toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links (down)
Author Zinn, H.; Mosimane, A.; Morais, D., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Wildlife tourism, community-based natural resource management, wildlife value orientations, and quality-of-life indicators in indigenous Namibian villages Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 221-222  
  Keywords MMV5, community-based natural resource management, indigenous peoples, subjective well being, wildlife value orientations  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 246 Serial 2777  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Passold, A.J.; Magro, T.C.; Do Couto, H.T.Z., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Comparing Indicator Effectiveness for Monitoring Visitor Impact at Intervales State Park, Brazil: Park Ranger-Measured Versus Specialist-Measured Experience Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 52-57  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This study was conducted to aid administrators in overcoming some barriers to implementation and maintenance of programs for monitoring visitor impact to Brazilian protected areas. One of the problems refers to continuity in collecting field data due in part to lack of institutional commitment. In order to verify the effectiveness of surveys carried out by park employees, the difference between data collected by park rangers and those collected by specialists was studied so that simple and dependable indicators could be selected. 26 indicators of physical attributes were analyzed for four intensive-use trails at Intervales State Park through systematic sampling of points. Results indicate that the group of rangers produced more homogeneous data than the group of specialists did. Significant differences were more frequent among quantitative indicators. Indicators chosen according to their dependability criterion were: bird sighting and hearing, vandalism to park facilities, rock graffiti, number of damaged or carved trees, number of perceptions of vehicle noise, number of exposed rocks, visible erosion, trail depth, traces of fauna and trash litter.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 290 Serial 2353  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Arnberger, A.; Haider, W.; Muhar, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Social Carrying Capacity of an Urban Park in Vienna Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 361-368  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The goal of this research was to investigate the social carrying capacity of an urban park in Vienna, Austria. We used a stated choice approach, combined with a referendum style conjoint model. Based on the hypothesis that the perception of crowding is influenced by several factors, digitally calibrated images were generated to depict in a systematic and rigorous manner different visitor numbers, user types, group sizes, the placement of visitors within the scene, numbers of dogs on or off leash, and the direction of visitor movement. The social carrying capacity was measured by asking each respondent whether the presented scenario was acceptable or not. Overall, visitor numbers, the placement of visitors within the image, and dogs being on or off a leash influenced the visitors’ decisions the most. The results of the binomial logit model can be used to simulate and calculate the visitor norms for many different situations; in other words, the referendum style conjoint approach delivers recreation norms within a truly multivariate investigative framework.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 286 Serial 2351  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bambi, G.; Panero, V., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title A modern net of paths for every type of hiking: new possibilities in order to discover and to promote a protected area Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 325-329  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The recreational and protected areas are increasingly undertaking a social function toward becoming a real destination for holidays and travel equal to famous tourist locations. In Italy this type of “green ecotourism” is spreading as an alternative type of tourism enabling it to repopulate the countryside and to exploit the history and culture of rural territories. To demonstrate how hiking in general can be a way to discover and to promote a protected rural area from the perspective of a tourist point of view, one of the most beautiful Italian areas has been examined, the Casentino Valley in Tuscany.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 316 Serial 2366  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Benkhard, B., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Relations Between IUCN-Zoning And Tourism In The Hungarian National Parks Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 377-381  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Within the 100.000 km² area of Hungary, which is located in Central Europe, 10% is protected. The National Park Directorates make an effort to suit the requirements of the IUCN and strive to develop a zoning system. However, the settling of the zones meet had to face many difficulties in this relatively small country, which also has dense regional structure. The extent and the fragmentation of the national parks, the position and threatening of their natural values and the previous utilization and naturalness of their area all influence the classification of the given area. Besides, attractions, tourist destinations and the areas which are used by tourists also have to be taken into consideration during the development of the zones. The aim of this poster is to analyse the role of the position, shape and rates of the zones and their connection with tourism.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 328 Serial 2372  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bernet, P., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Interaction between nature protection and leisure groups, an example of the largest protected area surrounding Lake Greifensee, canton Zurich, Switzerland Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 136-142  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Lake Greifensee is surrounded by the most continuous environmental protection area (sanctuary) within the canton Zurich (Switzerland). The lake shelters many national swamps and other biotopes in distress. On beautiful summer days, however, you will find thousands of people spending their leisure time e.g., on mountain bikes, roller skates or swimming. In 1994 a new protection regulation became effective, which allows for intensive utilization and protection of the nature and separates diverse demands. With various measures sanctuaries and recreation areas are spatially separated, and the visitors are guided to keep them off the sanctuaries. During the entire year rangers inform visitors on the possibilities of nature observation, explain them where the recreation areas are located and remind them to keep off the sanctuaries. The number of violations such as trespassing of protected shores and sanctuaries continuously dropped thanks to the effective publicity and the presence of rangers. As a consequence, the vegetation is visibly recovering from the burden of trespassing. To further increase the awareness of the sanctuaries, it is, therefore, important that the rangers continue to regularly supervise the protected and recreational area and to inform and guide the visitors.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 387 Serial 2401  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bodnár, R., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The effect of the tourism of the Hortobágy National Park on the surrounding settlements – lesson of a questionnaire survey Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 382-385  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The Puszta in the Hortobágy represents an important, individual natural and historical-cultural value, which has been deservedly possessed the rank of UNESCO World Heritage since 1999. Due to its speciality, in 1973 the first national park in Hungary, the Hortobágy National Park was founded here. In the course of the survey we examined how the Hortobágy National Park can utilize the World Heritage status in its tourism, how it utilizes the possibilities in its ecotourism. What effects does the tourism in the national park have on the economy, basic and tourist infrastructure, and society of the affected settlements? What characterizes the tourist supply and cooperation of the HNP and the settlements? What conflicts can be derived from the two sides, and what possibilities do they have to develop?  