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Author Pröbstl, U., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visitor Monitoring as a prerequisite of assessments in Natura 2000 sites Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 248-255  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Biodiversity is increasingly recognized as an invaluable element of the European heritage. Across Europe, the NATURA 2000 ecological network has been established under the European Community’s `habitats` directive and the `bird` directive. The goal of this network is to provide a strong protection for Europe’s most valuable wildlife areas. If development plans or projects threaten to deteriorate this network or its favourable conservation status, a special assessment is required (see Art.6 of the Fauna-Flora-Habitat directive, called FFH-assessment). When planning a new foot-bridge in a NATURA 2000 site, it became obvious that an evaluation of the possible ecological deterioration is only possible when detailed information about the current and the potential future recreational use is included in the assessment. It will be suggested that visitor monitoring and visitor surveys collect essential background information for the FFH-assessment process evaluating the possible impacts on NATURA 2000 sites. Without such data it would be impossible to determine the potential effects of changes to the recreational infrastructure and its associated uses on protected areas. Therefore, a curriculum for protected area planning that strives to accommodate the legal requirements of the European Community should also include recreation research techniques.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 348 Serial 2382  
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Author Raitio, H., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Opening address Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 4-4  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 8 Serial 2350  
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Author Rammo, M.; Karoles, K.; Maran, K.; Jansen, J.; Almik, A.; Rammo, R., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visitor Surveys and Visitor Impact Monitoring in Recreational Areas in State Forests of Estonia Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 397-399  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 336 Serial 2376  
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Author Roovers, P.; Dumont, B.; Gulinck, H.; Hermy, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visual obstruction of herb vegetation, defining standards for natural barriers Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 400-403  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract As a result of increasing impact of recreation on natural resources and visitor experiences, wilderness managers often want to control recreational use. However, most of the attempts to alter wilderness recreational use patterns, suffer from a lack of knowledge of visitors’ behaviour they seek to influence. This study concentrated on the effects of ground vegetation on perceived obstruction to recreationists. The aim was to define marginal values for the structure of natural barriers. Ratings by participants (n= 131) on a five-point scale, measured perceived obstruction. These ratings were linked to vertical cover of the vegetation. Analyses indicated a significant exponential relationship between vertical cover and perceived obstruction. A marginal vegetation height of about 54 cm could be identified as having obstructive features. Also the condition of the soil and the presence of irritating species seemed to influence visitors’ judgement. It was concluded that a more intensive use of natural barriers to control recreational use, is a functional alternative with economical and aesthetical advantages.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 338 Serial 2377  
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Author Ryglova, K.; Turcinkova, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Image as an Important Factor of Destination Management Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 355-359  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract For successful development of tourism in a region is a necessary condition to learn planning and using management principals. General characteristics of successful planning can be derived from experiences of their application in advanced countries but must be adapted to specific local regional conditions. Since 1989 (after the “Velvet Revolution”), the Czech Republic has become an attractive destination for many tourists from all over the world – it was a new, unknown and not financially demanding area. In the meantime, this trend has changed and Czech Republic has become a common tourist destination, which cannot exploit this competitive advantage any longer. Nowadays, when the differences between individual countries and regions are diminishing, and the main competitive forces are factors, such as image, which create the power of the “brand” of a particular destination. We can find that “the present tourism industry is formed by battle for destination, where the good brand sells”.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 326 Serial 2371  
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Author Shapochkin, M.S.; Kiseleva, V.V.; Syriamkina, O.V.; Nikitin, V.F., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Mapping the Intensity of Recreation Impact in the NP Losiny Ostrov, Moscow Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 45-50  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract General recreational situation in the NP Losiny Ostrov (Moscow) is analysed. The technique of field observations and computer mapping of recreation intensity and status of forest landscapes is described. Corresponding maps are represented and correlated with the location of residential regions, entrances, and basic visitor flows. Five areas of intensive effect of stationary recreation were revealed at the studied territory of ca. 600 ha. In most cases, extreme recreation is thought to be the main reason of forest decline and decrease in recreational carrying capacity. Top-priority areas of landscape improvement were revealed. Maps reflecting the spatial distribution of recreation intensity and status of forest landscapes are regarded as an appropriate instrument of territorial planning.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 385 Serial 2400  
