|   | 
Author Reimann, M.; Ehrlich, Ü.,
Title Dependence of tourism destinations non-market value on the visit rate: the contingent valuation case study of Jägala Waterfall Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 239-242
Keywords MMV4, Nature tourism, nature resource utilization, contingent valuation
Abstract The article discusses the resource utilisation conflict at the example of Jägala Waterfall, which is the highest and greatest natural waterfall in Estonia. There are plans to build a hydro-power plant there, which would conduct most of the water past the waterfall to the power plant’s turbines, reducing significantly natural and recreational values of the waterfall. The authors carried out a contingent valuation (CV) study to identify the monetary equivalent of non-market values related with Jägala waterfall. This paper examines the dependence of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) on whether or not they have visited the waterfall, indicating thus the significance of nature tourism for the formation of non-market value of natural features. The paper analyses also the dependence of the visit rate on the respondents’ sociometric characteristics. Using the Logit-model, it was identified that the statistically significant factors that influence the probability of visiting Jägala Waterfall are education, income and age. Gender and nationality are not statistictically significant factors for the probablity of visiting the Waterfall. It was also identified that visiting rate has positive impact to WTP.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 994 Serial 2618
Permanent link to this record

Author Riseth, J.Å.,
Title Parks for whom? A Norwegian policy dilemma: recreation vs indigenous interests Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389
Keywords MMV4, Commercial tourism, convention on biological diversity, indigenous interests, IUCN category VI Yellowstone model
Abstract As most countries, Norway has adopted the Yellowstone model for nature protection; limiting humans’ role to be guests in nature. The country established its first national park in 1962. In 2008, 14.3 % of the mainland is formally protected; including 29 national parks, many established newly. Recent decades’ growing concern of the insufficiency of this protection model includes the lack of seeing conservation as a social issue, not only a biological one, was confirmed by the Vth World Park Conference in 2003. The same year the Norwegian government advanced a new policy for increased use of national parks for commercial tourism, named the “Mountain Text”. The fact not addressed is that 18 of 29 parks are situated in Sámi reindeer pasture areas. The contemporary policy has revealed an unexpected conflict of objectives. Whereas the Mountain Text strengthen the goal of recreation, affected Sámi herders fear that parks instead of protection for them will mean increased disturbance of vulnerable animals and areas and accordingly have changed their basic attitudes from being positive to becoming ambiguous towards new parks and park extensions. This is a problem both in equity as well as efficiency perspective and also a source of new conflicts. Norway currently reforms its conservation legislation to reinforce biodiversity protection. Though indigenous interests have not so far become a core issue in this process; this process and the international process under the Convention on Biological Diversity together create a window of opportunities for reconciling conflicting objectives. One of the relevant instruments is the IUCN Category VI, available from 1994, which juxtaposes biodiversity protection and sustainable use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1056 Serial 2649
Permanent link to this record

Author Roberts, J.,
Title An audience based approach to communication intervention Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 502-504
Keywords MMV4, Audience-based communication, Codes of conduct, Recreational impacts
Abstract Communication Interventions (CIs) are often used by the environmental and outdoor sectors to try to manage and mitigate the impacts of recreation. This research audited the CIs currently being used in Wales, reviewed the process of creating them and explored the way that audiences gather and responded to advice, instruction and guidance. It found that currently most CIs are too narrow in their delivery and do not consider behaviour change sufficiently, tending to over focus on the message. The study recommends that CIs should utilise a broad range of integrated media, linked, if possible, to direct ‘points of contact’. A guide to creating effective audience based CIs is being developed using the results and recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1108 Serial 2675
Permanent link to this record

Author Rodrigues, Á.; Kastenholz, E.; Rodrigues, A.,
Title Walking trails in recreational and protected areas: an exploratory study of the tourist’s perception of natural areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 203-208
Keywords MMV4, Hiking, destination marketing, visitor survey, market analysis, natural areas
Abstract Nowadays, there is a growing demand for leisure, recreation and tourism activities in nature, with hiking being one of the most popular activities. Walking on a trail through nature, besides providing contact with nature, fruition and relaxation, also constitutes an effective way of interaction between men and nature that could awake an increased environmental awareness (Siqueira, 2004). However, tourists that visit natural areas are not a homogeneous segment (Wight, 2001). Specific motivations and personal characteristics make people look for natural areas with different desires. This understanding is very important for those responsible for the planning and management of natural areas. In this context there are two sides to be considered: supply and demand. One of the most efficient ways to manage flows of visitors in natural environments focuses on the careful design of walking trails. However, for that development to be planned and managed in a sustainable manner it is necessary to know the hikers’ profile. This paper presents the results of an exploratory survey of Portuguese and foreign hikers in Portuguese natural areas of different landscapes. Differences between the national and international visitor group could be identified as far as environmental preferences and nature perception is concerned, implying differentiated destination marketing strategies for protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 976 Serial 2609
Permanent link to this record

Author Rupf, R.; Wernli, M.; Haller, R.,
Title How to elaborate precise visitor numbers? Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 161-164
Keywords MMV4, Acoustic slab sensor, calibration, visitor census, visitor monitoring, Swiss National Park
Abstract Visitor numbers and visitor distribution are required information for various management tasks of recreational areas. Automatic data collection is a low-price opportunity to obtain data. The main problem of automatic methods is data precision. In the Swiss National Park, automatic visitor counting with acoustic slab sensors started in 2005. As precision did not appear to be satisfactory, the counting problems were investigated. Sensor installation strictly followed the instruction manuals given and fine tuning during the calibration period led to a deviance of 5%. Precise counting data resulted in the sum of persons counted whereas direction separated data was not as precise. Recommendations for counting site selection, installation and calibration counting are given.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 960 Serial 2601
Permanent link to this record