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 330 Serial 2373  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cavens, D.; Gloor, C.; Nagel, K.; Lange, E.; Schmid, W.A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title A Framework for Integrating Visual Quality Modelling within an Agent-Based Hiking Simulation for the Swiss Alps Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 70-77  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract While the visual qualities of a landscape are often key factors in attracting and retaining tourist visitors, they have been overlooked in recent simulation approaches to recreation modelling. While there has been a long history of modelling the visual quality of a landscape, particularly in forestry, due to computational restrictions these models have tended to be rather coarse and primarily suited for avoiding catastrophic impacts due to large-scale interventions in a landscape. However, the experience of the visual quality of a landscape for recreationists is much more subtle. Relatively small changes to spatial patterns and land use, when viewed cumulatively, can have a large impact on the attractiveness of a landscape for tourists. Methods for evaluating the changing visual quality of a landscape are invaluable for comprehensive long-term landscape planning. This paper describes a computational approach for integrating visual quality information into an agent-based simulation of summer hikers in the Swiss Alps. The benefits of microscopic modelling (where the activities of individual hikers are simulated) are combined with detailed 3D models to provide the possibility of a highly nuanced visual quality analysis of a recreational area. Using real-time computer graphics techniques, simulated agents interpret computer generated 3D images of what they 'see' as they move through the landscape. Various landscape metrics are calculated based on these representations, including visual quality indicators such as view composition, enclosure, and depth of view. These metrics are evaluated over the course of an agent's hike, and integrated with more traditional parameters (such as hike distance, steepness, congestion and availability of amenities) in an agent-based simulation. Unlike other raster based visual quality models, analyzing 3D representations allows the model to easily incorporate subtle screening effects, and allows the model to determine visibility from any location in the model. The technique allows for very detailed visual representations, and scales easily to include more detail as required by the analysis. Currently, the model represents terrain, vegetation communities, structures, path and road networks and information aids such as signage. The paper describes a working implementation of the technique, and discusses its advantages and limitations, including its substantial data requirements. The paper uses a specific case study in the Gstaad- Saanenland region of Switzerland to articulate how this integration of visual information within an agentbased simulation has advantages over more traditional methods of visual quality modelling.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 356 Serial 2386  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clivaz, C.; Hausser, Y.; Michelet, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Tourism monitoring system based on the concept of carrying capacity – The case of the regional natural park Pfyn-Finges (Switzerland) Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 230-235  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The creation of regional natural parks offers the possibility of improving the economic situation of peripheral regions. However, the use of ecologically sensitive zones for tourism purposes also presents economic, environmental and social problems. The concept of carrying capacity is often presented as a useful approach for determining the intensity of tourism development that can be supported by a region. Our objective thus consisted in the operationalisation of this concept by defining a certain number of indicators to measure the different types of carrying capacity. However, the confrontation with the practical realities of the regional natural park Pfyn-Finges in Switzerland made us realise that what we intended to do was more a stylistic exercise than a setup of a management tool adapted to the needs of the park managers. We thus conclude that even though the concept of carrying capacity may have a high heuristic value, its practical value is rather limited.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 342 Serial 2379  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cole, D.N., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Monitoring and Management of Recreation in Protected Areas: the Contributions and Limitations of Science Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 10-17  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Scientists assist protected area managers by developing information and knowledge that can be used to better monitor and manage recreation use and its impacts. Most recreation management decisions have both a descriptive and an evaluative component. There is widespread consensus that science is well suited to discovering, synthesizing and applying descriptive information. This paper provides an overview of some of the most significant contributions of science to visitor monitoring and management. It covers the related scientific purposes of explanation, causation, prediction and assessment. As scientific enquiry moves from description to evaluation, from facts to values, from providing statements of “what is” to providing statements of “what ought to be”, it ventures into more contested territory. While some advocate a substantial role for science in the establishment of normative standards about what ought to be, others believe science should be very cautious in this arena. Recreation examples, largely drawn from wilderness management in the United States, are provided.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 296 Serial 2356  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author De Vries, S.; Jellema, A.; Goossen, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title FORVISITS: modelling visitor flows at a regional level Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 78-84  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) is trying to develop a coherent set of indicators to monitor nature areas in the Netherlands. One of the proposed indicators is the recreational use of nature areas. Besides indicating the social value of a specific area, recreational use may be also be used as input for modelling habitat quality, another MNP-indicator. Recreational use itself is likely to depend on the attractiveness of the area, such as its scenic beauty. This attractiveness is yet another MNPindicator. Because the MNP wants a national overview of the recreation use of all nature areas, on-site monitoring is not a feasible option. Therefore we have started to develop a model to predict the number of recreational visits to forests and nature areas: FORVISITS. Although the model is still in its early stages, a first nation-wide application has taken place and will be presented.