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Author Shoji, Y.; Yamaki, K., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visitor Perceptions of the Inscription on the World Heritage List: The Use of Stated Choice Methods Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 305-310  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This study examines how visitors to Daisetsuzan National Park in Japan perceive its inscription on the World Heritage List by applying stated choice methods. Most visitors regarded the inscription as favourable although their willingness to pay indicated that better visitor control and further conservation of natural resources would be necessary by taking opportunity of the inscription. However, the current situation of World Heritage sites in Japan indicates that the domestic management system of natural resources is inadequate to realize these visitor visions. We conclude that the nomination of Daisetsuzan National Park for the World Heritage List should be reconsidered, but only after the Japanese management system for natural resources has been improved.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 310 Serial 2363  
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Author Siegrist, D., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Sustainable tourism and large protected areas – analysis models and success criteria of a sustainable tourism management using the example of the Alps Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 311-317  
  Keywords MMV2, Recreational management of large protected areas, management of ecotourism, analysis of best practice, sustainable regional development, Alpine convention  
  Abstract Within the framework of a sustainable regional development, protected area tourism acquires increasing significance. This applies particularly to peripheral regions, that posess no outlook for economic development. With this background, the question of success criteria for a sustainable tourist management in protected regions was investigated. The example of Austrian nature parks demonstrates, that inadequate cooperation at local level can be an important source of failure. At the same time, a suitable financial framework for successful protected area tourism is especially important.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 312 Serial 2364  
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Author Sievänen, T.; Tuulentie, S., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Preface Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 3-3  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 82 Serial 2349  
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Author Skov-Petersen, H.; Jensen, F.S., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Assessing recreation in the Danish nature – present experiences, towards a future monitoring system Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 58-64  
  Keywords MMV2, Outdoor recreation, recreational use estimates, forest preferences, general public, questionnaire, Denmark  
  Abstract Research on Danish forest recreation reaches back to the mid-seventies. Two major surveys have been conducted: The Forest and Folk in 1975 and the Outdoor Life ’95-‘98 project. The latter was, in terms of overall objective and chosen methodology, a repetition of the first. Both surveys aimed at collection of base-line information about the recreational life and preferences of Danes and the pattern of use in the Danish nature. Both used a combination of household questionnaires – combined with verbalstatement-cards and photographs – and counting of cars combined with handing out questionnaires at parking-lots in the nature. The present paper presents and discusses the projects and campaigns of the past and looks forward, providing an outline of a future setting of a system for collection of statistical information regarding recreational use of the nature.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 292 Serial 2354  
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Author Sterl, P.; Wagner, S.; Arnberger, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Social Carrying Capacity of Canoeists in Austria´s Danube Floodplains National Park Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 256-263  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Increasing recreational activities in National Parks affect natural resources as well as the recreational quality. In the Danube Floodplains National Park, stagnant waters, such as the Stopfenreuter and Spittelauer Arm, are a crucial component for ecological integrity, and at the same time constitute a main visitor attraction. In the summers of 2002 and 2003 a visitor survey investigated the perceived crowding of canoeists and whether the social carrying capacity is exceeded. Results of this study are that the social carrying capacity of this area has obviously been reached at certain times.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 350 Serial 2383  
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Author Szilágyi, Z., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Regulation of Visitor Activities in the DINP Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 202-207  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Thanks to its varied natural and artificial values the Duna-Ipoly National Park (DINP), established as the ninth national park in Hungary is suitable for numerous tourist activities (touring, cycling, horse riding, winter sports, water sports, caving tours, cliff-climbing, flying, fishing, hunting, etc.). Resulting from this, the employees of the national park must reckon with numerous unfavourable environmental effects produced by the tourism and increased by the closeness to Budapest. All of this is intensified on one hand by part of the territory being identical with the outstanding recreation district of the Danube Bend, on the other hand by its coming within the capital city’s recreation zone, due to which establishing the section of visitors is also problematic. Although attempts are made to demonstrate the values in the national park in the interest of avoiding the hazards and developing environmental awareness and ethics, regulation of the visitors’ activities, for the main part, does not take place in a planned manner. In our article, besides disclosing the causes of the disorganisation, we also stipulated the most important principles for solving these problems.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 372 Serial 2394  
