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Author Lee, J.-H.; Bürger-Arndt, R.,
Title A comparative study of offers for recreation in nature parks in Germany and in recreation forests in Korea Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 86-88
Keywords MMV4, comparative study, German Nature Park, internet search, Korean Recreation Forest, recreation, recreational offer, recreational use
Abstract This comparative study was designed to search for the difference in recreational use and recreational offers between German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests. To review current recreational offers, a complete search of the websites of all German Nature Parks and 50% of Korean Recreation Forests was undertaken. The result is compared per category of offers. Hiking is offered as a recreational forest activity in nearly all Nature Parks in Germany (95%) and Recreation Forests in Korea (98%). Apart from hiking, biking (92%) and horse riding (71%) were offered by most of the German Nature Parks whereas Walking (96%) and Fitness trail (76%) activities were mostly offered in Korea. Swimming (66%), canoeing (62%), fishing (43%) and sailing (38%) were very famous water activities in German Nature Parks. However, there are very few water activities except swimming (74%) in Korean Recreation Forests. Environmental education plays an important role in nature friendly recreation. In terms of quantity and quality, there were better offers in environmental education in Germany than in Korea. Nature educational trails were offered by 68% of German Nature Parks compared to 26% of Recreation Forests in Korea. Various environmental education programs for children were 63% in German and only 40% in Korea. Furthermore, there were more offers in German Nature Park, for example environmental guide (56%), environmental education program (47%) and environmental touring (26%). There were nine tour themes in German Nature Parks with the largest proportion (66%) dedicated to experience with nature and 8% for the disabled people. On the other hand, the Korean Recreation Forest has not so many tour themes as in German Nature Parks. Nevertheless, the activities comprise of nature experience (80%), cultural history (72%) and wellness (32%). The demand of recreation users on Infrastructures is very high, therefore almost all of Korean Recreation Forests have Toilet (94%), Kitchen & Water (80%) and shower rooms (68%). They exhibit passive recreation and the environmental education program is less compared to that of German Nature Park, but the infrastructure plays a very important role in nature recreation of Koreans. It sums that, German Nature Parks have more of almost all kinds of recreational offers than Korean Recreation Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 922 Serial 2583
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Author Leung, Y.-F.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Lu, D.-J.,
Title Does recreation ecology have a place in East Asia? Some insights from Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 54-54
Keywords MMV4, Recreation ecology, nature-based tourism, East Asia, visitor impact
Abstract The significance of East Asian protected areas to support biodiversity conservation and nature-based tourism is increasingly recognized, so is the tension between these two objectives. Recreation ecology, the scientific study of visitor impacts in protected areas and their effective management, seems to have a role to play in resolving this conflict. At the last MMV conference, the general status of recreation ecology research in East Asia was summarized (Leung 2006). Three major developmental stages of this area of research development and some key challenges were identified. This presentation at MMV4 is intended to follow up with this line of dialogue by examining recreation ecology research on Taiwan Island as a case example. In Taiwan, the common occurrence of visitor impacts in forest recreation areas has long been acknowledged by managers and researchers. There were significant concerns about extensive soil and water conservation problems associated with recreation facility development in sensitive mountain areas in the 1980s. Such concerns led to focused research efforts carried out by several researchers since the 1990s. However, the diversity of topics and research methodology remained low and many of these earlier studies had a weak connection to management practice. Many studies were short-term investigations with limited management utility, mirroring the nature of research funding mechanism. Despite the constraints, several recent projects are showing signs that some protected area administrators may be more receptive of the role of recreation ecology research and long-term impact monitoring in supporting a more proactive approach to visitor management in protected areas. These projects, the trends they may represent, and the implications to the East Asian region in regard to challenges and opportunities will be highlighted
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 900 Serial 2572
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Author Lewis, A.R.,
Title Sustainable camping at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: overcoming methodological challenges Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 278-282
Keywords MMV4, Australia, environmental impacts, methods, Ningaloo, recreation
Abstract This paper outlines issues relating to campsite assesment along the Ningaloo coastline, Western Australia. A solution to methodological challenges, through the utilisation of both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques are suggested. The Ningaloo coastline is gaining popularity as a remote camping destination in Western Australia. Camping activities in this semi-arid environment are largely unrestricted, and gradual environmental degradation is observable in many locations. The following factors make the Ningaloo camping experience unique within Australia: A remote, semi-arid environment; multiple management/ownership of land; off-road vehicle accessibility to campsites; elaborate camp set-ups (often with a campervan and four-wheel drive); and the long average length of stay (47 days). Existing literature largely focuses on camping impacts within a wilderness environment, with short visitor stays, pedestrian-only access and a single management regime. This research will undertake an initial environmental assessment of sample campsites within different locations along the Ningaloo coast. Campers’ daily activities, resource (water, energy) use and waste production will also be determined. This research is highly significant from a local and regional perspective, given government plans to develop multiple camping ‘nodes’ along the Ningaloo coast by 2015. The data will therefore contribute to a stronger understanding of campsite sustainability, with regard to campsite placement and facilities. This research will also address information gaps within the field of recreation ecology
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1014 Serial 2628
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Author Li, C.-L.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Absher, J.D.,
Title Re-examine the measure of values Cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 177-182
Keywords MMV4, Hofstede’s measure of values, Kahle’s List of Values, customer service, parks and recreation