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 358 Serial 2387  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Dumont, B.; Gulinck, H., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Push and pull assemblages for modelling visitor’s flows in complex landscapes Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 386-392  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Visitor flows can be represented as a landscape-recreation-model with eight components: entrances, goals, exits, field units, attractors or detractors, road segments, road junctions and barriers. The model can develop towards a real-time application by increasing its complexity. Starting from a basic situation (a landscape with one road and one entrance), the influence of landscape attractiveness is included; secondly diversity of the terrain and visitor is taken into account, thirdly time variation is added and finally, the interaction between the eight above-mentioned components is incorporated. The basic framework is a cost-distance function, to estimate the probability of on- and off-track visit of any location in a nature reserve on deliberate times and in specific terrain conditions. This can be represented by mean of a push-pull concept: some of the components (like entrances) have a push effect, while others, like goals, exits (when determined in advance) and attractors, have a pull-effect. To support the conversion towards a real-time application, GPS surveys, interviews, camera observation, photographic monitoring of seasonal changes, photo comparisons, step-bridges, walking experiments, experiments about field unit division and landscape preference studies were executed. This model is being developed in marshland nature reserves in central Belgium. Ultimately this system should lead to an impact assessment and decision support tool.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 332 Serial 2374  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Eagles, P.F.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Trends Affecting Tourism in Protected Areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 18-26  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This paper discusses 16 important trends that are predicted to affect the planning and management of parks and protected areas in the medium term. While there are many trends visible, the ones chosen are mostly likely to require a management response. There are both challenges and opportunities for tourism-related benefits in parks and protected areas.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 298 Serial 2357  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M.; Zarnoch, S.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Characteristics and Use Patterns of Visitors to Dispersed Areas of Urban National Forests Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 179-184  
  Keywords MMV2, Urban forests, use patterns, visitor perceptions, crowding, visitor characteristics, demographics, wilderness  
  Abstract Public recreation areas near large urban centers are experiencing increasing pressure from visitation, especially in undeveloped and wildland areas that are close to expanding population centers. Understanding the use patterns, characteristics, and perceptions of recreation visitors is critical to managing these areas for maximum sustainable benefits. Of the over 120 National Forests in the United States, eighteen have been officially designated as ‘Urban’, because of their proximity to large metropolitan areas. Sixteen of these forests have designated Wilderness areas within them. This paper examines the recreation visitors to the undeveloped portions of those National Forests. Key market segments of visitors are identified with respect to demographics, residence, annual use frequency, and visit duration. In addition, visitor perceptions of crowding and safety and their relationship with visitation levels are examined.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 366 Serial 2391  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Kocis, S.M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Designing a Sampling System for Concurrently Measuring Outdoor Recreation Visitation and Describing Visitor Characteristics Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 28-33  
  Keywords MMV2, National Visitor Use Monitoring, onsite sampling, sampling plan, use estimation, visitor characteristics, sample allocation  
  Abstract Two primary information needs for managing recreation areas and the visitors to those areas are: (1) good estimates of visitation volume, and (2) accurate descriptions of visitor characteristics, such as length of stay, frequency of visit, and primary activity. For National Forests in the United States of America with large undeveloped areas, efficient sampling for the two types of information may be to a large extent incompatible. Sampling plans that address visitation volume issues allocate most of the sample days to the largest and most internally variable strata. Sampling plans for studies of visitor characteristics allocate sampling effort to locations that most efficiently provide visitor information, such as at developed sites. Additionally, sampling plans for studies of visitor characteristics may need to ensure spatial or temporal dispersion of the sample, in order to ensure adequate representation of different visitor sub-groups. A method is demonstrated for allocating days into sampling strata which balances the contribution of sample days in improving the accuracy of the total visitation estimate with the contribution of the sample day to maximizing the quantity and dispersion of visitor information. The resulting sampling allocation provides an optimal solution to address both of the information needs through a single data collection effort. A second phase of the method addresses how to ensure spatial and temporal dispersion of sampling effort. Examples of applications on National Forests in the United States are provided.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 378 Serial 2397  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fredman, P., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title National Park Designation – Visitor Flows and Tourism Impact Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 369-375  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract National parks around the world are increasingly attracting visitors to experience pristine and unique natural environments. While increases in national park tourism provides business opportunities both in the parks and in adjacent communities, there are several economic, social and ecological aspects that need to be monitored in order to sustain high quality visitor experiences. Increases in visitation may cause negative impacts on the environment, conflicts between different user groups or within groups. At the same time, data on visitor numbers, distribution and attitudes is needed in order to design efficient management strategies and provide appropriate recreation opportunities. This paper reports preliminary findings from two different surveys of visitors to Fulufjället National Park in Sweden – one year before and one year after national park designation respectively. Both surveys used on site counters and self registration boxes to collect visitor data. Follow-up mail questionnaires were sent to a sample of Swedish and German visitors. The survey of 2001 (one year before national park designation) collected data on visitor numbers, nationalities, demographics, trip characteristics, crowding, willingness to pay, attitudes towards management actions and tourism development etc. The purpose of the 2003 survey (one year after national park designation) was to monitor possible short term changes in some of these parameters as a consequence of the national park designation in 2002. In addition, the 2003 survey was designed to estimate the regional economic impact of the park. Data from the two surveys are compared and the results are discussed from both a methodological and an impact perspective.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 288 Serial 2352  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gilbertson, K.; Olfelt, D.; Leversedge, P., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Visitor management and revegetation efforts on a degraded Lake Superior cliff edge Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 272-276  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Rock climbing has grown to be a major recreational sport in the United States. Yet, resource degradation caused by recreational rock climbing has become a controversial issue throughout the United States (Access Fund 1999). Some resource agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, and Bureau of Land Management are struggling to establish functional management policies that allow appropriate rock climbing practices while protecting the natural resource (Devine 2001). Resource managers tend to favor restriction of climbing activities to protect the resource. Yet, without adequate understanding of rock climbing, this approach can become controversial. A less controversial approach toward rock climbing influences on natural resources can be to include the rock climbing community in management planning. The result can be increased protection of the resource while allowing recreational climbing to continue (Hynek 1999). In an effort to address both public recreational needs and to protect the natural resource of Shovel Point, a popular rock climbing site in Tettegouche State Park on the edge of Lake Superior in northeastern Minnesota, USA, a study was conducted during the summer of 1998 to identify types of recreational users, impacts from their use behaviors, and to survey climber attitudes toward a proposed management plan that would influence climbing on the site. The results of this study were implemented into a long range management plan that has resulted in modified climber impact on the environment and allows a rehabilitation of the site that is hoped to preserve the unique natural resource. Innovative vegetative rehabilitation of the climbing site has been successfully implemented. This is an excellent example of positive conflict resolution through research, management through public participation, and resource rehabilitation and protection.