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Author Taczanowska, K., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The Potentials for Developing Cross-border Tourism between Poland and Slovakia in the Tatra Mountains Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 404-407  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This paper presents the potentials for developing cross-border tourism in the Tatra Mountains. The area is situated in Central Eastern Europe, on the border between Poland and Slovakia. The new political situation (EU enlargement in May 2004) encourages closer cooperation between neighbouring regions and offers promising perspectives for tourism development. The entire mountain range is protected by two national parks – the Tatra National Parks (TANAP in Slovakia and TPN in Poland). The differences in management politics as well as varying infrastructure and the intensity of use have been analysed in order to identify potentials of developing cross-border tourism within the protected area. Additionally, visitors’ expectations and opinions of park managers have been considered. As a result, tourist border-crossings and transnational trails have been pointed. The paper discusses the perspectives of the concept implementation as well as its potential influence on visitor flows in the Tatra Mountains.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 340 Serial 2378  
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Author Takahashi, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Actual condition and problem of visitor use in Jozankei National Forest, Japan Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 65-68  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Jozankei National Forest, a part of the Shikotsu Toya National Park, is located in a mountainous area about 30 km south of central Sapporo. The forest is managed by selective cutting based on highdensity forest road network. Because of the roads, visitor access is easier than it is in other surrounding forests. From spring to autumn in 2003, visitor flows were monitored at two entrances of the forest road network using Trail Traffic Counter. There was a remarkable visitor concentration in spring and the behaviour of visitor varied at each season. It was considered that the reason for the difference could be the different purposes of visits to the park as well as the characteristics of the forests visited.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 294 Serial 2355  
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Author Thapa, B.; Confer, J.J.; Mendelsohn, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Trip motivations among water-based recreationists Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 208-212  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Empirical research has consistently demonstrated that motivations differ based on participation in various activities, as well as due to the significant effect of other variables. Perpetuating this line of research, the purpose of this paper was to examine the effect of select non-motivational variables on motivations among recreationists on the Gallatin River, Montana, USA. A 15-mile stretch of the river was earmarked for data collection (n=321) in June and July 2000 via river exit interviews. Based on the literature, motivation was operationalized into 9-items using a 5-point Likert scale. Some of the findings highlight that rafters emphasized the status motive, while anglers noted relaxation and solitude. Residents were motivated to participate for social and physical aspects, while tourists noted setting and prestige motives. Repeat visitors were more likely to mention solitude, while first time visitors indicated to watch wildlife, and to tell others about it as key motives. Males were more likely to participate for solitude while females noted that they could tell others about it at home. Recreationists have wide sets of motives, and understanding what individuals seek through recreation can provide useful guidance to a variety of planning and management decisions.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 374 Serial 2395  
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Author Tolvanen, A.; Rämet, J.; Siikamäki, P.; Törn, A.; Orell, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Research on ecological and social sustainability of nature tourism in northern Finland Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 264-270  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract We present preliminary results obtained from a project concentrating on sustainable nature tourism in Northern Finland. Our aims have been to provide information on the ecological and social sustainability of nature tourism by investigating the tolerance of vegetation to recreation and by surveying the attitudes of local people towards nature conservation and nature tourism. According to our results, even low levels of recreational activities have obvious effects on vegetation cover and species diversity. Attitudes towards nature conservation are positive as long as the opportunities of local people to continue the use of natural resources are not restricted, while opinions towards nature tourism are in general positive in the survey areas. To keep nature tourism at both ecologically and socially sustainable level, close cooperation between stakeholders, such as administrators, planners, researchers, and local people is required.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 352 Serial 2384  
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Author Türk, S.; Jakob, E.; Krämer, A.; Roth, R., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Outdoor recreation activities in nature protection areas – situation in Germany Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 171-177  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Within a research project of the Federal Nature Conservation Agency, the Institute of Outdoor Sports and Environment points out new developments in outdoor activities in several German landscapes significantly used for sports activities. Therefore two different types of landscape analysis were chosen: First the monitoring of selected sports activities in landscapes with special equipment respectively high frequented by sportsmen (top-spot method) and second the recording of the real utilisation of near-natural landscapes (area method). The results of the scientific analytics were combined with sociological knowledge to describe the development of outdoor recreation in different sport activities (e.g.: canoeing, climbing, paragliding or canyoning). Considering these results the possibilities and the limits of modern concepts of guidance are discussed. Convenience offers, the use of police law or the establishment of a new outdoor culture (depending on Scandinavian standards) will attach great importance to minimize stress and interference in natural landscapes. It is shown that the changes in outdoor activities offer the possibility for a sustainable use of the German countryside for recreation as well as for environment.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 397 Serial 2406  