Abstract Parks and recreation areas around the world increasingly serve as international visitor attractions and play an important role in the international tourism industry. Given the increasingly diverse visitors, changes in racial and ethnic composition have confronted the management of parks and recreation areas. Since values presumably influence perceptions and behaviors among members of different cultures, studying values among culturally diverse visitors are important if we are to understand their influence on perceptions as well as parks and recreation behavior. We are not aware of any measure of recreation or leisure values that has been validated cross-culturally. In order to better understand this issue, the purposes of this study are to examine two different types of broad values measures (i.e., Hofstede’s measures of values and Kahle’s List of Values [LOV]) that have been validated cross-culturally, and test values’ utility to predict service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, both in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In 2005-2008, the visitors to Pokfulam Country Park in Hong Kong and Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed. Using a convenient purposive on-site sampling approach, at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample combining the Hong Kong and Taiwan recreation visitors. The results from data analyses showed that Hofstede’s measure of values, as employed in the park and recreation context, needs to be further elaborated and refined to provide acceptable validity and reliability. On the other hand, we found the LOV to be a meaningful and useful measure of values in both settings. The findings also showed LOV’s four dimensions of values, i.e., Respect, Harmony, Achievement, and Hedonism, predicted visitors’ perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Discussion of the findings and implications are provided.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 966 Serial 2604
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Author Ligtenberg, A.; Van Marwijk, R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.,
Title Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 422-427
Keywords MMV4, GIS, Movement Behavior, Spatial Temporal Analyses
Abstract This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking visitors. Two examples are presented for a case study carried out in the Dutch National Park Dwingelderveld. About 461 visitors were tracked using a GPS device. Based on these GPS recordings their trajectories have been reconstructed. The relation between the type of landscape in terms of openness and the speed of movement have been analyzed. Additionally a similarity analyses based on Fréchet analysis shows clusters of movements.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1068 Serial 2655
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Author Lupp, G.; Konold, W.,
Title Landscape preferences and perception in Mueritz National Park (Germany) Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 373-377
Keywords MMV4, Landscape preferences and perception, lifestyle groups, national park, user survey
Abstract In Mueritz National Park, Germany, landscape changes are ongoing due to wetland restoration, reduction of agricultural acticvities and abandonment of timber oriented forest management. This study assesses the perception of the landscape and landscape preferences of both local visitors and tourists. Passers-by were interviewed at five different places inside the park. Preferences and perception of landscapes were identified in three steps: general preferences, perception of the scenery at the interview site and by using pictures. The results were differentiated and compared according to residents, first time visitors and regular visitors as well as lifestyle groups. Lakes, traditionally maintained farmland and ancient lately unmanaged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), containing deadwood, are preferred most. The results show that background knowledge about natural processes is essential for a positive perception of these landscape features.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1052 Serial 2647
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Author Luthe, T.; Roth, R.,
Title Extended vulnerability of ski tourism to global change Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords MMV4, Extended Vulnerability Factors, Global Change, Ski tourism, Sustainable Adaptation
Abstract The current and forecasted outcomes of global change put ski destinations under different stresses. Climate change is the most discussed and the most obvious factor that directly affects the economic success of ski areas. Latest since the last OECD report a broad discussion about such ski areas that will lose from climate change, namely the lower and smaller ones, and those potentially winning being the higher and bigger ski areas, got started. This discussion has been focusing on the main vulnerability factors elevation, size and snow making capacity. Technical snow making is the main kind of adaptation to climate change being discussed and applied. But in addition to climate change there are socioeconomic and demographic developments that lead to other grades of vulnerability for ski tourism. In the research project SkiSustain we aim to develop a sustainability management framework for ski destinations responding to global change. In the supply side part we did personal qualitative interviews in thirty six ski areas of four Alpine countries after the extremely warm winter of 2006/07. Ski areas were picked for interviews as the main drivers of investments and employment in ski destinations. Research questions were about the perception of vulnerability to global change and strategies and possibilities of adaptive capacity. In the interviews ski area managements were confronted with recent results from the customer demand survey Save-Snow to find out about the possibilities to drive changes to chances, for example by softer means of adaptation and more mitigation and partnering more with the customer. Results show that the view on vulnerability of ski destinations needs to be extended from a current climate change and elevation focused view to a much more diverse one. Current means of adaptation will not be suitable to tackle the sum of challenges from global change.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 924 Serial 2584
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Author Magro, T.C.; Santiago, C.D.M.; Robim, M.D.J.,
Title Finding a balance: applied ecology is not a second-class research Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 55-56
Keywords MMV4, Applied research, recreation ecology, research financial support
Abstract Nevertheless the recreation ecology research provides answers to current environmental and social problems; we need a challenge to gains social recognition. The consequences of not been positively evaluated in academic circles and in governmental financing agencies is that the research institutions staff who also have charge of protected areas are not being able to request financial support for research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 902 Serial 2573
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Author Mahat, T.J.; Koirala, M.,
Title Assessing nature of visitors flow and revenue generation at the Central Zoo of Nepal Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 231-231
Keywords MMV4, Economic valuation, Nepal, payment of environmental services, travel cost method, zoo
Abstract The only zoo of Nepal, Central Zoo, receives over 800,000 visitors annually. Economic valuation of the zoo was conducted to identify contributions made by the zoo to the economy as well as environmental awareness level of the visitor. The relevant information was collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct observation, direct count and focus group discussion. Several economic tools, including travel cost method, were employed for analysis. The study shows that a higher proportion of school children and adolescents visit the zoo in comparison to other age groups and professions. Brahmin, Chhetri and Newar were the dominant visiting caste-groups. Access to economical public transports such as buses, tempos and microbuses has facilitated arrivals of high proportion of visitors with relatively low income to the zoo. Most of the visitors are Nepalese and expatriates. The educational level of the visitors and their affiliation with environment related organizations are not significant determinants of the number and nature of their visits. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between the travel cost and the number of zoo visits. The per capita economic value of the zoo was estimated at US $ 3.15. The study recommends that a) the environmental hygiene inside the zoo be improved, b) the satisfaction level of the visitors be assessed, and c) fund raising sources be identified to expand zoo services as well as its territorial area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 988 Serial 2615