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 300 Serial 2358  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Grossmann, M.; Klaphake, A.; Meyerhoff, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Canoes versus birds or canoeists versus canoeists? Combining interview survey and visitor monitoring to inform visitor management in the Mueritz National Park Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 277-284  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Intensive use of canoeing trails in national parks can impact both wildlife and the satisfaction of paddlers. This paper focuses on paddlers’ perception of congestion in the National Park Mueritz (Germany) and the effectiveness of different management options. Our theoretical discussion is based on the economics of congestion and the social science literature on carrying capacity of recreational resources. For the empirical application, we use interview survey and monitoring data. While our results suggest a high relevance of congestion on canoeists’ satisfaction, the acceptance of a quota system does not exceed 30 percent. We employ a statistical analysis to describe the effect of different use levels on the quality of the paddling experience. We further use the travel cost method for a rough prediction of the effect of pricing strategies (entrance fee) on use levels.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 302 Serial 2359  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gätje, C., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Double strategy towards sustainable tourism: Offers for visitors and opportunities for people employed in tourism in the Wadden Sea National Park in Schleswig-Holstein Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 330-335  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Schleswig-Holstein’s part of the Wadden Sea is a traditional holiday destination. Tourism and leisure activities are the most important regional economic activity. Two million overnight guests and four million day trippers travel to this part of the North Sea coast each year. An area of 4,400 km² has been protected as a National Park “Schleswig- Holstein Wadden Sea” since 1985 and the area was established as a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 1990. A proper strategy for communication, information and visitor guidance is essential to achieve nature conservation goals, and to make them understandable and acceptable to the general public. LIFE Nature has helped to finance information panels, maps, information kiosks, nature trails and observation platforms all of which aim to inform and guide visitors. A number of attractive indoor and outdoor nature experience and nature-compatible offers exist. However external and internal marketing has to be intensified to make these offers better known to both, visitors and locals. A LEADER+ project has been set up to take better advantage of the National Park status as a unique selling proposition and for tourism advertising. A monitoring system evaluates the success of measures and offers.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 318 Serial 2367  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Haider, W.; Anderson, C.; Beardmore, B.; Anderson, D.A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Recreational Trail Use of Residents in Jasper National Park, Canada Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 85-92  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This paper reports the results of a survey of recreation activities by the residents of the town of Jasper in Jasper National Park on the eastern slope of the Rockies in Canada. During the summer, residents enjoy hiking, jogging, mountain biking and horseback riding. In order to better understand the importance of trail attributes, the attitude towards encounter levels, and the possible acceptance of trail management options, a discrete choice experiment was administered in a mail survey. We identified three distinct user groups based on activity patterns, and these three groups differed significantly in their responses to most attributes in the discrete choice model. In the discussion we elaborate how the results of a discrete choice experiment can be used to simulate the affects of various management options on the three user groups. Simulating the likely recreation behaviour by the residents of Jasper produces insights for both visitor management and wildlife management.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 360 Serial 2388  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Högmander, J.; Leivo, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title General Principles for Sustainable Nature Tourism in Protected Areas Administrated by Metsähallitus, Finland Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 336-338  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Metsähallitus is a state owned enterprise which has the responsibility for about 27 % of the Finnish land areas. The Natural Heritage Services of Metsähallitus is the administrator of 34 national parks, 17 strict nature reserves, 12 wilderness areas and over 400 nature reserves. Totally, the area of the protected areas, wilderness areas and other areas with high values for nature conservation and recreation, administrated by the Metsähallitus, covers almost four million hectares. As a part of the work to contribute to sustainable tourism in protected areas, wilderness areas and the areas yet to be protected, administrated by Metsähallitus in Finland, nine principles have been developed. Nine principles of sustainable nature tourism are to be implemented in 2004 and they have been prepared paying attention to the character of these areas and the roles of the various actors, i.e. Metsähallitus, private entrepreneurs having their business there and all the stakeholders which are active within or close to these areas. The nine principles for sustainable nature tourism are as follows: 1) Nature values are preserved and the activities promote nature protection, 2) Minimum loading of the environment is assured, 3) Local culture and heritage are respected, 4) Customers’ appreciation and knowledge of nature are promoted, 5) Customers’ opportunities to find recreation in nature are enhanced, 6) Customers’ mental and physical wellbeing are reinforced, 7) Positive impacts are made on local economy and employment, 8) Communication and marketing are of high standard and carried out with a sense of responsibility and 9) Activities are planned and implemented in co-operation.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 320 Serial 2368  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kajala, L.; Erkkonen, J.; Perttula, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Measures for Developing Sustainability of Nature Tourism in Protected Areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 236-241  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Nature protection areas are often significant and attractive recreation areas and tourist destinations. In Finland, Metsähallitus manages most of state owned protected areas. Thus, Metsähallitus also has a significant responsibility for tourism development in these areas. As a part of a larger Metsähallitus project to promote sustainable nature tourism in protected areas, the organization has developed measures for estimating the environmental impacts of nature tourism in protected areas. The measures are derived from Metsähallitus’ nine principles of for sustainable nature tourism, including the aspects of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability. The indicators have been tested in six pilot areas across Finland. This article describes the process of developing indicators, and the ways in which the indicators are being and will be used through incorporating them into the overall planning process. Sustainability is approached by setting standards, i.e. defining the limits of acceptable change, for each indicator. While some of the indicators are ready to be used, further development and testing is still required.