Author Sanesi, G.; Fiore, M.; Colangelo, G.; Lafortezza, R.,
Title Monitoring visitor-flows in Tuscany’s forests: preliminary results and clues Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 40-44
Keywords MMV4, Protected area – Forest resources – Environmental indicators – Forest Information System – Tuscany Region
Abstract In 2006, the Tuscany Region through its Agency for Agriculture and Forestry (ARSIA) has lunched a tool supporting the process of planning and managing forest areas within the region: RAFT – “RApporto sullo stato delle Foreste in Toscana” – Report on the status of Tuscany forests. The RAFT aims to monitor the status of forests and their main functions and services in relation to ecological and social aspects. This monitoring process has now reached its third year. Within the theme of “Environment and society”, the RAFT has analysed a number of indicators (following the P-S-R framework) related to the flows of visitors in Tuscany’s forests. Analyses show the relevance of forest areas in the region especially within protected areas. In this paper, we report a brief description of the RAFT and the some preliminary results related to the analysis of past and current flows of visitors in protected areas and hunting sites. We discuss the main strengths and the weaknesses associated with the past and current policies for managing visitors’ flows and propose new strategies to disseminate information and attract visitors during different seasons.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 894 Serial 2569
Permanent link to this record

Author Saparbayev, S.K.; Woodward, D.B.,
Title Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) as an indicator species and increasing recreation loads in the Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 511-515
Keywords MMV4, Snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica), Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, ecotrail
Abstract The purpose of this research is to analyze the data on ecology, biology and dynamics of snow leopard population in the Almaty Nature Reserve and to identify if the increasing numbers of ecotourists could contribute to the decrease of Uncia uncia population. The results of the study show that increasing recreation loads in the Reserve and adjacent territories elevate the disturbance level to the snow leopard’s main prey Siberian Ibex and to the predator itself that could result in a decrease of population of this endangered species or its total extinction.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1114 Serial 2678
Permanent link to this record

Author Siegrist, D.; Wasem, K.,
Title Optimizing the quality of experience-oriented nature-based tourism offers: the new evaluation tool “Experience Compass” Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 263-267
Keywords MMV4, Nature-based tourism, experience quality, offer development, evaluation tool, expert survey
Abstract In the past few years in Switzerland nature-based tourism has been showing a positive and fresh dynamic. New providers and co-operations enter the market with their products. But very often the new initiatives state problems with the quality of their products and are alone not able to design the products in a way that attracts the attention of a broad audience. An authentic design of the offers can contribute significantly to make them more attractive and visible and therefore stimulate the demand on the tourist market. The article here presented deals with the in-depth analysis of potentials regarding the improvement of the quality of experience-oriented nature-based tourism offers. Based on the results of an expert survey the “Experience Compass”, an evaluation tool of experience quality in nature-based tourism, has been developed and verified by means of case studies. With the new tool providers and other actors are enabled to evaluate and improve experience quality of offers in nature-based tourism.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1008 Serial 2625
Permanent link to this record

Author Sievänen, T.; Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.,
Title National park visitors’ interest to use tourism services in rural communities Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 390-395
Keywords MMV4, Nature-based tourism, visitor, visitor segmentation
Abstract National park visitation can have a considerable economic impact in rural areas. It is valuable to understand the factors, which explain the interest and use of tourism services in rural communities in the vicinity of national parks. The aim of this study were to analyse if there were visitor groups whose intention to use the services differed and what kinds of services were the most interesting for these visitor groups. The study focused on the association between the visitor segments based on service use intention, and background factors such as attitudes towards country-side in general, and visitors’ socioeconomic background. Furthermore, the relation between visitor segments and visit intentions and satisfaction were studied. We examined these topics in two regions in Finland, where tourism industry is not a strong economic actor at the present. The data was collected in two national parks, Seitseminen and Linnansaari, in Central and Eastern Finland. The number of responses was 554, and the response rate was 68. Preliminary results show that national park visitors can be divided into two main groups considering the interest in using tourism services. First part of park visitors were outdoor recreation oriented and interested to use non-motorized or motorized outdoor activities such as fishing tours, nature studying excursions and snowmobile safaris. The other part of the park visitors was ‘general tourists’ who were interested mainly in tourism services such as accommodation and restaurants, etc. The visitor groups differed with respect their intention to visit the park and the region, countryside attitudes and socioeconomic background variables. The results of this study may help tourism enterprises in surrounding rural communities to find the right clientele for their services and products. For the park managers this information is valuable when planning the future management policies and actions. The understanding and recognition of visitors’ overall needs, when visiting the park and the surrounding countryside, is also needed by actors such as municipality decision makers and inhabitants of rural communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1058 Serial 2650
Permanent link to this record

Author Skov-Petersen, H.,
Title The role of agent-based simulation in recreational management and planning Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 33-39
Keywords MMV4, Agent based models, ABM, simulation, recreational management and planning
Abstract It is expected that agent-based simulation models will be increasingly implemented during planning and management of visitor landscapes. This expectation is based on a) changes of recreation towards greater visitation levels and more complex settings in terms of stake-holder interests, recreational behavior types and a higher focus on protection of biodiversity, b) technological development of digital equipment, and c) a changing approach to nature planning and management to be more open, inviting and aimed at stake-holder and public participation. Based on these three lines of sight, the paper will discuss future trends in application of ABM’s in recreational management and planning.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 892 Serial 2568
Permanent link to this record

