There is therefore a need for the development of a tool that brings the benefits of a National Park in a simple, affordable and reliable manner. The tool consists of Key Performance Indicators (KPI). Key Performance Indicators will determine how well the National park is meeting its objectives (Wearing & Schweinsberg, 2016).  
  Call Number Serial 3934  
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Author Songpornwanich, S., Emphandhu, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Development of Performance Factors of CBT Learning Organization at Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 235-238  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In Doi Inthanon National Park, local community members created community tourism groups to deliver tourism program and services in the park. They must work with park staff in pursuing tourism in the park. Cooperation between community members and park authority was the main issue. Working with park authority could be a barrier to reach the tourism goal of sustainability. The way of thinking and practices, organizational culture as well as the knowledge management was relatively different between them. Hence, the concept of learning organization was employed here as a framework to design an efficient local tourism organizations to work with park authority. This study aimed to develop learning organization performance factors and to evaluate the success of learning organization in community-based tourism (CBT-LO) of the three communities at Doi Inthanon national park: Mae Klang Luang, Nong Lom, and Pa Mon.  
  Call Number Serial 3933  
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Author Reimann, M., Kerge, H. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Trail use and willingness to participate in trail management by local community of the Neeruti protected area, Estonia Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 232-234  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Beside the visitor studies in protected areas local community studies are becoming more and more relevant in the perspective of locals’ participation in trail use as well as in involvement in the management (Hughey et al 2015, Buta et al 2014, Reimann et al 2014). Neeruti Landscape Conservation area is established in 1957 with some restructuring in 1999 its area is 1313 hectars. The protected area is established to conserve unique postglacial landforms as well as forests, lakes and mires in the area. Neeruti is also included in the list of Natura 2000 areas. The area is also known as an action place of Estonian national epic, there Estonian national hero Kalevipoeg used to plow with a horse and formed the current landforms. Neeruti used to be a popular recreational area already 100 years ago when it had weekend recreation from Tallinn because of the good railway connection. In 1960s the first official nature trail in Soviet Estonia was established here. Today more marketed national parks and other protected areas have stronger popularity in Estonia and Neeruti has mainly regional importance for Laane-Viru county inhabitants. The purpose of the current study was to find out the usage and importance of the hiking trails for the local community and their willingness to contribute to the trail and visitor management processes.  
  Call Number Serial 3932  
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Author Morozova, A., Campbell, M.J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Sustainable Tourism Development in Belize: A Comparison of two communities at different stages of development Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 229-231  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recently Belize has implemented a National Sustainable Tourism Plan that aims to highlight Belize’s rich tourism resources while ensuring a sustainable future for tourism. Given that sustainable tourism must benefit local peoples and conserve nature it is important to understand exactly how tourism is impacting local communities.In this study we undertook an analysis of the current state of tourism in the communities of Laguna and Hopkins Village in Belize to identify: how residents perceive tourism and its impacts, the perceived economic, social and cultural effects of tourism on communities’ livelihoods and, how this relates to location, governance, and gender.  
  Call Number Serial 3931  
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Author Kubo, T., Mameno, K., Tsuge, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Which local policies increase revisit intention to Amami Oshima Island, Japan? Using Best–Worst scaling methodology Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 225-228  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recently, many studies have increasingly used and discussed the concept of revisit intentions. For example, Baker and Crompton (2000) have examined the relationship between revisit intentions and their satisfaction with travel. Chen and Gursoy (2001) have revealed the influence of past vacation experience on their revisit intentions. However, our previous studies conducted in Japanese recreational sites have shown that most tourists have expressed high revisit intentions. It seems difficult to identify which local polices increase revisit intentions of tourists using general questions (e.g., 5-point Likert scale questions). Based on the above backgrounds, the present study used Best–Worst Scaling (BWS) methodology to examine which local policies encourage tourists to revisit the destination. The advantage of BWS over general rating questions is to easily elicit relative importance of items such as policies for respondents because they choose one most and one least preferred item in each choice set. This advantage can give decision makers facing budget constraints useful information about local policy priorities for sustainable tourism.  
  Call Number Serial 3930  
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Author Rajkovic, Z., Sijan, M., Petesic, V., Matokovic, J., Ramov, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Nature Conservation for Local Community: Sustainable Tourism Planning Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 222-224  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Two Sustainable Tourism Management Plans (STMPs) were developed within the framework of the “SEA-Med project: Development of Sustainable Economic Activities in Marine Protected Areas”. STMPs are strategic documents for nature conservation and tourism sectors. They were initiated and developed by the nature conservation sector, although tourism sector was included in its development. One STMP was developed for Lastovo Archipelago Nature Park (Marine Protected Area (MPA)), which administratively covers the same territory as Lastovo Municipality. Lastovo is one of the most remote inhabited islands and located in southern Adriatic. The other STMP was develop for whole Dugi Otok, which Telascica Nature Park (MPA) is part of. Dugi Otok is located at the border between northern and central Adriatic.  