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Author Mann, C.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Crowding in European forests: Status quo and implications for forest management and research Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 67-67
Keywords MMV4, Crowding, Europe, forest recreation, methods, scales, social impacts
Abstract Providing forests on a sustainable basis include knowledge about recreation quality of forest visitors and perceived impacts. While ecological impacts have been a central topic for forest recreation research, social impacts such as use-conflict and crowding were rarely investigated. This paper analyses research attempts in European forests dealing with visitors’ crowding perceptions at a first time. For data collection, the Cost Action E33 “Forest for recreation and nature tourism” network, as well as a focused literature research was used. Compared to recreation research in the United States, where crowding is a prominent topic, only 16 European crowding studies were identified since the 1980s, predominantly carried out in Central and Northern Europe. Reported crowding- perceptions ranged from 1064%. Among these, correlations between use-levels and crowding perceptions were yielded, as well as manifold significant influences of setting attributes and visitor characteristics. Most studies used a theoretical foundation oriented towards the US recreation crowding literature, but differ in their methods of measuring crowding. As a result, the use of different scales and data collection methods, restrict a nation-and European-wide comparisons. In most Southern, Eastern and several Central European countries, crowding is not recognized as an issue for forest recreation research and management. Besides less political willingness and financial constraints, general access rights to forests, and the lack of legal requirements are considered among the main obstacles of putting more emphasis on recreation crowding research. Due to the ongoing societal demands for outdoor recreation together with trends to concentrate uses on fewer paths and areas for ecological reasons crowding may be of higher importance in the future. A need for standardized crowding research is stated to gain more insights of cultural differences and commonalities. Changes of the recreation systems, its uses and users can be better recognized for a sustainable, future-oriented forest recreation management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 910 Serial 2577
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Author Maracchi, G.,
Title Presentation Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 11-11
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 881 Serial 2563
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Author Maracchi, G.,
Title Presentazione Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 13-14
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 884 Serial 2564
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Author Marandola, D.; Malvolti, M.E.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Biodiversity and rural development: the case-study of the “Shepherd’s walnut”. An action model for sustainable rural development shaped on the peculiar features of a rural area Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 494-496
Keywords MMV4, Biodiversity, local resources, rural development
Abstract Walnut tree, for nutritional value, wood and its connections to local culture and society, is a very typical product of the Apennine rural areas. Anyway, the economical value of the traditional/local varieties is today very reduced and this may expose rural areas to a loss of biodiversity, cultural values and landscape elements. FIMONT is a research project which aims to calibrate action models to increase the value of mountain traditional food products. The research, starting from some specific morpho-genetic analisys carried out by IBAF, has considered the possibility to increase the value of local walnut calibrating a model based on the peculiar features of the rural territory. An ancient path for sheeps transhumance has been choosen like a “red line” for the model.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1104 Serial 2673
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Author Marandola, D.; Raschi, A.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Are Natura2000 SPAs and SACs perceived by local communities like important elements for local development? The case study of Fortore-Alto Tammaro, a rural area on the mid-southern Apennines Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 492-493
Keywords MMV4, Natural resources, eco-agri-tourism, rural development
Abstract Apenninic areas cover a wide part of the italian surface and represent an important element of conservation for cultural, biological, economical and social diversity. Many difficulties, however, expose these internal areas to high risks of abandonment and loss of diversity. A long-run research project aims to calibrate action models for sustainable rural development based on eco-agri-tourism, also to promote conservation and knowledge of local natural resources.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1102 Serial 2672
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Author Marangon, F.; Spoto, M.; Visintin, F.,
Title Assigning economic value to natural protected areas: an environmental accounting model Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 232-236
Keywords MMV4, Ecosystem functions, environmental accounting, Long Term Financial Plan, natural marine reserve
Abstract The implementation of environmental accounting in Natural Reserves produced some significant results in terms of restrictions. First of all, environmental accounting introduced a limitation in scale, which was inapplicable on a micro scale. A second restriction concerned the physical unit measure that was used instead of a monetary unit measure. Finally, a third limitation was due to the fact that environmental accounting takes into account only costs, not environmental benefits. These three limitations led us to develop an environmental accounting model that considered resources in the Natural Reserve, both consumed and produced. The model applied to Miramare Natural Marine Reserve (Italy) aimed to supplement monetary accounting based on cost and revenue with environmental accounting which reflects not only environmental cost but also environmental revenues, i.e. environmental benefits. Environmental cost took into account anthropic presence, raw materials use, consumption of fuel for motor vehicles and heating fuel, consumption of electricity, water consumption, and administration expenses. Environmental benefits assessed ecosystem functions: gas regulation, nutrient cycling, biological control, food production, recreation, and culture. The difference between costs and benefits, both economic and environmental, represented the value produced or consumed by the Natural Reserve. The model demonstrated that the net benefit for the Reserve was approximately €654,000 covering the amount of public transfer (about €610,000) completely.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 990 Serial 2616
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Author Maresi, G.; Didonato, F.,
Title Towards a sustainable tourism for the Italian mountains: the role of CAI Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 497-501
Keywords MMV4, Alpine club, climbing, hiking, refuges, protected area