Author Skov-Petersen, H.; Kefaloukos, P.; Snizek, B.,
Title Kvintus.org – a choice based agentbased simulation model integrated with Google Maps Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 446-450
Keywords MMV4, Agent-based simulation, choices, Google Map, recreation
Abstract Kvintus.org is a new agent-based simulation tool especially constructed to model recreational behavior integrated with models of animal behavior. The entire model which is available as ‘open source’ is based on the generic software package REPAST [4]. Model configuration – in terms of base parameters, entry points, timetables, agent types and state/transitions – are established, manipulated, loaded and saved via XML-files which enables a high degree of flexibility and user interaction. At run time, agents can be displayed in Google Maps [1]. This way models can be applied in most regions of the World without access to base maps, aerial photos etc. Further – which is probably even more important – using a standard Internet platform like Google Maps it is possible to enable non-expert users to ‘play with’ the models and this way focus more on communicative and participatory aspects.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1076 Serial 2659
Permanent link to this record

Author Solinas, M.; Clò, S.; Nicosia, M.,
Title Eco-volunteering programs as good practices for nature conservation and sustainable tourism development in protected areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 283-287
Keywords MMV4, Eco-volunteering, volunteer tourism, sustainable tourism, environment conservation, protected areas
Abstract The CTS, an Italian association involved in youth tourism and environment protection, acknowledged by the Ministry of the Environment, has a long experience in the planning and managing of programs in which environmental protection, local development and educational activities are linked. Since the early 90s, CTS started to issue volunteer tourism programs in which conservation and monitoring activities on endangered species were conceived as original features of summer camps for students and young people. This approach provided a new opportunity to support environmental initiatives chronically under-funded and was favourably considered by the European Commission, the Italian Ministry of the Environment and other institutions that granted the funds necessary to allow the projects increase and go on. Two more important results were also achieved: first, the development of tourist offers with a strong educational purpose and a low impact on the local environment; second, the creation of synergies between tourist and conservation programmes which, in turn, allowed to improve the local communities attitude towards research and conservation activities, thanks to the economic advantages generated by just such tourism. The success of the programs lies in the fact that tourist projects were created in harmony with scientific projects and were conceived to support and “serve” the research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1016 Serial 2629
Permanent link to this record

Author Taczanowska, K.; Muhar, A.; Brandenburg, C.,
Title Potential and limitations of GPS tracking for monitoring spatial and temporal aspects of visitor behaviour in recreational areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 451-455
Keywords MMV4, GPS, GPS tracking, spatial behaviour, monitoring methods, visitor flows, recreation
Abstract The application of satellite based navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) to record spatial/temporal aspects of visitor behaviour has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potentials and the limitations of GPS-tracking, based on empirical data collected in the Danube Floodplains National Park in Austria (Nationalpark Donau-Auen). A total amount of 485 hiking itineraries were collected in the field using Garmin e-Trex devices. After returning the GPS receiver visitors were interviewed and additionally asked to draw their route on the map. 372 complete records (GPS tracks plus map sketches) were thereby obtained for further analysis. The highly detailed spatial resolution of the data allowed deriving more exact route characteristics compared to traditional data collection methods such as trip diaries. GPS-tracking was more accurate than map sketches in areas with poorly defined trail network. Some respondents were not able to report the exact route, due to insufficient map reading skills or orientation problems in the outdoor environment. In such cases, in particular, the GPS approach proved its intrinsic advantages. Nevertheless, some limitations of the GPS use have also been identified. In particular, problems with the quality of the satellite signal in areas covered by dense deciduous forest turned out to be a major limiting factor for GPS-tracking in the presented National Park setting.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1078 Serial 2660
Permanent link to this record

Author Takayama, N.,
Title The therapeutic effect of taking in the atmosphere of a forest Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 516-520
Keywords MMV4, Profile of mood states, Semantic differential method, Taking in the atmosphere of the forest (Sinrin-yoku), Therapeutic effect
Abstract The concept of “Taking in the atmosphere of a Forest” (shinrin-yoku, in Japanese) was proposed in 1982 by the Japanese Forestry Agency to help people to relax and revitalize their body and soul (therapeutic effect). Previously, the therapeutic effect had been based on only empirical evidence. However, thanks to the rapid improvement of measurement technology and equipment, the government has been scientifically examining the therapeutic effect of forests and using the resulting data for the benefit of the public. The effect is thought to differ depending on the kinds of trees, the spatial structure and the specific atmosphere of the forest environment. Therefore, we decided to study the therapeutic effect of two old-growth forests. As a control, we selected a wellmaintained artificial forest. We measured and compared the therapeutic effect on the subjects, paying attention to 1) their impression of the forest space and 2) how their feeling changed after walking through each forest. Consequently, we found that subjects considered the old-growth forests with huge trees as more sacred, more comfortable, more serene and more natural than the control forest. Moreover, in the control forest there was no difference in any of the indicators used in the survey, while in the old-growth forests the therapeutic effect was confirmed by several indicators.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1116 Serial 2679
Permanent link to this record

Author Tempesta, T.; Arkilo, S.,
Title Recreational demand of the Euganean Hills Regional Park (Veneto – Italy) Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 288-292
Keywords MMV4, Benefits Estimation, Recreational demand, Regional Park
Abstract The Euganean Hills Regional Park is a hilly area of about 180 square kilometres that rises isolated in the central Veneto plain. It was established in 1989 but there is no data available on the number of visitors, and economic benefits for the local economy and for the visitors. With the aim of estimating visitor flow, a telephone survey was conducted. A sample of 309 families living on the Veneto and Emilia Romagna plain was interviewed. In order to estimate the visitors’ expenditure, a subsequent in-person survey was made on site. The research highlighted that the Park, with 168 visits per hectare per year, is probably the most frequently visited of the Veneto Region. Also the expenditure of the daily visitors (4.025 euros per hectare per year) and the recreational benefits (837 euros per hectare per year) are much greater than in the other Regional Parks of a similar size.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1018 Serial 2630
Permanent link to this record