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Author Van Den Berg, C.; Van Bree, F.; Cottrell, S., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title PAN Parks implementation process: cross cultural comparison – Bieszczady & Slovenski Raij National Parks Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 222-229  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 354 Serial 2385  
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Author Van Wagtendonk, J.W., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Simulation modeling of visitor flows: where have we been and where are we going? Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 127-134  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The Wilderness area Simulation Model was developed in 1972 by Resources for the Future with programming assistance from IBM. It simulates parties moving through a wilderness and records the number of encounters each party experiences. The model has been applied to the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area in Montana, the Adirondack Forest Reserve in New York, the Desolation Wilderness in California, the complex of the wilderness areas surrounding and including Yosemite National Park, the Green and Yampa Rivers in Dinosaur Monument, the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail in Vermont. In its time, the model was a useful tool for establishing the relationship between use levels and encounters and testing management alternatives. As innovative as the model was, recent advances in behavioral science and computer technology have rendered it out of date.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 405 Serial 2410  
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Author Vilas Bôas, R.; Davide, A.C.; Andrade, C.M.R., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visitors of Parque Florestal Quedas do Rio Bonito, Lavras (Mg), Brazil: A Management Planning Based on Profile, Perceptions, Needs and Motivations Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 213-220  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The research was carried out in the Parque Florestal Quedas do Rio Bonito, located in Lavras city (Minas Gerais – Brazil) and participatory research methods were used in an integrated and iterative way. Results of the specific visitors study has shown that most of people visit the area with a special interest on leisure opportunities. Enjoyment of natural environment, peace and quiet are also important motivations. In a variety of activities, the visitors appreciate relaxing and enjoying the nature, swimming in the waterfall and walking on the trails. Most of visitors exhibited a high level of interest in conservation. In conclusion, this study represents one of the first efforts for providing the local foundation for a comprehensive framework for outdoor recreation management from the perspective of visitors. More generally, the visitor approach taken in this study contributes to a greater understanding of the visitor experience for tourism management in the natural environments.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 376 Serial 2396  
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Author Yamaki, K.; Shoji, Y., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Classification of trail settings in an alpine national park using the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum approach Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 318-323  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Considering trail settings in alpine national parks is important for both conserving nature and maximizing the quality of the experience for visitors. This study examines classifying trails in Daisetsuzan National Park, Japan, using the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum approach. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from park visitors concerning their preferences for the facility developments, accessibility, and visitor encounters. The responses were classified into four groups according to the preferences expressed for the types of trail settings. The trails were classified according to their characteristics as described by park visitors. The northern part of the park, with easier access and moderate development, was preferred by all groups, and the southern part of the park was preferred only by the those who favored more primitive surroundings.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 314 Serial 2365  
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Author Yuan, M.; McIntyre, N.; Payne, R.J.; Moore, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Development of a Spatial Values-Based Recreation Planning Framework for Canadian Crown Lands Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 93-99  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Managers of Canadian Crown lands are beginning to recognize that all values the public associates with forests should be given due consideration in management actions. Arguably, recreation and tourism are the least understood values of the resource and typically receive only secondary consideration in management decisions on an ad-hoc basis. This situation partly results from the lack of a systematic framework for recreation management in Crown lands outside of protected areas at either the provincial or the national level. This presentation discusses the development of a spatial recreation planning framework that uses recreation values to assess the effects of various forestry activities. The framework expands upon traditional planning approaches that are primarily supply driven to directly address core user values rather than traditional user preferences. A spatial GIS model was developed that incorporates interactive data layers of the study area including high resolution orthophoto mosaic, forest resource inventory, recreation facilities locations, ROS type classification, activity participation, spatial trip patterns, and recreation values. These data layers are overlaid on the forest management plan that details the harvesting and silvicultural treatments that are planned for the next 20 years. Operation of the interactive model is based on maintaining recreation portfolios, recreation class consistency, and sets of contextualized recreation values. A process is discussed as to how this new framework will provide managers with a tool to evaluate recreation related impacts a priori to resource management actions, and allow the public to ask “what if” scenarios in an interactive mode.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 362 Serial 2389  