Abstract Since its foundation in 1863, The “Club Alpino Italiano” has been playing an active and often decisive role for the invention, the spread and the development of mountain tourism either on Alps and Apennines. In the last years this role has been more and more related to a clear attention to sustainability and protection of mountain environment. Both Association’ activities (hiking, climbing, caving and sky-tourism) and structures (refuges and paths) were object of a practical and cultural work aimed to reduce impact especially in protected areas. For activities, the main work is still based on improving knowledge of mountain environment in association members during technical formation courses, focusing to all the attentions to be adopted to avoid damages at wildlife and vegetation. Refuges proved to be experimental sites for innovative application of alternative source of energy and new solution of waste management. Creation of new paths and management of old ones are now carried out following practical criteria adopted at national scale and aiming to reduce damages due to erosion and impact on vegetation and wildlife. A GIS approach for excursionist paths net has been adopted in different situation, proving effective as a tool for a environmentally sustainable planning and management. Parks and protected area were strongly supported by CAI in the last years, when the Association was between the more active promoters of new protected areas. A strong collaboration is now working on with Parks, both national and regional: the target is a responsible frequentation protection of mountain endangered habitat.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1106 Serial 2674
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Author Mayer, M.; Vogt, L.; Pütz, M.,
Title Regional economic impacts of nature-based tourism in Switzerland – the relevance of activities and landscape elements Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 237-238
Keywords MMV4, economic effects, nature-based tourism, activities, landscape, destination choice
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 992 Serial 2617
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Author Melendez, G.C.N.; Magro, T.C.,
Title Can tourism change the traditional use of Potsotaroki (Trichilia pallida)? Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 505-509
Keywords MMV4, Asháninka People, Indigenous handcraft, Potsotaroki, Trichilia pallida
Abstract The traditional people who live from the resources that come from the forest had kept an almost symbiotic relation with their surrounding land, using the resources. However the contact with factors that are different from their culture, including tourism, can generate variations in the way of traditional handling, causing impacts in the environment. In this paper we analyze the traditional employment of the tree bark from “Potsotaroki” (Trichilia pallida), used as dye in the production of cotton handcrafts. The evaluated factors have the goal of registering the status of this forest species, and its relation with the natural process of insertion of the indigenous communities in the dominant social system. The research was done in an Asháninka community, from the high forest in the Peruvian Amazon.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1110 Serial 2676
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Author Moore, S.A.,
Title What is the place of democracy in recreation ecology? Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 57-61
Keywords MMV4, democracy, practical wisdom, public, recreation ecology, visitors
Abstract What should be monitored and who decides has been debated for as long as recreation ecology has been with us. The early work on planning frameworks advocates consulting with visitors to determine what conditions are important to them and then derive resource and social indicators from this information. Any associated standards are then similarly set with visitors’ input. At the same time, recreation ecologists have selected indicators that allow measurement and predictions regarding the relationships between resource and social conditions and levels of visitor use. Where are we now regarding these choices? A democratic perspective would argue that visitors should have significant influence on indicator selection and the standards that might accompany them. But what role does this leave for scientists and institutionally derived scientific knowledge in recreation ecology? In this paper I argue that we are morally and societally bound to embrace a democratic approach to recreation ecology with scientists and managers working with visitors, and others with a vested interest in protected areas, to develop ‘practical wisdom’ that can be evoked as a central tenet of recreation ecology.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 904 Serial 2574
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Author Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Quality assessment of public use in National Parks. Application to the Spanish National Park System Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 112-115
Keywords MMV4, Visitor information and visitor management, Visitor monitoring methods, Public use quality
Abstract In recent years, we have observed how, worldwide, the goal of nature preservation has to be developed in a scenario of continuous increment in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing PA resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. It’s estimated that the whole Spanish PA receive over 50 million visitors a year, ten of them to the National Park System. The progressive influx of visitors in a short period of time has made administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it in the best way? In this context, this investigation defines an evaluation tool to asses the quality of public use programs developed in National Parks which has been applied to the Spanish National Park System, and could be applied to other parks and systems. It examines different trends and provides with some future recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 936 Serial 2590
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Author Müller, M.; Mayer, M.; Woltering, M.; Job, H.,
Title Visitor attitudes towards natural disturbance: the case of the bark beetle in Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 347-352
Keywords MMV4, perception, attitudes, natural disturbance, protected areas, tourism, bark beetles
Abstract Management authorities of protected areas have recently been faced with a considerable rise of natural disturbance such as fire or insect pests in ecosystems. Incorporating visitor experience of natural disturbance into management strategies is a crucial task. The present study uses multivariate statistical analysis to examine visitors’ attitudes towards large-scale bark beetle infestation in the case of Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Findings indicate that visitors have a neutral attitude towards the bark beetle and slightly reject controlling the bark beetle in the national park. Expectations of a successful recovery of the affected areas (green-up) and low personal issue salience are the two strongest predictors for support of not controlling the bark beetle. Our findings suggest that it is well possible to position protected areas as refuges where nature is supposed to follow its course without intervention rather than as landscaped representations of cultural ideal types. In order to communicate this idea of wilderness to visitors, park management authorities should design educational measures to raise visitors’ awareness of the ecological mandate of protected areas and of the role of disturbance agents in ecosystems.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1042 Serial 2642
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Author Nasa, M.; Emphandhu, D.; Pattanakiat, S.; Kitisin, S.,
Title Database system development of nature-based tourism in protected areas, Chiang Mai province Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 315-319