Author Thaxter, P.; Colas, S.,
Title Public participation Forests – conserve, protect, enjoy Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 521-521
Keywords MMV4, Public participation, forest, wildlife monitoring
Abstract The PROGRESS Project is a joint EU funded project between France (Office National des Forêts and Comité Départemental du Tourisme de Seine et Marne), England (Forestry Commission and Natural England) and the Netherlands (Alterra Research Institute). It aims at improving recreation management in the New Forest (120 km south of London) and Fontainebleau Forest (60 km south of Paris), both protected areas. The main objective was to use a range of tools for a better understanding of forest biodiversity and recreation to help reconcile the needs of conservation and recreation. The strategy was to work closely with stakeholder groups and the general public using a participatory approach to help plan the environment for local people and tourists whilst optimising the benefit for the wildlife. This involved very detailed recreation surveys and information about ecological issues being discussed with the stakeholders, to allow changes about channelling the public and alternative facilities off Natura 2000 to be proposed. This was followed by consultation with the public to get acceptance and ownership of these proposals. This led to a variety of actions being implemented including totally new facilities, signage and access control. It also involved a communication program, sustainability program, and other initiatives such as computer-based lessons for schools, promotion of health walks and best practice guides. All of this was done in differing ways in France and England, and the presentation will document the clear success this had in legitimising management changes required for a sustainable balance, and also some insight to lessons learnt. This is being followed up by a five year program of recreation and wildlife monitoring to give long term results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1118 Serial 2680
Permanent link to this record

Author Tuulentie, S.,
Title Nature and environment in Finland’s and Lapland’s tourism strategies Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 224-228
Keywords MMV4, Climate change, nature tourism, rural development, textual analysis, tourism strategy
Abstract Nature is regarded as one of the main tourism attractions in Finland as well as in many other destinations. This makes tourism especially important for rural areas, such as Lapland. Rural communities in sparsely populated areas have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and also by global issues, e.g. climate change. Anticipation and adaptation are important for the strategic tourism planning. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how recent national and regional tourism strategy documents take into account issues related to those natural surroundings where tourism takes place in Finland. What is the role of national parks and other protected areas in tourism planning, which natural features are emphasised, and how such environmental issues as climate change are anticipated? The results of the textual analysis of three tourism strategy documents show that tourism development is often discussed only in economic and marketing terms and not much from the point of view of environmental or socio-cultural issues. For example, strategy documents refer to climate change in a very cursory way. National parks and other protected areas are noticed as attractions but their role has not been developed further. Forests are seldom mentioned which is especially interesting in the case of Finland where the use of forests has caused conflicts between tourism and forestry in Northern Finland. The concept of wilderness, which was present in the earlier tourism strategy of Lapland, has almost disappeared from the latest strategy document.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 986 Serial 2614
Permanent link to this record

Author Türk, S.,
Title Urban greens for recreation, outdoor activities and nature experience Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 220-223
Keywords MMV4, Urban greens, management concepts, guidelines
Abstract A modern management of recreational areas for communities should be understood as a useful planning tool. Only an active management of such natural areas nearby settlements, used for outdoor and recreational sports and nature experiences, will fulfill long-term recreation planning in communities and will yield in an increasing quality of life and environmental issues for its habitants. However an integrated concept is needed, which means all categories of recreational issues have to be brought together throughout all departments in a reasonable way. That accounts for all communities independent of its size and structure. Management of recreational areas is not a further inconvenient development planning tool; it is an effective instrument for advancing natural orientated recreational areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 984 Serial 2613
Permanent link to this record

Author Vaccari, F.; Baronti, S.; Magno, R.; Trampetti, S.; Giannini, F.; Raschi, A.,
Title TuristiCO2: a carrying capacity assessment for sustainable tourism in a park island Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 522-525
Keywords MMV4, Carrying Capacity, Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse effect, Park Islands
Abstract Carrying capacity has been a long-standing issue in management of parks, outdoor recreation and tourism. This paper describes the first analysis concerning a project on touristic carrying capacity assessment on Pianosa, an island of the Parco Nazionale of Arcipelago Toscano, using an Eddy-Covariance tower for CO2 fluxes measurement. The preliminary results show that Pianosa represents a sink of carbon, thus actively contribute to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1120 Serial 2681
Permanent link to this record

Author Van Der Donk, M.,
Title Ten years of experience in providing wilderness experience opportunities in Europe’s certified PAN Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 77-77
Keywords MMV4, Wilderness, network, experiences, Europe, tourism
Abstract Today ten years ago, the first steps were taken to realise a marriage between conservation and the tourism industry in the most important wilderness areas of Europe. This initiative awards wilderness areas that meet the highest standards of management for conservation and sustainable tourism development strategies with the PAN Parks quality seal. It can be considered as a gold standard for well- managed protected areas. Based on the PAN Parks principles and criteria and the verification reports, park managers are encouraged to increase the management effectiveness of their protected areas and to plan, provide and maintain high quality recreation opportunities inside the park. Five principles make up the PAN Parks verification scheme, three of which deal with visitor experiences: Visitor management (principle 3), Sustainable Tourism Development Strategy (Principle 4), and Partnerships (Principle 5). Tourism development is used as a means to give economic value to wilderness areas and to create support for conservation. By creating unique and high quality opportunities for wildernessbased recreation, the marriage has proven to be successful as it results in benefits for nature, for communities in and around the protected area and in unique experience opportunities for visitors. This is measured by using mixed methodologies in the Analysis of Perceptions and Attitudes (APA) studies done in 3 of the certified areas. After ten years of working on the development and implementation of the concept in different European countries that cope with different and similar opportunities and obstacles, we can draw interesting lessons learned. Among them: The value of the network and the certificate to the park, local businesses and local people, the principles and criteria as management tools for planning and managing of tourism, providing the (certified) European wilderness experience for different types of tourists, generating revenues through tourism, communication and cooperation with stakeholders
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 916 Serial 2580
Permanent link to this record