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 344 Serial 2380  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Keirle, I.; Stephens, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Do walkers stay on footpaths? An observational study of Cwm Idwal in the Snowdonia National Park Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 143-148  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Access to the countryside of England and Wales is at present being extended through new powers created by the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000). This has for the first time introduced a statutory right of open access to areas designated on maps as mountain (land situated above 600m), moor, heath, down or registered common land. This paper considers the behaviour of visitors in relation to whether they choose to exert their ‘right to roam’ at Cwm Idwal, a popular mountain area located within the Snowdonia National Park in north Wales where access to open countryside is de facto (through custom). The study used an observational technique to establish the distribution and group size of visitors over a pre-defined observation area. The results showed that visitors predominantly stayed on paths with only 9.5% of groups of size twelve deviating from linear access routes.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 389 Serial 2402  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kobayashi, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title User attitude towards traffic control in Shiretoko and Daisetsuzan National Parks in Japan Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 185-193  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Vehicle traffic control has been introduced as a countermeasure to over-use in various natural parks of Japan. Users' understanding is indispensable for enforcing vehicle traffic control. Thus, the present traffic control system must be examined based on an evaluation from the viewpoint of visitors. Kohgen area of Daisetsuzan National Park and Kamuiwakka area of Shiretoko National Park in Hokkaido (northern island of Japan) were chosen for case studies. Data were collected by a mail-back questionnaire survey for visitors of these areas in 1999–2001. The results showed that most visitors approved or supported the traffic control systems. Approval ratings of vehicular traffic control were closely related to the visitors' acceptability of inconvenience by the control. The visitors' acceptability of the inconvenience was closely related to the length of period under the vehicular traffic control, and interval between shuttle buses. The parameters of the investigation included the timing of the survey. Approval ratings were higher within the restriction period than outside. The study confirmed that there were some elements to which the relationship to the traffic control approval were steady or unstable according to the investigation year. This finding strikes a note of warning about discussing significance levels from data acquired over a single year.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 368 Serial 2392  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kocis, S.M.; Zarnoch, S.J.; English, D.B.K., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Affects of Road Sign Wording on Visitor Survey – Non-Response Bias Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 34-37  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract On-site visitor interviewer data collection is a key component of the USDA Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) program. In many areas, especially higher speed roads and roads with non-recreation traffic, many vehicles may not stop for an interview. Wording on the sign may condition non-recreation visitors to self-select as to whether or not they decide to stop for an interview. Since the primary purpose of the interview is to calibrate a mechanical traffic counter, such behavior can lead to bias in the resulting visitation estimate. Non-response bias of national forest traffic was examined by using four different wordings for road signs during NVUM interview days. The experiment was performed using a randomized block design with each treatment (sign) being applied to five different road locations (blocks). Statistical analysis was performed to determine if any particular sign wording significantly affected (1) the rate of visitor response and (2) the mix of visitors who stopped for interviews. Data analysis show that the total number of all interviews obtained, the proportion of interviews obtained to overall traffic, and the proportion of non-recreation interviews obtained were different using different sign wording. The total number of recreation interviews obtained and the proportion of recreation interviews obtained were not different statistically.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 380 Serial 2398  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kopperoinen, L.; Shemeikka, P.J.; Lindblom, V., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Environmental GIS in the management of visitor flows Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 393-396  
  Keywords MMV2, GIS, outdoor recreation, environmental data, land use  
  Abstract Besides monitoring visitor numbers and activities, spatial data on borders, restrictions, and environmental and natural characteristics is needed to manage visitor flows in recreation and protected areas. The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) compiles and provides data on the state of the environment and environmental trends, and acts as a national environmental information center; collecting, formulating and disseminating data to various interest groups. This data, including GIS databases and registers, consists of natural environment data (monitoring, modeling and inventories etc.) and also land use and planning data. Wide variety of data can be used through GIS methods to reduce negative ecological impacts and conflicts between different user groups in recreation and protected areas. Our poster will present a cross-section of the characteristics of some of the most useful GIS data supporting management of visitor flows. Closer look will be given on the GIS databases on land and water traffic restrictions and the GIS database on outdoor recreation opportunities (VIRGIS).  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 334 Serial 2375  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Krämer, A.; Roth, R.; Schmidt, A.; Türk, S., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the success of visitor flow management projects in the Southern Black Forest Nature Park Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 194-201  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Nature sports place a number of demands upon the landscape structures being utilised. In order to assess the effects of sporting activities on nature and the landscape, it is insufficient to simply analyse the impacts of certain sports. Therefore, new assessment and planning methods for sporting areas are necessary in order to identify potential ecological conflicts and draw conclusions with respect to the desired aims and the measures to be implemented. The extent of the reference level plays a key role in the planning procedure. Tools, which include spatial as much as factual information, are necessary for implementation at all levels. The application of modern information technology, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), is required. The term ‘Sport Area Management System’ (SAMS) is used to describe management possibilities in the context of the development of a sustainable sporting area. The