  Call Number Serial 3929  
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Author De Bie, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Understanding and fostering local community support for protected areas engulfed by urban sprawl Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 220-221  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract This study examined the awareness and perceptions of the conservation values of a local community living in newly developed suburbs on the southwestern urban fringe of Melbourne, Australia. The suburbsborder a series of Ramsar listed wetlands, a coastal park and foreshore reserves managed by the Victorian protected area management authority. The wetlands and coastal park in the study area have high biodiversity values, provide important habitat for a variety of fauna species, including migrating birds and support a number of different vegetation communities. Previous studies have shown that increasing urbanization has resulted in a more visitors and a subsequent rise in unauthorized activities and potentially harmful use (Antos et al., 2007).The primary aims of this study were to 1) to explorethe local communities awareness, perception, attitudes and usage of the local parksand 2) identify potential compelling messages and triggers that can influence local resident attitudes and behavior.  
  Call Number Serial 3928  
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Author Bradic, M., Blesic, I., Vukosav, S., Ivkov, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Eco-labels in tourism and hospitality industry Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 216-218  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Ecolabelling is a voluntary method of environmental performance certification and labelling that is practised around the world. At the end of the last century only environmentaly oriented tourists could hear or learn something about ecological labels like Green globe or Heritage Environmental Rating Programme. After decades of specific behavior patterns of tourists the current trend is returning from the mass to the individual both environmentally friendly tourism, where new eco-labels come into play.  
  Call Number Serial 3927  
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Author Pesout, P., Soltysova, L., Vitek, O. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Nature Houses in the Czech Republic Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 214-215  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Conservation of nature and landscape is not possible without support of wide public. Most of large protected areas in the Czech Republic are traditional tourism destinations and are hugely visited. Oversize and just a little regulated tourism causes some negative impacts. Reduction of such impacts is managed through construction of high-quality and targeted visitor infrastructure and services leading to regulation of visitation and building positive relationships between nature conservation and visitors. Construction, running and care of visitor infrastructure and work with visitors directly in the field are ones of the most important ways of public relations (PEŠOUT, ŠULOVÁ & LICEK, 2014). The Nature House programme becomes the most demanding and key part of the visitor infrastructure system. Visitor centres (Nature Houses) and information centres in protected landscape areas are being constructed within the programme. The programme started in 2006 and since then it was designed on principles of PPP projects (Public Private Partnership). It is a partnership programme realised always in co-operation with municipalities, businessmen, NGOs, land owners and other regional stakeholders.  
  Call Number Serial 3926  
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Author Turk, S., Wolfle, F. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Barrier-free nature experience in national parks – Evaluation of visitor guidance through experience engineering Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 212-213  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The purpose of the study has been to discover the actual accessibility and usability for all people, either handicappedor not, to proof the attractiveness of each station to the visitors and to find out whether the measures of experience engineeringcan take over the tasks of visitor guidance effectively. 137 people, aged from 6 to 82 (49% female, 51% male), have taken part in the evaluation of the Wild Kermeter in the period of 07.2015 to 10.2015. Half of the sample was physically and/or mentally handicapped. The evaluation of the barrier-free utilization possibilities in the investigation area is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative researching methods. Paper-pencil surveys, participatory observations and anadjusted Visitor Employed Photographyhave been applied.  
  Call Number Serial 3925  
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Author Derriks, T., Pluijgers, I. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Meaningful knowledge for coastal city RV park creation: Understanding RV camping in practice Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 206-208  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract RV camping remains a popular type of self-drive tourism in Europe. Freedom and comfort are reasons why tourists chose to travel by RV from place to place. By facilitating RV campgrounds, or so-called RV parks, a coastal destination such as Vlissingen could improve its image and develop its brand.  
  Call Number Serial 3923  
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Author Stojanovic, V., Djokovic, F. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title May the concept of ecolodge and ecohotel enhance the development of ecotourism in national parks of Serbia? Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 209-211  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Tourism development in national parks should follow the sustainable development criteria and enhance positive effects of this sector impact (Jovicic, 1997), but also to create prerequisites for ecotourism development in concordance with its principles. For instance: (1) activity that is based upon natural values and their protection, (2) philosophy of nature, people and local culture respect, (3) strategy that offers solutions for nature protection, (4) marketing that promotes nature protection, (5) principles that insist on joint efforts of tourism and environment (Walderback, 1995). Each of the principles may find its place in hospitality which is also important in sustainable tourism development, with regard to the increasing number of protected areas (Damnjanovic, Djokovic, Petrovic-Petronic, 2016). Ecolodges are basic accommodation type in ecotourism in national parks. Tourism development through building ecolodges where philosophy meets ecotourism principles may essentially enhance nature protection in national parks and act as ecotourism generator.  
  Call Number Serial 3924  
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Author Hennig, S., Wasserburger, W.W. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Natural areas for everyone – What infrastructure do people with disabilities require? Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 202-205  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recreational activities in the outdoors have increased remarkably. Being in nature is ever more popular in society as a whole. This also includes disabled people for whom the positive impact of outdoor recreation on well-being and quality of life is even more important than for not handicapped people. But, what kind of infrastructure is needed by disabled people to allow them accessing natural areas? How should elements be designed to be in line with disabled people’s demands? These questions are investigated in the senTour project.  
  Call Number Serial 3922  
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