Author Van Marwijk, R.; Pitt, D.G.,
Title Where Dutch recreationists walk: path design, physical features and walker usage Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 428-432
Keywords MMV4, environmental values, outdoor recreation, spatial behaviour, physical environment
Abstract A comprehensive understanding of visitor use is fundamental for effective park management. This paper explores recreational spatial behaviour in a protected nature area with a focus on the physical environment. The current research is carried out in Dwingelderveld National Park in the north-eastern part of the Netherlands with approximately 2 million visitors a year. A total of 400 walkers carried a GPS to record their movements. We related spatial patterns to the (visible) physical environment. We characterized the physical environment in (1) the path network and (2) the surrounding environment. The environment is defined by use, experience, and narrative value variables. Hierarchical regression analyses show the importance of the use value variables signage and placement of parking areas as predictors for spatial behaviour. Experience and narrative value variables are less important. For recreational quality purposes, managers should clearly communicate recreational opportunities for each parking area to the public.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1070 Serial 2656
Permanent link to this record

Author Veress, E.,
Title Green and/or pleasant countryside? Possibilities and barriers of the mountain tourism in Transylvania, Romania Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 409-413
Keywords MMV4, Cultural and natural heritage, mountain tourism, representation of nature, Zetea/Zetelaka
Abstract One of the main changes in the mentality of both the local people and the representatives of the regional and central governments is that the economy of rural areas must not be exclusively based on agriculture. This has been a great gain for those marginal areas that did not have nor the economic nor the natural resources that could help them in developing a sustainable agriculture. Another change of the mentality came from the urban (and not only urban) people who started to appreciate the possibilities of recreation in the rural areas and especially in those ones where the landscape did not change significantly. In literature this change of mentality is most often connected to the postmodern conception of nature and environment. These two elements have led to the elaboration of projects in order to develop alternatives for sustainable rural development. As a consequence, tourism in the remote mountain areas has developed. But the old problem of poor infrastructure can still be considered as being a barrier in the evolution of this type of services. And this seriously affects the number (and quality) of tourists who would come by car or by bus. This attracts another type of tourists (usually younger ones and with less money) who are more attracted to the wilderness of the landscape. The paper intends to present the evolution of mountain tourism through a case-study from a mountain village (Zetea/Zetelaka) from the Eastern part of Transylvania.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1064 Serial 2653
Permanent link to this record

Author Vogt, L.,
Title Beyond economic impact research: an actor-oriented analysis of the competitiveness of trekking tourism in the Piedmont Alps (Italy) Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 243-244
Keywords MMV4, Actor-centered institutionalism, economic effects, competitiveness, nature tourism, peripheral rural regions
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 996 Serial 2619
Permanent link to this record

Author Von Ruschkowski, E.; Valdeig, S.; Jakob, R.; Homann, S.,
Title Designing a visitor monitoring concept for Harz National Park in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 144-147
Keywords MMV4, Harz National Park, visitor monitoring concept, Germany
Abstract Germany’s protected areas encounter many specific challenges in regards to visitor management. Due to a high population density, they are frequented by high visitor numbers who also enter unaccounted for from diffuse ingress points as access is free of charge. Additionally, Germany’s parks are historically young. Thus, scientific monitoring is often limited to conservation issues whereas socioeconomic dimensions are not always considered a core management issue. Harz National Park with an area of 246 km2, situated in the German states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, is a typical example. Although visitor counts have been conducted in several recreational “hot spots” within in the park, no quantitative and qualitative visitor use statistics for the park as a whole exist. As a consequence, the park administration lacks information that is necessary to analyse and evaluate potential conflicts between visitor use and conservation objectives. In 2007, the Institute of Environmental Planning and the Harz National Park administration joined efforts to develop a long-term strategy to implement visitor use monitoring with the national park. Based on extensive interviews, mainly with park staff, and an evaluation of current available technologies, a first framework was developed which will address the methodological challenges outlined above. Key pillars of the framework are a concept for quantitative visitor counts by means of pyroelectric counters and a modular-structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data such as visitor preferences, and value added to the region. The framework will now further undergo scientific evaluation to be implemented from 2009 onwards.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 952 Serial 2597
Permanent link to this record

Author Wachowicz, M.; Orellana, D.; Renso, C.; Muñoz Moraga, E.; Parada, J.,
Title The spatial knowledge representation of players movement in mobile outdoor gaming Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 456-460
Keywords MMV4, Recreation planning, mobile outdoor gaming, spatial knowlegde representation, ontology
Abstract This paper describes an innovative approach for developing a spatial knowledge representation based on the existence of multi tier spaces as a mental construction of human movement. The three “spaces” paradigm has been proposed to support the reasoning process in terms of sensing, symbolic, and social spaces. The spatial knowledge representation was implemented as a computational ontology in Protégé, and it has been applied to provide new insight about the actual behavioural patterns of players within a recreation site, accordingly to checkpoints and similar players´ interactions. This first experiment consisted of an educational game in Amsterdam using mobile phones and GPS-technology for 200 students having the age of 12-14. The results demonstrate that different types of inferences play a different role accordingly to what a recreational planner needs to infer, that is, the location of interactions among players and the environment.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1080 Serial 2661
Permanent link to this record

Author Wirth, V.; Pröbstl, U.; Haider, W.,
Title The role of sport activities in Alpine summer tourism Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 94-98
Keywords MMV4, Alps, destination choice, discrete choice experiment, sport activities, summer tourism
Abstract Throughout the Alps, natural integrity, outstanding landscape beauty, and the opportunity to pursue various sport activities are key elements of the tourism product, and influence the choice of destinations. This paper focuses on the role of sports activities in the choice of Alpine destinations. The data were collected from a representative random sample of German tourists. The core element of the survey is a stated choice survey in which respondents had to make repeated choices between two hypothetical alpine destinations which were disguised as web sites with changing characteristics and landscape features. The results of the discrete choice experiment show that the sport activities contribute significantly to the destination choice, and that the respondents are rather heterogeneous, leading to the identification of different segments in a latent class segmentation. The largest segment is comprised of the social and activity oriented tourists (55%), followed by nature and alpine oriented tourists (31%), and finally by tourists interested predominantly in relaxing (14%). Their divergent preferences and expectations will be described below. The importance of this research is that these segments have been identified directly from the choice responses, instead of from some attitudinal or motivational set of questions. The findings indicate that sport activities play an important role in the destination choice for alpine summer holidays, but their significance differs between segments. For marketing and management purposes these results highlight that the target groups and related marketing campaigns must be adapted to new trends and societal changes. To attract and enlarge the less active tourism segment the Alps should be positioned as silent place where relaxing in a healthy environment and outstanding landscape is possible.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 928 Serial 2586
Permanent link to this record

Author Woodward, D.B.; Bastin, L.,
Title The impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 354-359
Keywords MMV4, Kazakhstan, Almaty State Nature Reserve, ecotourism, impact on vegetation
Abstract The results of a pilot research project to assess the impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, are presented in this paper. Geobotanical, GIS, ground truth and statistical methods were used. The results proved that significant differences existed between the species richness, vegetation condition, vegetation cover and the mean height of grass stands in experimental quadrats compared to the control quadrat. The recommendations include strategies to mitigate the impact of ecotourism on vegetation in the Reserve.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1046 Serial 2644
Permanent link to this record

Author Yuan, M.; Fredman, P.,
Title A call for a broad spatial understanding of outdoor recreation use Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 169-173
Keywords MMV4, outdoor recreation, monitoring, vertical data integration
Abstract To better understand the scope of outdoor recreation in a pan Europe context, many agencies and organizations have attempted to collect data at various spatial levels and for a multitude of uses. The aim of this paper is to suggest a need for better and broader understanding of outdoor recreation use at various spatial levels. Case examples from Swedish data collection efforts are provided and suggestions are made to have a better understanding of horizontal harmonization and vertical data integration.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 964 Serial 2603
Permanent link to this record

Author Yuan, Y.-L.; Lue, C.-C.,
Title Leisure involvement differences in information searching difficulty and wilderness knowledge among hikers Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 526-527
Keywords MMV4, Information searching difficulty, Leave no trace, wilderness knowledge, hiker, backcountry, Taiwan
Abstract This paper draws on findings from recent research to examine the type of information searching difficulty in searching hiking-related information and the relationships between the level of leisure involvement of hikers and their information searching behaviours as well as wilderness knowledge. The information difficulty include their information difficulties as measured by perceived easiness of acquiring four types of hiking-related information, and their channel preferences. The relationships are presented in a proposed conceptual framework of the outdoor recreationist information search process, and tested through two hypotheses using a survey sample. It became apparent in the study that hikers who have higher level of leisure involvement have least difficulty to acquire different types of hiking-related information and have better understanding of Leave No Trace practices. It is also found that there are significant differences in the level of difficulty of acquiring instrumental information and reassurance information. Generally, reassurance information was rated the most difficulty to obtain for hikers. The article concludes by discussing the implications for wilderness mangers that is presented, and highlights the need for further investigation into outdoor recreationist information searching difficulties.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1122 Serial 2682
Permanent link to this record

Author Zanon, D.; Hall, J.; Shaw, R.,
Title Long term benefits of visitor monitoring – An Australian experience Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 148-152
Keywords MMV4, Visitor Satisfaction, Visitor Segments, Park Visitors, Structural Equation Model, Park Management Planning
Abstract Parks Victoria manages Victoria’s (Australia) national, state and urban parks. These parks make up approximately 17% of the state’s area and annually receive 45.3 million visits. Parks Victoria has been dedicated to the development of scientifically sound methods for monitoring visitors and the community since 1994. The three main ongoing monitoring streams are: visit quantities, community perceptions of management and visitor experience (Visitor Satisfaction Monitor). Accumulated research data from the Visitor Satisfaction Monitor (VSM) has been used to profile and refine the organisation’s understanding of its various park visitors. After 10 years that data has matured to produce a comprehensive visitor-product market segmentation. Over 11,000 interviews at 34 major parks (including 68 visitor sites) between 2000 and 2004 were used to group park visitors into seven segments. The segments are Nature Admirers, Urban Socials Trail Users, Passives and Other Users, Activity Centrics, Access Made Easy and Country Vacationers. Each park visitor segment, or group, had substantial differences from the other groups, while the individuals within each segment had much more in common; Nature Admirers visit in small groups for a short spectacular scenic experience whereas Urban Socials visit in large groups for half-day social interactions such as birthday parties and picnics. Further analyses have been conducted to identify individual sub-segments within each of the major segments. These sub-segments provide detailed information that can be used for the future development of parks and associated services. Subsequent analysis using Structural Equation Modelling provides evidence that the relationships between services and satisfaction are better understood when considering segments. Parks Victoria has been using segments in park management applications such as wild fire recovery plans, tourism strategy formulation, park management planning and visitor risk management. It has proved to be an efficient and effective systematic way of meeting visitor needs.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 954 Serial 2598
Permanent link to this record