SAMS includes various components of sport orientated land use planning and the management of sporting activities. It is subdivided into regional and local sport area management. The approaches to visitor flow management and communications are of particular significance at both levels. The SAMS concept is illustrated on the basis of the example of the sports tourism concepts developed for the Southern Black Forest Nature Park. The park offers many different opportunities for sporting activities and tourism. At the same time, a substantial part of the area is of a high ecological value. Therefore, the nature park association is seeking a sport tourism concept, which identifies and analyses potential conflicts and possibilities for further development. Following a detailed assessment of the current situation an analysis of the possibilities and potential conflicts was carried out. Further emphasis was placed on the development of an overall concept and possibilities for further development. The implementation of the project findings in parts of the nature park, and subsequent monitoring, are also important parts of the concept. Visitor flow management model projects are shown with the examples of hiking, mountainbiking and Nordic Walking. The methodology behind the SAMS proved to be useful when the projects were put into practice. The initial model projects had the desired positive effect and the concept is to be applied to the whole nature park. Visitor flow management revealed that the large majority of sport tourists made use of the facilities. The co-existence and the cooperation between nature protection and all stakeholders in the region are an important basis for successful future development.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 370 Serial 2393  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lawson, S.; Itami, B.; Gimblett, R.; Manning, R., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Monitoring and Managing Recreational Use in Backcountry Landscapes Using Computer-Based Simulation Modeling Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 107-113  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract In the United States, legislation dictates that wilderness areas should be managed to, among other things, provide recreational visitors with opportunities for solitude. The growing popularity of outdoor recreation in backcountry settings presents managers with challenges in their efforts to achieve this objective. Recent research suggests that computer-based simulation modeling is an effective tool for helping to address the challenges associated with managing visitor use in backcountry and wilderness settings. This paper describes the development and application of a computer-based simulation model of recreational use in the John Muir Wilderness Area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. The results of the study demonstrate how simulation modeling can be used as a tool for understanding existing visitor use patterns within the John Muir Wilderness Areas and estimating the effects of alternative management practices on visitor flows and visitor use conditions.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 399 Serial 2407  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Lawson, S.; Kiely, A.M.; Manning, R.E., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Computer Simulation as a Tool for Developing Alternatives for Managing Crowding at Wilderness Campsites on Isle Royale Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 114-119  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Isle Royale National Park is experiencing increased backcountry visitation, resulting in crowded camping conditions during peak periods. For example, during July and August, backcountry campground capacities are commonly exceeded and visitors are required to share sites with other groups. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, two phases of research were conducted to assist Park managers in addressing this issue. In the first phase of research, computer simulation modeling was used to test the effectiveness of alternative management practices designed to reduce or eliminate campground crowding. The simulation results provide numerical estimates of campground crowding (i.e., campsite sharing) under alternative management approaches, including permit quotas, trailhead quotas, campsite development, and fixed itineraries. The second phase of research used stated choice analysis to evaluate visitors’ attitudes toward alternative management scenarios developed with the simulation model. Results of the stated choice analysis suggest that visitors are willing to tolerate some campground crowding in order to avoid “heavy-handed” management practices. Together, findings from the two phases of research assist Park managers in estimating the outcomes of alternative management practices and anticipating the likelihood that visitors will support those outcomes.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 401 Serial 2408  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Li, C.-L.; Zinn, H.C.; Chick, G.E.; Graefe, A.R.; Absher, J.D., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Hofstede’s Measure of Cultural Values in a National Forest Recreation Context Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 149-154  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Hofstede’s measure of cultural values is one of the most widely used among international management and marketing scholars. However, there is no research that employed Hofstede’s measure in a National Forest recreation context. This study examined the validity and reliability of Hofstede’s cultural measure from an ethnically diverse sample in a National Forest recreation context. We used confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlations, one-way analysis of variance, and multiple regression to test Hofstede’s measure of cultural values. The results suggested that seven items, two items from Hofstede’s original Power Distance dimension, one item from the Individualism dimension, two items from the Masculinity dimension, and two items from the Uncertainty Avoidance dimension, best represent the measure of cultural values in a National Forest recreation context. Discussion of the results and future research were suggested.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 391 Serial 2403  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Magro, T.C.; Kataoka, S.Y.; Van Bentveld, C.-T.G., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Improving the environmental conditions in intensively used rural areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 242-247  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The rural area of Brotas in the southeast of Brazil was national pioneer in the development of intensive adventure tourism, based on enjoying nature. The exploitation of the bounder-areas of the rural properties offered a new income base for the town and improved the working opportunities for the local youth. But there is a setback. There are signs that the fast growing flux of tourists in the town is provoking lesser satisfaction for the visitors and causes damage to the natural environment. This is of great concern for all parties, especially for the local government, as most of the trails and natural attractions lie within Permanent Protected Areas. These areas are often the only pristine settings with potential for recreational use. They are seen as very sensitive areas, protected by the Forest Code of Law, but in reality are managed by private landowners. The Local Government Policy Plan for The Development of Sustainable Tourism (2002), using the input of underlying research project, confronts this dilemma. It was the focus of this research to combine governmental restrictions with new regulations, defined by private landowners, tourism agencies, non-governmental organizations and the municipality. Brotas has introduced measures to maintain or improve the environmental conditions of the rural properties. One of the measures is monitoring the existing conditions in order to control the visitors’ impacts to a maximum. In this research project, we used indicators on the trails and waterfalls of Brotas in order to discover and evaluate if the set of goals for the preservation of vegetation, soil and visitorsatisfaction were reached. The selection of the indicators and the standards for desirable conditions were based on the objectives established by Brotas Municipality Council for Tourism – COMTUR.