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Author Zarnoch, S.J.; English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title A Model for Evaluating Dispersed Outdoor Recreation Use Estimation Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 100-105  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract An outdoor recreation use simulator (ORUS) has been developed to simulate dispersed recreation survey data similar to that collected by the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) Project’s survey of the national forests of the U.S.A. Statistical distributions are used to represent the various behaviors of recreationists during their visit to a dispersed area. The beta distribution is used to model arriving times and last exiting times. The number of intermediate exits from a site is determined by the Poisson distribution while their times are selected randomly according to the uniform distribution. Finally, three trap shy behaviors are assigned to the recreationists to quantify their probability of capture by the interviewer. The arriving and last exiting beta distributions are fitted to the NVUM data. The functioning of the simulator is demonstrated with a simple example with explanations of each recreationist’s actions with respect to the sampling methodology. The utility of ORUS in evaluating the bias and coefficient of variability of various estimating scenarios is also presented.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 364 Serial 2390  
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Author Banjac, M., Tesanovic, D., Kalenjuk, B., Nikolic, M., Radivojevic, G. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Gastronomic offer of Gornje Podunavlje Special Nature Reserve for the purpose of authentic development of tourism Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 503-504  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Special Nature Reserves (SNR) represent the protected areas (PA) of intact and preserved nature. Due to their environmental value and presence of rare wild species, the protected areas are gaining more attention of tourists, so there is indication of upward trend in the number of visitors in these areas (McCool and Spenceley, 2014). It is anticipated that the high growth in the number of visitors will continue in the future. By visiting the protected areas, visitors have the opportunity to get acquainted not only with natural values, but also with cultural heritage that makes each destination more authentic and allows tourists take away unforgettable and synergetic experience. Regardless of the reason for the visit, the food is an integral part of tourism offer and completes the experience of the destination itself. The aim of this study is to explore the gastronomic offer in restaurants that are located in the area of the selected Special Nature Reserve in order to determine the current offer in the facilities, with an emphasis on the offer of local agricultural, food and culinary products.  
  Call Number Serial 4018  
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Author Kalenjuk, B., Timotic, D., Tesanovic, D., Gagic, S., Banjac, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Analysis of the state and offer of the hospitality facilities in special nature reserves in Vojvodina Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 498-500  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Special Nature Reserves (abbreviated – SNR) are the most valuable protected areas, in which nature is unchanged or slightly changed. These include the habitats of endangered and rare species of wild plants, animals and fungi, without settlements or with rare settlements where man lives in line with nature. The establishment of the SNR is carried out in order to preserve the existing natural features, gene pool, ecological balance, monitoring of natural phenomena and processes, preservation of traditional way of life (Epler Wood, 2002, Szabados and Kicošev, 2006).  
  Call Number Serial 4016  
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Author Radivojevic, G., Tesanovic, D., Banjac, M., Tomic, N. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Nature park ‘’sargan – Mokra gora’’ as a major hot spot for promoting Serbian gastronomy Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 501-502  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The goal of this paper is to determine the structure of the gastronomic offer in restaurants which are located in the area of Šargan-Mokra Gora Nature Park and to investigate which national dishes are included in the offer and promoted as representative dishes of Serbian gastronomy. The Nature Park is located between the Tara and Zlatibor Mountains in Western Serbia. When it comes to gastronomy, what makes it unique and diverse is its favorable geographical location. This area is well known for livestock farming which is the dominant economic activity in the area. Therefore, meat and other products of animal origin, accompanied by mountain cereal and fruit represent basic ingredients used by local people for preparing meals.  
  Call Number Serial 4017  
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Author Farias-Torbidoni, E.I., Baric, D., Mas-Alos, S., Planas-Anzano, A., Montserrat-Revillo, S., Gil, G. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title The influence of visitor characteristic and natural park facilities on physical activity levels. A case of study Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 493-495  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recreational and sport activities in protected natural areas (PNA) have increased in recent years. Protected natural areas are not only promising means to satisfy current health-enhancing physical activity (PA) recommendations, but they also are an ideal environment to promote physical activity (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005, Mowen et al., 2012). However, few investigations have examined user characteristics and park facilities in relation to park-based PA levels or intensities. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of PNA visitors (socio-demographic data, recreational behaviour, motivations and preferences) and PNA facilities (PA areas, supporting activities, etc.) in respect to metabolic equivalent (MET) expenditure: sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities. The work has prominent potential to help decision makers in developing the sound policy and managerial guidance to increase understanding about the complex relationships between user physical activity level and park amenities.  