Author Zhang, C.Z.; Xu, H.G.; Su, B.T.,
Title Meeting needs equals enhancing satisfaction? Case study of cableway and lift riding in World Heritage Site Wulingyuan, China Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 293-297
Keywords MMV4, Meeting needs, tourist satisfaction, motivation-hygiene theory
Abstract Meeting the needs of tourists to satisfy tourists is the policy basis for many mangers of world heritage sites in China. The paper, based on the case study of lift riding in world heritage site Wulingyuan China, challenge the policy. With tourist survey and online interview methods, the authors argue that lift do meet part of tourists’ needs, but it do not enhance the satisfaction level as the managers supposed, the assertion “meet the needs of tourists, thus enhancing their satisfaction” is not built on solid ground, and catering to the needs of tourists is at least not a valid reason for tourism developments in heritage sites. The results of this study coincide with the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Some factors may not give positive satisfaction, but dissatisfaction results from their absence, such as good service quality and management skills. The improvement of services and management skills may eliminate dissatisfaction, but cannot enhance tourist satisfaction. They are called hygiene factors. Those factors that can provide positive satisfaction are called motivators. Cableway and lift act as motivators that can induce more satisfaction if properly operated.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1020 Serial 2631
Permanent link to this record

Author Ziener, K.,
Title Formal concept analysis – a method for exploring complex responses of tourist surveys Type
Year 2008 Publication (up) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 325-329
Keywords MMV4, Formal Concept Analysis, hierarchical structures, Lake Neusiedl Region, tourist surveys
Abstract The Formal concept analysis goes back to the 1940s and is advanced by Rudolf Wille in the eighties. Based on the algebraic lattice theory so-called concept lattices will be used for visualisation of hierarchical structures in a line diagram. The method needs as input a context consisting of sets of objects and attributes and a binary relation between these objects and attributes. In a concept lattice quantitative and qualitative data can be combined and relations between the objects as well as between the attributes can be analysed. Therefore concept lattices are suitable for analysing the results of surveys. The respondents and their answer patterns constitute the context. Precondition is a hierarchical structure of the answers (e.g. ordinal ordered data). In this presentation will be demonstrated how to use the line graph of the concept lattice for analysing complex questions of tourist surveys. As an example the main activities of about 600 tourists and daily visitors in the Lake Neusiedl Region are analysed. With the procedure of Formal Concept Analysis the different answer patterns of respondents are arranged as nodes in a line diagram. This diagram is constructed by means of two partial concept lattices that will be integrated later. The interpretation of the line graph will start at the biggest nodes, consider the whole structure of the graph and include additional attributes in order to describe groups of tourists with the same activity pattern.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1032 Serial 2637
Permanent link to this record

Author Aoki, Y.; FujitaHitoshi; Aoki, K.,
Title Measurement and analysis of congestion at the traditional Japanese garden “Korakuen” Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 264-270
Keywords MMV1
Abstract Nature and greenery spaces are especially required in the high-density residential areas of Megalopolis in Japan. People are looking for rich greenery spaces and they are requiring for the preservation of the greenery space in redeveloping areas. But people have recently found that parks often were too crowded, when they visited them for enjoying a quiet greenery environment. Almost all old Japanese cities have parks in traditional garden style, which have been opened to the public since Meiji revolution, i.e. a hundred years ago. Originally, the gardens were possession of the Daimyo, i.e. the feudal lord, and they were enjoyed privately. Recent increase in visitors destroyed the original use pattern and the unique atmosphere, and this, of course, confused the management of the park administration. The administration and the users therefore encouraged investigations concerning the appropriate management of park as a pleasant environment. To find a preferable carrying capacity of green spaces, the impression of congestion and quietness was analyzed in a traditional Japanese garden, using the number of visitors as an indicator. The following results were obtained. The impression of congestion is significantly correlated with the number of visitors in the park, and 700 persons on 7 hectares generates the impression of congestion for a half of visitors. To satisfy the impression of quietness for more than a half of visitors, their numbers must be reduced to less than 400 persons for 7 hectares. The decreasing in number of visitors provides a more efficient impression of congestion than that of increasing.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 494 Serial 2310
Permanent link to this record

Author Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C.,
Title Visitor Structure of a Heavily Used Conservation Area: The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 7-13
Keywords MMV1
Abstract National parks in close proximity to large conurbations are not subject to the normal conflicts between conservation and ecological tourism but to those between conservation and urban recreational requirements. The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria is situated to the east of Vienna, the capital city of Austria, with a population of 1.6 million. Between June 2000 and May 2001, visitors were monitored in the Lower Austrian part of the National Park. An analysis of the results of the interviews, as well as their integration with the results obtained using long-term video monitoring, counts by human observers and route analysis, led to the identification of specific visitor categories with individual behavioral patterns and spatio-temporal distribution. In particular, regular recreational visitors from adjacent residential areas were very concerned about overcrowding and would react to the high visitor frequency through a change in their habits. This alteration of visiting habits would lead to grave problems for the environmental management of the National Park.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 412 Serial 2269
Permanent link to this record

Author Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C.; Muhar, A.,
Title Preface Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages I-II
Keywords MMV1
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 383 Serial 2266
Permanent link to this record

Author Arzac, S.,
Title Environment and Rural Tourism in Bustamante, Mexico Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389
Keywords MMV1
Abstract The community is Bustamante, population 3,501, in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico. It is a privileged rural landscape, made fertile in the middle of a semi-desert by springs that flow year-round. And in the vicinity of the oasis lie the internationally known caverns known locally as Grutas de Palmito. The problem are the pressures of recreation on the environment: day excursionists who come in great numbers are causing erosion near the water, both around the springs and along the river that flows from them. The waters that used to be clear are now murky because of the soil deposition. And in the cave, the visitors walk freely in the gallery spaces and trample on the formations. But because the local tourism industry is nature-based, it is imperative to conserve the natural resources that make it possible. This research considers the potential of what has come to be known as sustainable tourism to promote economic development in Bustamante and possibly in similar communities, not by replacing the agricultural base but by complementing it. Data were obtained from observations, interviews, survey questionnaires, from the Mexican census, from the regional newspaper, and from the literatures on sustainable tourism and history of the region. The study proposes that the natural and cultural resources of Bustamante had been largely conserved until recently, and that the present accelerated degradation of these resources can be reversed through approaches to sustainability that are related to tourism, so that Bustamante’s people meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, measured against the standard of living currently enjoyed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 532 Serial 2329
Permanent link to this record

Author Blazejczyk, A.,
Title Some Problems of Tourist Activity in the Tatra National Park Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-420
Keywords MMV1
Abstract Tatra Mts. is an unique alpine ridge in Poland.. The whole Polish part of Tatra is a protected area as a national park (Tatry National Park – TNP). Its area is 21,164 ha. Every year 2.5 millions of tourists visit TNP. Tourist activity is one of the factor of nature degradation in Tatras. The most transformed are the areas with the greatest tourist penetration: Morskie Oko lake, Kasprowy Wierch Mt. and Koscieliska valley. The paper presents preliminary results of the studies dealing with the problems of tourist penetration in the Morskie Oko (MO) and Kasprowy Wierch (KW) regions. In the MO area needs and desires of tourists, time budget during stay at the place and tourists’ evaluation of infrastructure were studied with the use of special questionnaires. At Kasprowy Wierch the streams of tourists were observed. The number of tourists on each tourist track crossing KW was accounted. The results of the studies point to great diversity of tourist activity in TNP (making pictures, enjoying nature, walking in the surroundings, climbing, relax). The results can be useful for managing of tourist activity, for making corrections in TNP protection system and for establishing the methods minimising degradation of tourist tracks and its surroundings.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 544 Serial 2335
Permanent link to this record

Author Brandenburg, C.; Ploner, A.,
Title Models to Predict Visitor Attendance Levels and the Presence of Specific User Groups Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 166-172
Keywords MMV1
Abstract This paper proposes approaches to modeling visitor flows in the context of weather and outdoor recreation. The nature conservation area and area under investigation the Lobau, which is a part of the Danube Floodplains National Park, lies in close proximity to the large conurbation of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. This circumstance presents the managers and researchers of the Lobau with a variety of challenging problems, due to the high number of visitors and the multifaceted visitor structure. An ecologically and economically sustainable management of the recreation and conservation area Lobau requires a profound knowledge of the uses visitors make of this area and a reliable prediction of the potential numbers of visitors. The investigation of the prognostic model is based on the results of a visitor monitoring project. Within this project, video-cameras were installed at several entrance points to the Lobau to monitor recreational activities throughout one year. The prognostic models were based on the dependence of the daily number of visitors on external factors such as weather and day of the week. Using a linear regression, these relationships were investigated and used to predict visitor loads. For the model, a distinction was made between workdays and weekends and/or holidays. The weather was considered in a very differentiated way: Meteorological elements, i.e. air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, appear directly as parameters in the models as well as indirectly in thermal comfort indices, e.g. the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). Reliable models can be obtained for the daily totals of visitors as well as for specific user groups with high visitor loads, i.e. hikers and bikers. The day of the week has the greatest influence on the daily totals of visitors as well as on individual user groups. The numbers of bikers and hikers depend heavily on the Physiological Equivalent Temperature. The effects of precipitation and cloud cover during the preceding seven days are small. The usage patterns of joggers and dog walkers are more difficult to model as they are less influenced by the day of the week and weather related factors.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 462 Serial 2294
Permanent link to this record

Author Burns, R.C.; Graefe, A.R.,
Title Segmentation of Outdoor Recreationists: A Comparison of Recreationists’ Perceptions of Importance and Satisfaction Across Activities Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 122-128
Keywords MMV1
Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore levels of importance and satisfaction with various attributes of customer service among selected segments of outdoor recreationists. The study also examined the nature of the relationships between satisfaction attributes and overall satisfaction. These relationships were tested for four dimensions of satisfaction (facilities, services, information, and recreation experience), across three water-based user groups (ramp users, campers, and day users). This study builds on previous customer satisfaction research conducted by both consumer behavior specialists and recreation researchers. In congruence with previous research on customer satisfaction, many of the constructs associated with quality in a recreation environment are intangible, elusive, and extremely difficult to measure. Study results showed that there are significant differences between different segments of users in reported levels of importance and satisfaction with various aspects of a recreational visit, but the nature of the relationships between the various domains and overall satisfaction varies little across the user segments.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 450 Serial 2288
Permanent link to this record

Author Cessford, G.,
Title Perception and Reality of Conflict: Walkers and Mountain Bikes on the Queen Charlotte Track in New Zealand Type
Year 2002 Publication (up) Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-108
Keywords MMV1
Abstract A variety of social and physical impacts are attributed to mountain biking. In many cases, the perception of these impacts differs from the reality of on-site experiences. This distinction is explored in two ways. First, a brief review of impact issues associated with mountain bikes is carried out. Second, results are presented from a survey of 370 walkers on a multi-day natural track where biking has been allowed on a trial basis. Walker opinions are surprisingly positive toward bikes. These opinions are found to be more positive among those walkers who had actual encounters with bikes. By contrast, more negative opinions were found among those who had no such encounters. Such distinctions between perception of a conflict and the actual outcome from an experience have important implications for park managers responsible for providing a range of different recreation opportunities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 444 Serial 2285
Permanent link to this record