Keywords MMV4, Database System Development, Nature-based Tourism, Protected Areas, Chiang Mai Province
Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess the status of nature-based tourism resources, design and develop the database system and web application for tourism resources management in protected areas, Chiang Mai province. The data contained in the database system included tourism resource potential, recreation opportunity spectrum, and physical carrying capacity of the tourism sites in Chiang Mai’s protected areas. The tourism resource potential at 124 sites were assessed and classified into 72 conventional nature tourism (NT), 37 adventure tourism (AT), 5 ecotourism (ET), and 10 being qualified as both adventure and conventional nature tourism sites (NT/AT). The highest potential of the NT sites was identified as Keaw Mae Pan scoring 2.84 out of 3. While Mae Tang and Mae Cham – Tha Phra Sadej water rafting routes were the highest potentials for the AT (score 2.69), Doi Luang Chiang Dao for ET (2.46), and bicycling route Yod Doi Pui – Botanical Garden for the NT/AT (2.13). The recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) offered nature closely related experiences in primitive (P), semi-primitive non motorized (SPNM), and semi-primitive motorized (SPM) totalling of 77 sites while 47 sited in semi-developed and developed areas offered less nature experience. The system was designed as relational database by System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) for the target group identified as tourism resources planners and managers. The database and web application was developed by MySQL and the available program in php script language, in that order. For the User Interface design, the web browser through internet connection was employed for database management. The database system testing regarding techniques and design earned the score 64%. While the evaluation score of user interface capability and the usefulness of the information contained in the database given by the expert in database development and the PA managers was 81% and 84%, respectively.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1028 Serial 2635
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Author Naviglio, L.,
Title The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST) integrated with other voluntary tools can facilitate a more effective tourism management in Natural Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 212-216
Keywords MMV4, sustainable tourism, protected areas, voluntary tools, public/private shared strategies
Abstract The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST), promoted by Europarc in EU protected areas, considers the natural resources conservation as the reason for tourist attractiveness and tourism economy. The main goal is to create a network between public and private subjects in order to individuate and to promote new sustainable tourism offers and to define common, shared, strategies and action plans able to improve local economy preserving natural resources. The ECST implementation can be improved by using procedures and approaches typical of other voluntary tools like ISO 14001/EMAS and Local Agenda 21 (LA21). In particular, the environmental analysis should be more addressed to the existing relationships between pressures produced by tourism and other human activities and the state of the environment (the DPSIR scheme proposed by EEA could be useful for that). A evaluation of criticisms and a rank of priorities should be introduced in the process (as in ISO 14001) and local stakeholders involvement can be referred to LA21. ISO 14001/EMAS should provide references also for monitoring plans and for the management of procedures aimed at using the “park logo” (http://qualitypark. casaccia.enea.it) as award for best practices.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 980 Serial 2611
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Author Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.; Sievänen, T.,
Title National park visitors’ attachment to a place, quality perceptions and visit intention Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 378-383
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, place attachment, rural tourism
Abstract National parks are often national icons and destinations for nature tourists. Park tourism is seen as a substantial cultural, social and economic phenomenon, which is going to be even more important with decreasing space and expanding human populations. Structural changes, such as decreasing primary production, in the economic base of rural communities, have forced communities to seek alternatives in order to maintain their economic viability. Park tourism is identified as an opportunity to strengthen the rural economy in regions that can provide natural amenity values and recreation services. The case study from three national parks in Finland, Seitseminen, Linnansaari and Repovesi National Park, analyses how park visitors relate to the park and surrounding rural area. The purpose of the study was to examine how the place attachment with intervening factors of quality of services and recreation environment explain the intention to visit the area again in the future. Data (N=736) was gathered by a mail questionnaire for park visitors. The majority, 64-71% of visitors planned to visit the park in next five years and 55-68% the area. About 10% of the visitors felt attached to the surrounding countryside of a national park. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied here to test how the hypothesized causal structure fits to observed data. The preliminary results showed that place attachment interacted positively and statistically significantly with the perceived quality of services and recreation environment. Those who were keen to a place are more satisfied to the services and recreation environment. Park visitors’ attachment to a region and satisfaction with the local services and hospitality correlated positively with their intention to revisit the region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1054 Serial 2648
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Author Newman, P.; Manning, R.E.; Fristrup, K.,
Title Managing Soundscapes in National Parks: an adaptive management approach in Muir Woods National monument, California Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 353-353
Keywords MMV4, Soundscapes, visitor-caused noise, adaptive management Muir Woods National Monument, national parks
Abstract Research in national parks has begun to address the issue of human-caused noise and its resource and social impacts. This paper reports the results of a study conducted in the summer of 2007 that tested the efficacy and acceptability of management actions designed to reduce visitor-caused noise The study used an experimental or “adaptive” management” approach designed to test the effectiveness of temporal and spatial zoning to protect natural quiet in Muir Woods National Monument, California, an old growth redwood forest. The adaptive management experiment consisted of two treatments and an associated control. During all three periods, visitorcaused noise was recorded at a fixed location in the park and a visitor survey was conducted. The first treatment tested the effectiveness of a spatial zoning approach by establishing a “quiet zone” in Cathedral Grove through a series of park signs. The second treatment tested the effectiveness of a temporal zoning approach by establishing “quiet days” throughout the park through a series of park signs. The control period included neither of these treatments. Study findings indicate that both the “quiet zone” and “quiet day” treatments were effective in lowering the level of visitor-caused noise in the park as measured during the control period, and that visitors were highly supportive of these management actions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1044 Serial 2643