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 346 Serial 2381  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McIntyre, N.; Svanqvist, B., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Living in the Forest: Meanings and Use of Recreational Residences Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 155-163  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The Forest Service Recreation Residence Program has been operational since the passage of the Occupancy permits Act in 1915. In the initial years the Forest Service actively encouraged summer home occupancy with the view that such occupancy encouraged recreational use and assisted in proper forest management and fire control as well as providing a source of income. Approval of further recreation residence development on public land was discontinued in 1968 as program costs exceeded revenues and the perception that such occupation of public land was elitist and potentially restricted public access to desirable recreation sites. More recently, both the appraisal process and the pursuance of permit violations have become a focus of some political controversy. Recreational residences have often been built by and remain in the same family across generations leading to a strong attachment and identification with a particular forest tract. The study discussed in this paper examines the use of these residences and the meanings of such use to a sample of cottage owners in the Arapahoe-Roosevelt and Pike National Forests in Colorado, USA. A multi-methods approach was used to collect data on cottage use including project analysis, surveys, experiential sampling and in-depth interviews. The rationale underlying the multi-method approach and some preliminary results of this study will be presented in this paper.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 393 Serial 2404  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author McIntyre, N.; Yuan, M.; Payne, R.J.; Moore, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Development of a Values-based Approach to Managing Recreation on Canadian Crown Lands Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 285-293  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract A key issue in sustainability is understanding the values of a particular place that are to be conserved. While many of the natural resource values of protected areas are mandated, values associated with public use and recreation are frequently less clearly defined and often hotly contested. Public involvement processes are often used to elicit these values and a number of mostly survey-based approaches have been developed to achieve this. However, theoretical considerations concerning the nature of values and the processes of value formation have brought into question whether survey approaches on their own are the most appropriate way of understanding values. Consideration of public use and recreation values brings into play many of the issues surrounding place attachment and place identification. People value places because they symbolize something, because they have histories and memories associated with them, because they are interwoven in the stories we tell our self and others about who we are, and because they are rhetorical methods of making arguments for managing a place in one way or another. These ideas center on ‘meaning-based” rather than “information processing” models of value formation. In this context, values are seen as discursive constructions, which are continuously being contested and reconstructed through political dialogue. It is argued that a ‘meaning-based’ approach to value formation is better suited to the developing models of collaborative planning than are the expert-driven, rational decision-making models that have dominated natural area planning. This paper describes a planning approach, which seeks to combine both interpretive approaches to data collection (narratives and value mapping) and survey methods in the elicitation of values attached to a working forest. A process will be detailed that links the characteristics of an area with the spatial distribution of values ascribed to the same area utilizing GIS and photo-mosaic representations. The case study area discussed in this paper is the Dog River/Matawin area of North Western Ontario. Application of this approach to forest planning will be discussed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 304 Serial 2360  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Melville, S.; Ruohonen, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The development of a remote-download system for visitor counting Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 38-44  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Following the first International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas, English Nature identified a need to implement a system of visitor counting on a selection of the 170 National Nature Reserves which it manages across England. A prime requirement of the system was that it should involve a minimal amount of field staff time to harvest the data. Following a competitive tendering exercise, Teknovisiot were appointed as contractors to develop their GSM-based system for use by English Nature. This paper will discuss the requirements identifed by English Nature and how the system was developed in conjunction with Teknovisiot to meet those requirements. It will include a summary of problems encountered and how these were overcome. The presentation will include examples of data provided by the system. It is believed that the system now developed by Teknovisiot on behalf of English Nature would have considerable potential for any site manager who has access to a mobile telephone network on their land and an internet modem in their office.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 382 Serial 2399  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author More, T.A.; Manning, R.E., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The Public Functions of Parks and Protected Areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 294-298  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Establishing and managing protected areas throughout the world usually have been considered a governmental function. However, recent conservative political thinking in many developed countries has challenged the role of the public sector on all fronts. In Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States, government has been seen as a problem, while private enterprise is presented as the solution. Advocates of privatization argue that park services can be provided more efficiently under private management, and that the areas themselves will be better protected for future generations. Unfortunately, such a policy can foster elitism by preserving the benefits of parks and protected areas for the wealthy while ignoring the growing social inequality in many of these countries. In this paper, I examine the concepts that underlie privatization efforts, particularly economic efficiency. I suggest that there is a need to examine the different functions that parks and protected areas serve, and to ask if each function helps to differentiate between public and private. I argue that, in the final analysis, equality of access is the primary function of public-sector management of parks and that we need to examine our policies and practices to ensure that park benefits are distributed fairly throughout society.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 306 Serial 2361  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Murdock, E., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Understanding Recreation Flow to Protect Wilderness Resources at Joshua Tree National Park, California Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 120-126  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Joshua Tree National Park (JTNP) has the highest concentration of rock climbing routes in the world and an estimated 250,000 people visit JTNP each year to rock climb. Although less than 5% of rock climbers visit the designated wilderness areas, a steady increase in the number of climbers has focused attention on managing wilderness climbing resources to retain wilderness character. The main controversy centers on rock climber’s placing fixed anchors, or bolts, while establishing new climbing routes. Park staff believes that continued unregulated placement of bolts in JTNP’s wilderness leads to greater impacts and is unsustainable. This paper describes a method for understanding wilderness climbing in order to develop fair and effective wilderness recreation policy. Behavior and spatial modeling is based on two years of data that include a comprehensive climbing resource inventory, wilderness visitor flow data, and psychological test results. Static and dynamic models consider factors such as travel networks, climbing route difficulty and quality, sensitive resources, landscape complexity, and climber preferences. A comprehensive understanding of recreation flow allows fixed anchor regulations and wilderness management to address site-specific issues.