  Call Number Serial 4015  
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Author Grinfelde, I., Livina, A. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Enhancing vitality of young students by integrated experience-based outdoor education methods Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 489-492  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In the present study the particular case of Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences Tourism and Leisure studies (founded in 1996, Valmiera, Latvia) will be used to present the experience of integration of outdoor physical activities in the study program with a focus on development of skills knowledge and reduction of institutional barriers for physical activities. Despite the fact that a good physical condition is not only a personal issue, but also a professional precondition in case of tourism, the research of Grinberga (2016) reveals that 70% of students identify their lifestyle as sedentary and inactive (11% with 0 activity), 45% of respondents said that they do some outdoor activities because of the added value of natural surroundings. The most common problems related to physical inactivity that students mentioned is back pain, decrease of physical fitness, (difficulty to move, muscle weakness etc.), also weight gain, poor immunity and sickness, pain in the neck, apathy. In their comments about the reasons for inactivity students mention lack of time due to the intensive lecture schedule which could be interpreted as an organizational barrier.  
  Call Number Serial 4014  
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Author Shimojima, H., Shimad, S., Irie, M., Aso, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title The environmental impact of mountaineering in the Mt. Everest region Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 481-483  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Sixty years have passed since the Mount Everest was first conquered. The popularity of its scaling and the rapidly growing tourism in the Nepal Himalayas after 1970 are noticeably affecting natural, social, and cultural environments in the vicinity. This in turn, is creating serious environmental problems at the Everest Base Camp (5,300 m above mean sea level), the entry point for climbing the Mt. Everest. In this study, our research objective was to elucidate the relationship between mountaineering activities and associated environmental changes by applying GIS and remote sensing, so that further degradation of present environmental conditions could be stopped.  
  Call Number Serial 4012  
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Author Tyrvainen, L., Neuvonen, M., Silvennoinen, H. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Contribution of nature areas to residents’ health in urban and suburban areas in Helsinki, Finland Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 486-488  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Urban and suburban greenspaces are increasingly acknowledged to provide an essential resource for residents’ mental and physical well-being and can be influential during both leisure time and commuting. In many cities, however, land-use pressures leading to intensifying land use and compact city structure fail in taking into account the potential of nature areas to enhancing health and well-being of residents. Although Finnish cities are still fairly green compared to the European average, heavy pressures are placed on the green spaces of the largest growth centers, in particular in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Key information serving urban planning in this context include what kind of green infrastructure within and around cities supports health and wellbeing of different types of residents and how the use of these areas can be promoted among various user groups.  
  Call Number Serial 4013  
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Author Bjelajac, D., Lukic, T., Micic, T., Miljkovic, Dj., Sakulski, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Rainfall erosivity as an indicator of potential threat to erosion vulnerability in protected areas of Vojvodina (North Serbia) Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 478-480  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Soil erosion is one of the main environmental problems in Southeastern Europe. The major climatic variable affecting water erosion is precipitation. In order to illustrate the role of rainfall erosivity, it is necessary to examine the changes in the amount of precipitation over a certain period of time. Recent studies indicate that climate variabilityon global basis will affect the changes in precipitation in Southeastern Europe. Sinceclimate change is an inevitable natural process, it is necessary to make certain predictions based on analysis of all available rainfalldata in order to protect potentially endangered ecosystems and important areas of distinct natural values.Erosion and precipitation distribution are important elements concerning the implications of climate variability in the Panonnian basin. Vojvodina (North Serbia) is a region located in its eastern part. It is widely known as an important regionwhich consists of a great number of protected bio and geo-diversity areas. Therefore, it is very important to draw attention to the above mentioned areas vulnerabletopluvial erosion in order to create and implement adequate preventive and mitigation measures (Lukic et al., 2016).  
  Call Number Serial 4011  
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Author Matsubara, L.Y., Magro, T.C. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Potential of dispersal seeds by endozoochory of Urochloa decumbens seed and Melinis minutiflora by riding animals Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 472-474  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The use of horse riding in natural areas has caused great concern due to social and environmental impacts. One of the problems that has been investigated in some countries is the relationship between the use of riding animals and the presence of exotic plants.This kind of study is very important, once invasive species are the second cause of biological diversity loss. Herbivores are able to disperse a wide variety of species through their feces (JANZEN 1984, Vellend et al 2003). However little is known whether these seeds will be able to grow and settle in places. It is estimated that only a small portion of seeds present in the feces of horses will be established. Therefore, this study aims to verify if seeds of Urochloadecumbens and Melinisminutiflora, after being eaten and defecated by horses, have the ability to germinate, grow and bear fruit in ideal conditions.  
  Call Number Serial 4009  
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Author Rathmann, J., Sacher, P., Mayer, M., Job, J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Trade-offs between the forest ecosystem services biodiversity and recreation: Perception and assessment of deadwood by outdoor recreationists and the general public in Bavaria (SE Germany) Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 475-477  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The present study is part ofthisproject and analyzes theinfluence of deadwood oncultural ecosystem services and their trade-offs like tourismand outdoor-recreation, but also on spiritual and emotional relations of respondents to forests as part of their place attachment and personal identity. Despite some progress in recent years this nexus has not been explored in detail and not with a multiple method research design combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. Thus, this study analyzes the impact of different amounts and arrangements of deadwood in specific forest sites on the visual preference of forest recreationists and tourists according to previous studies in that field (Edwards et al. 2012).Main goal of the research project is the assessment of the perception and valuation of forest ecosystem services by visitors, the public and other stakeholders that are related to forest management. Based on the results we seek to recommend location specific forest development options.  
  Call Number Serial 4010  
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Author Markovic, I., Sever, I., Pejnovic, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Impact factors on protected areas and management policies on a global scale Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 469-471  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The issue of sustainability of protected areas has been, up to twenty years ago, on the margins of scientific research due to common perception that the protected natural areas are sustainable by their very existence. Tourism in general, including tourism in protected areas, which often has a prefix eco, inevitably changes and disturbs state of the environment by its existence in a certain area. The main impact of tourism is created by attracting tourists and their concentration on specific particularly attractive area, which brings consequences that signify the usual environmental pressures, such as: waste, wastewater, traffic and others (Growcock, Pickering, 2011). Infrastructure required for tourist activity irreversibly alters the natural, and social environments. Contact with tourism affects the way of life of the local population, socio-cultural identity and brings new structure of the local economy, which substituted the traditional activities. Accordingly, the question arises is tourism in the protected areas possibility or a challenge, at a time when modern trends of world tourism indicate growing interest in protected areas, which not only favours the development of a relatively undeveloped areas, but also generate considerable economic benefits (Dowling et al., 2013). Therefore, this paper examines the issues of sustainable development and management policies on the example of selected natural areas in the world.  
  Call Number Serial 4008  
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Author Klanjscek, T., Klanjscek, J., Gecek, S., Caric, H., Legovic, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Quantifying effects of tourist activities on the environment, tourists, and park services in nature protected areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 465-468  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Here we present such a framework based on the DPSIR (Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impact-Response) causal framework. DPSIR has been used to assess environmental impact of human activities by the European Environment Agency (EEA 1999, EEA 2014), United Nation Environment Programme (UNEP 1997, UNEP 2012), and – more recently – to environmental impact of visitors in PAs (Navarro et al. 2012, Salerno 2013). However, the focus of DPSIR is on the state of the environment and impact on humans, while other important factors such as impact on the visitor satisfaction, and park services, are not included in the analysis. Our framework treats tourist activities as the driving forces, and connects the causal chain of Activities – Pressures – State – Impact – Response and Services (APSIRS, Figure). Unlike prior frameworks, we interpret the state as the state of all entities in the NPA, not just the environment. The entities are composed of four types of objects: people, cultural heritage, NPA services, and the environment. The state of the objects is quantified by indicators compatible with EU regulations and conducive to valuation of ecosystem services (ES), and can be evaluated subjectively (e.g. through opinion polls) or objectively (e.g. through sensors).  
  Call Number Serial 4007  
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Author Gecek, S., Klanjscek, J., Marn, N., Legovic, T., Klanjscek, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Estimating benefits of nature conservation: ecosystem service valuation in Krka National Park (Croatia) Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 462-464  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In this study, we estimate the benefits of ES in Krka National Park (Croatia) – to the local population and to the Park visitors. We develop new methodology to estimate indirect monetary benefits of nature-based tourism to local population (i.e. local economy), and non-monetary benefits of nature-based tourism to Park visitors. Additionally, using existing approaches (CICES), we estimate monetary benefits of provisional and regulating ecosystem services (ES), and direct monetary benefits of nature-based tourism (cultural ES).  
  Call Number Serial 4006  
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Author Rechcinski, M., Strzelecka, M., Grodzinska-Jurczak, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Does Natura 2000 Always Mean Ecotourism Potential? Application of PP GIS to the Perception Study of the Tourist Stakeholders’ Values at the Local Scale of Natura 2000 Municipalities Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 458-461  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Natura 2000 has been established as the world largest network of protected areas to halt biodiversity loss in Europe, mainly by promoting sustainable use of semi-natural ecosystems. However, in many cases,the implementation of sustainability goals has beenlimited to its environmental dimension. This is evident especially in Central and Eastern Europe where residents reported significant social and economic costsof Natura 2000 (ref. Grodzinska-Jurczak, Cent 2011). Nature conservation authorities and some NGOs often proposeecotourism to respond to the residents’ concerns about negative local-scale economic impact of the Natura 2000 program. However, it can be misleading since an ecotourism potential is not solely created byenvironmental assets concentrated in Natura 2000 sites. Thus, inthis study, we focus more closely on social aspectsof ecotourismand provide insight into 1) community values towards nature, 2) stakeholders’ attitudes towards ecotourist path of development and 3) local environmental knowledge of the stakeholders. We arguethat only after learning these aspects and gaining an active support of wide array of stakeholders’ towards the ecotourist initiatives, the process can trulyaddress local-scale social and economic needswhile contributing to nature conservation (ref. Western, Wright 1994).  
  Call Number Serial 4005  
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Author Blye, C.-J., Halpenny, E. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Do Canadian’s Leave No Trace? A study examining the pro-environmental behaviours of front-country and back-country overnight park visitors Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 454-457  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Inherent in the term outdoor recreation is the interaction between humans and the natural environment. However, this interaction creates inevitable impacts on the natural environment, such as soil compaction and habitat fragmentation(Hammitt, Cole, & Monz, 2015). Some research has been done to investigate how back-country (BC) overnight visitors mitigate these negative impacts through low-impact camping practices, however little has been done on the millions of front-country (FC) overnight visitors. The purpose of this study was to understand the level of engagement in pro-environmental behviours of Canadian provincial parks users and compare those practices of FC and BC overnight visitors. Park visitors’ knowledge of, intent to engage in and actual practice of Leave No Trace (LNT) practices were measured. Guided by value beliefs norm theory and the theory of planned behavior, additional factors that influence these visitors’ engagement in pro-environmental practice were also measured(Ajzen, 1991, Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, & Kalof, 1999).  
  Call Number Serial 4004  
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Author Dalley, J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Tranquility mapping: A tool for the equitable allocation of soundscapes in protected areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 451-453  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract It is well recognised that advanced industrialised societies have become progressively ‘noisy’ over time. This has led to the health and wellbeing benefits of tranquil spaces becoming increasingly recognised – and valued – around the world. Indeed, the search for tranquil environments is often the chief reason people give for escaping urban settings for ‘natural’ environments. Tranquillity in natural environments is a combination of both ‘natural’ landscapes – and ‘natural’ soundscapes. The preservation and conservation of natural environments therefore requires the management of not just natural landscapes and ecosystems, but also their associated soundscapes. Natural soundscapes are finite: at any place and time the soundscape is 100% ‘natural’ unless affected by ‘unnatural’ human-caused sounds. Therefore, the primary challenge to preserving and conserving natural soundscapes in protected areas is the management of unwanted human-caused sound – or ‘anthropogenic noise’.  
  Call Number Serial 4003  
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Author Yamamoto, K., Saka, T. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Monitoring visitor use and awareness in Sanriku Reconstruction National Park: Towards eco-based disaster risk reduction Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 448-450  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract On Friday at 2:46 pm Japan standard time, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred at the level of the Japan Trench, approximately 130 km east of Sendai. The sea floor was lifted up, causing a major tsunami that inundated 516 km2 of the eastern coastline of Japan. Together, the earthquake and tsunami resulted in around 16,000 deaths and approximately 2,600 missing people (Renaud and Murti (eds.) 2013, Japan National Police Agency 2016). In order to support the revitalization of the Sanriku area, the Sanriku Reconstruction National Park was created after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. However, large construction projects provoked adverse reactions in the tsunami-hit areas. For example, a giant conveyor belt is bringing mud to raise the ground level in Rikuzentakata City and some researchers have pointed out resulting negative effects on the ecosystem. In the case of Sri Lanka, dumping of debris from the cleanup into waterways and wetlands created pollution and drainage problems that hampered long-term recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami (Sudmeier-Rieux and Ash 2009). These kinds of negative impacts have occurred in the aftermath of disasters and it is very important to pay close attention to the post-disaster recovery period and also to address how to strengthen the function of protected areas in eco-based disaster risk reduction. In addition to this viewpoint, this research focuses on visitor use, including visitor consciousness that can offer information on the value of a national park. Not only visitor use but also the consciousness of visitors, such as interest in disaster risk reduction and expected countermeasures, are thought to change gradually after a disaster but very little research has focused on such types of changes in psychological states.  
  Call Number Serial 4002  
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