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Author Ollenburg, C.; Buckley, R.,
Title Farm tourism experiences in rural Australia: a continent-wide study of geographical distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of farm tourism operators Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 262-262
Keywords MMV4, Nature tourism, rural tourism and experiences in recreational and protected areas
Abstract Worldwide changes in agricultural commodity prices and production systems, coupled with increasing demand for rural tourism in urbanized developed nations, have lead many farm landholders to turn to tourism operations as an alternative or additional source of income. The proportions of farmers and rural landholders who have made this move, however, differ considerably from one country to another, and between different areas in the same country. There is a great demand side interest to visit farms, but only some farm landholders provide a tourism experience. For the purpose of this paper tourism experiences on farms include accommodation and activities. A revealed preference approach was applied, at a continent-wide scale examining the geographical distribution and socio-economic characteristic of Australian farm tourism operators. Using multiple data sources, we inventoried, mapped and characterized all known Australian farm tourism enterprises, and examined patterns using both size-based and multi-criterion classifications. Results from revealed-preference analyses are congruent with stated-preference studies but yield considerable additional information and insights. There are clusters of farm tourism enterprises close to cities and gateways, and isolated operations in more remote areas. We identified four groups of farm tourism providers: full-time, part-time, retirement and lifestyle operators. Characteristics of the farm property and business, the farming family, and the farm tourism business differ significantly between groups. Most (88%) of these farm tourism operators offer nature-based as well as farm-based activities; and in aggregate, they use only four fifths of their land for farming, with the remaining fifth, presumably, potentially available for other recreational activities or conservation.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1006 Serial 2624
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Author Parry, R.; Williams, S.; Watkins, J.A.,
Title Understanding the recreation preferences and constraints of low participation social groups Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 188-192
Keywords MMV4, constraints and preferences, participation, under-representation and exclusion
Abstract Current research has indicated that participation in informal outdoor recreation is relatively low among certain groups, such as young people, older people, women, ethnic minority groups and people with disabilities. There is pressure on policy makers and practitioners to address this apparent imbalance. This paper reviews the findings of an international literature review which highlighted that there has been a focus on ëconstraintsí rather than on ëpreferencesí, particularly in relation to participation in outdoor recreation in the UK. It would appear from the literature that there is a presumption that the main reasons for low participation are related to structural barriers (such as lack of transport) rather than a lack of understanding of the recreation preferences of non-traditional participants. This has raised the question of whether it is achievable to change the prevalent attitude amongst the countryside sector from one of ëwe expect people to want what we provideí, to one of ëwe will provide for what people wantí. Would such a paradigm shift be successful in achieving more equitable outdoor recreation participation?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 970 Serial 2606
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Author Partalidou, M.; Iakovidou, O.,
Title Safeguarding rural tourism experience. Do different quality norms exist? Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 193-197
Keywords MMV4, management, quality, norms, rural tourism
Abstract Despite the growing body of research on rural tourism in Greece none is focused on managing quality experience. Towards this direction visitors’ norms can be of great importance and a rather useful tool in order to safeguard the overall experience in rural settings and help everyday managers of rural tourism as well as practitioners and policy makers. Whereas developed in sociology and social psychology, norms have been used as an organizing concept in outdoor recreation research and management. In this paper we try to use this concept of visitors’ norms in order to determine what rural tourism should offer for a unique experience. Self administered questionnaires were distributed randomly across seven well known rural tourism destinations of rural Greece. Day trippers were excluded and sample size was set at 339 rural tourists, according to estimations of the proportion of rural tourists to the overall number of visitors at each destination. Personal interview was used and statistical analysis gave answers to a multiple set of research questions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 972 Serial 2607
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Author Petrova, E.; Aoki, Y.; Mironov, Y.; Petrova, A.; Furuya, K.; Matsushima, H.; Takayama, N.,
Title Comparison of natural landscapes appreciation between Russia and Japan: methods of investigation Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 198-202
Keywords MMV4, aesthetic evaluation, appreciation of landscapes, landscape preferences in Russia and Japan
Abstract The research focusing on the aesthetic evaluation and appreciation of natural landscapes in recreational and protected areas is of great importance. While selecting landscapes for special care and protection one should take into consideration not only objective appraisal of their natural peculiarities, significance, and usefulness but also their aesthetic features. People belonging to different cultures differ by their landscape preferences due to a number of ethno-cultural factors as well as historical, social, and environmental peculiarities. The purpose of this study is to compare the landscapes appreciation in Russia and Japan, in two countries with deep-rooted traditions of landscape appreciation. The photo database of landscapes both similar and unique for Russia and Japan was made using the same methods. The respondents in both countries are suggested to classify and group photo images of different landscapes according to their personal perception as well as to estimate the attractiveness of given landscapes images. The results of the study will help us to answer: do representatives of different cultures – people in Russia and Japan – like similar landscapes due to aesthetic appreciation laws, which are common for the whole humanity, and if they don’t – then why not?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 974 Serial 2608
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Author Pfeifer, J.; Hennig, S.; Opp, C.,
Title Analysis of visitor nodes as a tool for visitor management by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 121-126
Keywords MMV4, visitor nodes, recreational use, visitor management, infrastructure and statistical analysis
Abstract Infrastructural elements in protected areas play an important role for visitors. They provide equipment to visitor activities and their demands. However data on infrastructure is frequently disregarded. Concepts and models to collect and deal with infrastructure data have to be developed. In Berchtesgaden National Park the concept of visitor nodes is used in order to support visitor management. Identification of 81 visitor nodes in this protected area took place. They have been classified into five categories: “place for excursions”, “destination for hiking”, “information”, “resting” and “orientation”. Each category is characterized through a defined standard supply. By using categories, evaluation of each visitor node was done. Deficits as well as satisfying situations became observably.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 942 Serial 2592
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Author Pouwels, R.; Jochem, R.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.,
Title Criteria for scientific tools for recreation planning in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 320-324
Keywords MMV4, Adaptive management, integrating scientific tools, recreation planning, biodiversity
Abstract Recreation is increasing the last decades in Northwest-Europe. Although these visitors might have a negative impact on biodiversity values, they are important for the support of biodiversity actions. Therefore a major objective for planning and managing of visitor landscapes is to avoid the negative effects of recreational use and to ensure that expectations of visitors can be afforded. Scientific knowledge and scientific tools always have and always will be important in managing recreation in visitor landscapes. However it is an illusion scientists will deliver ready-to-go answers. In this paper we will define criteria that scientific tools should meet. We will follow the arguments of Haider [1] and McCool et al. [2] that the use of knowledge and tools should be implemented in decision strategies like adaptive management and use experiences from a case study of recreation planning in the New Forest (UK). We will show that scientific tools should be flexible to adapt to local data to gain credibility and legitimacy and should be able to show which management alternative is most likely to meet recreation objectives and conservation objectives. Therefore the recreation tool has to be linked to the biodiversity tool. The scientific tools also should be useful in communication between stakeholders so they learn each other’s key processes and values and better understand the “other side of the table”. Especially because stakeholders have different views about what should or should not be considered a problem.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1030 Serial 2636
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Author Pröbstl, U.; Rid, W.,
Title Green strategies against increased land consumption in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 217-219
Keywords MMV4, Land consumption, compensation measures, open space, new concepts for urban green
Abstract Excessive land consumption is one of the more serious threats to the environment in Germany. Each day about 110 ha of cultural landscape are transformed to roads or settlement. This paper focus on two “green” strategies devised to address this issue: 1) the mandatory obligation to compensate for each impact, and 2) the opportunity to involve private house buyers in order to achieve more density. It is shown that the obligation to compensate has a significant effect on land consumption. The involvement of private home buyers via a multi-attribute survey demonstrates that green spaces and social infrastructure are crucial elements when considering less consumptive development alternatives. Therefore, the traditional planning tools, which are mostly reactive, should be expanded to include conservation strategies and state-of-the-art social science methods to explore the demand for non-existing developments and to influence the future market.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 982 Serial 2612
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Author Puhakka, R.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamäki, P.,
Title Role of Oulanka PAN Park in Local Community Development in Northeastern Finland Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 78-82
Keywords MMV4, certification, national parks, PAN Parks, sustainable tourism
Abstract As a result of the growth of nature-based tourism, national parks have become important tourist attractions in Finland, and they have an increasing role as tools for regional development especially in the northern peripheries of the country. Meanwhile, new international initiatives to develop sustainable nature-based tourism have been introduced in Finland. PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks Foundation is a non-profit organization aimed to balance the needs of wilderness protection and community development by facilitating sustainable tourism development in European parks. This study examines the socio-cultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park perceived by local stakeholders. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification in community and tourism development. Does it benefit socio-cultural development in the region, and does it have some disadvantages from the perspective of local people? The study is based on a mixed methods approach including a questionnaire (n=314) and semi-structured interviews (n=40) conducted in Oulanka region in 2007 for representatives of NGOs, tourism and other businesses, municipalities and public sector, and local residents. Findings show that most of the stakeholders have a positive attitude towards tourism development in Oulanka. The economic benefits of PAN Parks status have not yet been realized, but locals expect the benefits will grow while tourists’ familiarity with PAN Parks increases. Local residents’ knowledge of PAN Parks is still weak. Although nature-based tourism benefits community in various ways, locals also perceive disadvantages caused by the park. The biggest problems identified in the study are related to participation possibilities and contradictions with traditional subsistence economies (e.g., fishing, hunting and reindeer herding). Thus, it is essential to pay attention to the distribution of benefits and burdens of the park development – also to those which are not related to monetary interests. Increasing co-operation with local stakeholders could improve the mutual relations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 918 Serial 2581
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Author Raschi, A.; Crisci, A.; Mikicic, S.,
Title Climate change and ski areas in Trentino region, Italy Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 93-93
Keywords MMV4, Climate change, meteo, ski, winter tourism
Abstract The existence of an ongoing climate change cannot be denied, or hidden, and tourism is going to be affected by it to a large extent. The analysis of current trends in the response of tourism to climate change, in conjunction with the forecast of future climate scenaries, can help us in focusing the possible solutions to future possible problems. This work focused on the existing trends in winter tourism in the Trentino region (Italian Alps), by analysing, for the years 1981/1982 to 2007/2008, the climate data from six meteo stations located in ski resorts characterized by different height and geographical position. Data analysis showed that the number of the days with more than 20 cm of snow, minimum level for permitting skiing, is reducing, and interannual variability is increasing. The trend is particularly evident for lower altitude areas. The average, minimum and maximum temperatures of above mentioned winter periods was compared with tourist arrivals suggesting an inverse correlation, with a marked decrease in tourists arrivals in higher temperature periods. The results support the conclusion that the tourists will be obliged to reach higher ski areas with lower temperature and adequate snow level, while a further increase in temperatures will lead the lower ski areas to disappear, and the high seasonal variability will put at risk winter tourism itself in many areas. The further perspective of research, on tourism trends in summer season, will also be outlined.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 926 Serial 2585
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Author Raschi, A.; Trampetti, S.,
Title Introduction Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 15-15
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 886 Serial 2565
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Author Reimann, M.; Ehrlich, Ü.,
Title Dependence of tourism destinations non-market value on the visit rate: the contingent valuation case study of Jägala Waterfall Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 239-242
Keywords MMV4, Nature tourism, nature resource utilization, contingent valuation
Abstract The article discusses the resource utilisation conflict at the example of Jägala Waterfall, which is the highest and greatest natural waterfall in Estonia. There are plans to build a hydro-power plant there, which would conduct most of the water past the waterfall to the power plant’s turbines, reducing significantly natural and recreational values of the waterfall. The authors carried out a contingent valuation (CV) study to identify the monetary equivalent of non-market values related with Jägala waterfall. This paper examines the dependence of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) on whether or not they have visited the waterfall, indicating thus the significance of nature tourism for the formation of non-market value of natural features. The paper analyses also the dependence of the visit rate on the respondents’ sociometric characteristics. Using the Logit-model, it was identified that the statistically significant factors that influence the probability of visiting Jägala Waterfall are education, income and age. Gender and nationality are not statistictically significant factors for the probablity of visiting the Waterfall. It was also identified that visiting rate has positive impact to WTP.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 994 Serial 2618
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Author Riseth, J.Å.,
Title Parks for whom? A Norwegian policy dilemma: recreation vs indigenous interests Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389
Keywords MMV4, Commercial tourism, convention on biological diversity, indigenous interests, IUCN category VI Yellowstone model
Abstract As most countries, Norway has adopted the Yellowstone model for nature protection; limiting humans’ role to be guests in nature. The country established its first national park in 1962. In 2008, 14.3 % of the mainland is formally protected; including 29 national parks, many established newly. Recent decades’ growing concern of the insufficiency of this protection model includes the lack of seeing conservation as a social issue, not only a biological one, was confirmed by the Vth World Park Conference in 2003. The same year the Norwegian government advanced a new policy for increased use of national parks for commercial tourism, named the “Mountain Text”. The fact not addressed is that 18 of 29 parks are situated in Sámi reindeer pasture areas. The contemporary policy has revealed an unexpected conflict of objectives. Whereas the Mountain Text strengthen the goal of recreation, affected Sámi herders fear that parks instead of protection for them will mean increased disturbance of vulnerable animals and areas and accordingly have changed their basic attitudes from being positive to becoming ambiguous towards new parks and park extensions. This is a problem both in equity as well as efficiency perspective and also a source of new conflicts. Norway currently reforms its conservation legislation to reinforce biodiversity protection. Though indigenous interests have not so far become a core issue in this process; this process and the international process under the Convention on Biological Diversity together create a window of opportunities for reconciling conflicting objectives. One of the relevant instruments is the IUCN Category VI, available from 1994, which juxtaposes biodiversity protection and sustainable use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1056 Serial 2649
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Author Roberts, J.,
Title An audience based approach to communication intervention Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 502-504
Keywords MMV4, Audience-based communication, Codes of conduct, Recreational impacts
Abstract Communication Interventions (CIs) are often used by the environmental and outdoor sectors to try to manage and mitigate the impacts of recreation. This research audited the CIs currently being used in Wales, reviewed the process of creating them and explored the way that audiences gather and responded to advice, instruction and guidance. It found that currently most CIs are too narrow in their delivery and do not consider behaviour change sufficiently, tending to over focus on the message. The study recommends that CIs should utilise a broad range of integrated media, linked, if possible, to direct ‘points of contact’. A guide to creating effective audience based CIs is being developed using the results and recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1108 Serial 2675
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Author Rodrigues, Á.; Kastenholz, E.; Rodrigues, A.,
Title Walking trails in recreational and protected areas: an exploratory study of the tourist’s perception of natural areas Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 203-208
Keywords MMV4, Hiking, destination marketing, visitor survey, market analysis, natural areas
Abstract Nowadays, there is a growing demand for leisure, recreation and tourism activities in nature, with hiking being one of the most popular activities. Walking on a trail through nature, besides providing contact with nature, fruition and relaxation, also constitutes an effective way of interaction between men and nature that could awake an increased environmental awareness (Siqueira, 2004). However, tourists that visit natural areas are not a homogeneous segment (Wight, 2001). Specific motivations and personal characteristics make people look for natural areas with different desires. This understanding is very important for those responsible for the planning and management of natural areas. In this context there are two sides to be considered: supply and demand. One of the most efficient ways to manage flows of visitors in natural environments focuses on the careful design of walking trails. However, for that development to be planned and managed in a sustainable manner it is necessary to know the hikers’ profile. This paper presents the results of an exploratory survey of Portuguese and foreign hikers in Portuguese natural areas of different landscapes. Differences between the national and international visitor group could be identified as far as environmental preferences and nature perception is concerned, implying differentiated destination marketing strategies for protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 976 Serial 2609
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Author Rupf, R.; Wernli, M.; Haller, R.,
Title How to elaborate precise visitor numbers? Type
Year 2008 Publication (down) Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 161-164
Keywords MMV4, Acoustic slab sensor, calibration, visitor census, visitor monitoring, Swiss National Park
Abstract Visitor numbers and visitor distribution are required information for various management tasks of recreational areas. Automatic data collection is a low-price opportunity to obtain data. The main problem of automatic methods is data precision. In the Swiss National Park, automatic visitor counting with acoustic slab sensors started in 2005. As precision did not appear to be satisfactory, the counting problems were investigated. Sensor installation strictly followed the instruction manuals given and fine tuning during the calibration period led to a deviance of 5%. Precise counting data resulted in the sum of persons counted whereas direction separated data was not as precise. Recommendations for counting site selection, installation and calibration counting are given.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 960 Serial 2601
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