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 403 Serial 2409  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nolte, B., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Sustainable Tourism in Biosphere Reserves of East Central European Countries – Case Studies from Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 339-346  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This paper reviews the perspective of the local actors within the context of a sustainable future. Biosphere reserves as designated model areas for sustainability strive to reconcile existing conflicts between the goals of economic growth, environmental protection and social justice. Tourism development in biosphere reserves provides opportunities as well as challenges for the exploitation of biodiversity. In order to minimise the danger it is important how tourism is managed. Without the involvement of local people, sustainable tourism development is doomed to failure. The case studies presented from Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic provide a view inside the situation of protected areas in East Central Europe and cover areas where tourism has reached differing stages of development. Empirical results in four biosphere reserves will show the view of the actors in the region.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 322 Serial 2369  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Payne, R.J.; McIntyre, N.; Yuan, M.; Moore, J.; Bradford, L.; Elliott, S., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Recreation Experience Preferences and Activity Profiles in a Crown Forest Landscape in Ontario, Canada Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 164-170  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The use of public forested areas in Ontario, Canada is governed by the Crown Forest Sustainability Act that directs the management authority, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), to ensure that forest operations co-exist with other uses of the forest, especially recreation and tourism. Implementing these legislative requirements has been difficult for the OMNR: it lacks data on recreation and tourism; it lacks readily available social scientific expertise; and it lacks the necessary integrative model. The larger project of which this work is a part, focussing on the Dog River-Matawin Forest, west of Thunder Bay, Ontario and immediately east of Quetico Provincial Park, is designed to address several of these gaps. This paper seeks to answer two of the many questions concerning how people use the forest for recreation and tourism purposes: what motivates different users and how do those motivations relate to activity profiles. Our findings indicate that four distinct experience preference groups exist among the 1,556 people who used the forest for recreation and tourism purposes. When these groups are compared with four distinct activity profiles, we make connections that, when mapped (a future phase of the work), begin to indicate areas where potential conflicts might occur with forest operations or with other recreation activities. We conclude by noting that, while knowledge about how people use the forest is interesting in itself, both an integrative framework and a scientifically-capable Ministry of Natural Resources are needed if that knowledge is to find its way into management actions to implement the requirements of Ontario’s Crown Forest Sustainability Act.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 395 Serial 2405  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pflüger, Y., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Value based decision making process for strategic visitor management in the Natura 2000 area Lech River Valley, Tyrol Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 299-304  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract The Lech valley with the river Lech and its tributaries is an alpine river valley in Austria with a considerable amount of naturally free flowing stretches. The ecological and scientific significance of the Natura 2000 area lies in its high biodiversity and the occurrence of numerous internationally endangered species within the dynamic braided river stretches. Apart from that the area contains a high number of recreational and educational values as well. The area, which is situated within day travel distance of the cities Innsbruck and Munich, is renowned for its biking and hiking trails and its unique water sport opportunities. Nevertheless, most intense impact occurs from the daily use of the local population in the densely populated Lech valley area nearby. Due to its long and narrow shape the protected area is very vulnerable to impacts and therefore, to avoid negative impacts on natural values from recreational use, not only a management plan, but also a visitor strategy has been developed as part of an extensive European Union LIFE funded project. The decision making process for the establishment of the visitor management concept was based on a GIS supported risk analysis: First current ecological and recreational values have been located and assessed. Subsequently hotspots have been defined in areas, where those contrasting values overlay. These hotspots were defined in areas of high ecological vulnerability and high visitor impact from intense recreational use. This hotspot analysis served as a basis for discussion and co-operation with the local population and stakeholders to agree on management solutions. As a result specific management actions were defined and the allocation of visitor infrastructure was planned accordingly. As a response to the need for more detailed information about recreational uses and users a visitor monitoring concept was included in the visitor strategy as well. This paper describes practical planning policies to highlight the need for strategic planning of recreational use in protected area management based on the comprehensible evaluation of the hazard potential from uses and the vulnerability of ecological values.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 308 Serial 2362  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Pouta, E.; Sievänen, T.; Neuvonen, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Profiling recreational users of national parks, national hiking areas and wilderness areas in Finland Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 347-354  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Finland’s national parks, wilderness areas and national hiking areas play an important role in tourism and recreation, in addition to their primary purpose of nature conservation. Very little attention has been paid by research to the factors that influence the use of these state-owned areas by different segments of the population. The results of logistic and negative binomial regression models based on population-survey data indicate that the users of these state-owned recreation areas have a higher than average level of education and are more likely to be white-collar employees. The users were typically enthusiasts of particular forms of outdoor recreation, above all skiing and camping. The availability of state-owned recreation areas in the home municipality increased the likelihood of using them. The number of user days spent in these areas tended to be larger among those whose permanent residence was in eastern Finland or in a city of more than 100,000 inhabitants. Small-sized household and abundance of leisure time also increased the amount of use.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 324 Serial 2370  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: