|   | 
Author Siegrist, D.; Wasem, K.,
Title Optimizing the quality of experience-oriented nature-based tourism offers: the new evaluation tool “Experience Compass” Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 263-267
Keywords (up) MMV4, Nature-based tourism, experience quality, offer development, evaluation tool, expert survey
Abstract In the past few years in Switzerland nature-based tourism has been showing a positive and fresh dynamic. New providers and co-operations enter the market with their products. But very often the new initiatives state problems with the quality of their products and are alone not able to design the products in a way that attracts the attention of a broad audience. An authentic design of the offers can contribute significantly to make them more attractive and visible and therefore stimulate the demand on the tourist market. The article here presented deals with the in-depth analysis of potentials regarding the improvement of the quality of experience-oriented nature-based tourism offers. Based on the results of an expert survey the “Experience Compass”, an evaluation tool of experience quality in nature-based tourism, has been developed and verified by means of case studies. With the new tool providers and other actors are enabled to evaluate and improve experience quality of offers in nature-based tourism.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1008 Serial 2625
Permanent link to this record

Author Sievänen, T.; Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.,
Title National park visitors’ interest to use tourism services in rural communities Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 390-395
Keywords (up) MMV4, Nature-based tourism, visitor, visitor segmentation
Abstract National park visitation can have a considerable economic impact in rural areas. It is valuable to understand the factors, which explain the interest and use of tourism services in rural communities in the vicinity of national parks. The aim of this study were to analyse if there were visitor groups whose intention to use the services differed and what kinds of services were the most interesting for these visitor groups. The study focused on the association between the visitor segments based on service use intention, and background factors such as attitudes towards country-side in general, and visitors’ socioeconomic background. Furthermore, the relation between visitor segments and visit intentions and satisfaction were studied. We examined these topics in two regions in Finland, where tourism industry is not a strong economic actor at the present. The data was collected in two national parks, Seitseminen and Linnansaari, in Central and Eastern Finland. The number of responses was 554, and the response rate was 68. Preliminary results show that national park visitors can be divided into two main groups considering the interest in using tourism services. First part of park visitors were outdoor recreation oriented and interested to use non-motorized or motorized outdoor activities such as fishing tours, nature studying excursions and snowmobile safaris. The other part of the park visitors was ‘general tourists’ who were interested mainly in tourism services such as accommodation and restaurants, etc. The visitor groups differed with respect their intention to visit the park and the region, countryside attitudes and socioeconomic background variables. The results of this study may help tourism enterprises in surrounding rural communities to find the right clientele for their services and products. For the park managers this information is valuable when planning the future management policies and actions. The understanding and recognition of visitors’ overall needs, when visiting the park and the surrounding countryside, is also needed by actors such as municipality decision makers and inhabitants of rural communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1058 Serial 2650
Permanent link to this record

Author Yuan, M.; Fredman, P.,
Title A call for a broad spatial understanding of outdoor recreation use Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 169-173
Keywords (up) MMV4, outdoor recreation, monitoring, vertical data integration
Abstract To better understand the scope of outdoor recreation in a pan Europe context, many agencies and organizations have attempted to collect data at various spatial levels and for a multitude of uses. The aim of this paper is to suggest a need for better and broader understanding of outdoor recreation use at various spatial levels. Case examples from Swedish data collection efforts are provided and suggestions are made to have a better understanding of horizontal harmonization and vertical data integration.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 964 Serial 2603
Permanent link to this record

Author Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.; Sievänen, T.,
Title National park visitors’ attachment to a place, quality perceptions and visit intention Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 378-383
Keywords (up) MMV4, Outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, place attachment, rural tourism
Abstract National parks are often national icons and destinations for nature tourists. Park tourism is seen as a substantial cultural, social and economic phenomenon, which is going to be even more important with decreasing space and expanding human populations. Structural changes, such as decreasing primary production, in the economic base of rural communities, have forced communities to seek alternatives in order to maintain their economic viability. Park tourism is identified as an opportunity to strengthen the rural economy in regions that can provide natural amenity values and recreation services. The case study from three national parks in Finland, Seitseminen, Linnansaari and Repovesi National Park, analyses how park visitors relate to the park and surrounding rural area. The purpose of the study was to examine how the place attachment with intervening factors of quality of services and recreation environment explain the intention to visit the area again in the future. Data (N=736) was gathered by a mail questionnaire for park visitors. The majority, 64-71% of visitors planned to visit the park in next five years and 55-68% the area. About 10% of the visitors felt attached to the surrounding countryside of a national park. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied here to test how the hypothesized causal structure fits to observed data. The preliminary results showed that place attachment interacted positively and statistically significantly with the perceived quality of services and recreation environment. Those who were keen to a place are more satisfied to the services and recreation environment. Park visitors’ attachment to a region and satisfaction with the local services and hospitality correlated positively with their intention to revisit the region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1054 Serial 2648
Permanent link to this record

Author Haider, W.; Riley, J.; Mostegl, N.,
Title The Sea-to-Sky playground: individual outdoor recreation and commercial recreation on public land in winter Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 277-277
Keywords (up) MMV4, Outdoor recreation, winter recreation, landuse
Abstract The so-called “Sea-to-Sky Corridor” in British Columbia, Canada, spreads from Vancouver via Squamish beyond Whistler. Its superb scenery nestled between ocean and glaciers attracts residents of Vancouver and international visitors alike. Most of the area is public land, and a major regional landuse plan is just about to be completed. While forestry has been the main traditional use, now summer and winter recreation feature very prominently in these plans. The plans separate much of the motorized and non-motorized activities, but other potential conflicts such as between commercial recreation and independent outdoor recreationists have been addressed to a lesser extent. In order to obtain some insights into the number of visitors and describe some of their characteristics, we undertook an intensive user count at the main staging areas, combined with a short intercept survey about the types of activities pursued, distances travelled, specific locations and expenditures. In the presentation I will elaborate on the method used for estimating site specific and regional user numbers, associated expenditures, and perceived and actual conflict. The presentation will compare motorized and nonmotorized users, as well as clients of commercial operations and independent travelers, and link these findings to the already existing zoning for the region. The presentation will conclude with identifying remaining shortcomings of information for future landuse decisions in light of expected future use increases, as both the demand from the metropolitan Vancouver as well as from the resort community of Whistler will continue to grow
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1012 Serial 2627
Permanent link to this record

Author Fredman, P.; Ernerfeldt Burman, L.,
Title Outdoor recreation in change. A Swedish program on outdoor recreation research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 483-483
Keywords (up) MMV4, Outdoor, recreation, change, sweden
Abstract Outdoor Recreation in Change is an interdisciplinary research program which will analyze current dynamics of outdoor recreation and nature based tourism in Sweden, forming a thorough knowledge base for future research and monitoring. The program is organized into six projects to emphasize the diversity of outdoor recreation research. (1) The research is integrated through a common empirical arena that includes case studies of recreation landscapes and a national survey to provide information on outdoor recreation activities, participation and constraints. This will give a comprehensive input to five deepening projects: (2) Outdoor recreation patterns (motives, access, urban-rural tensions, gender, immigrants, youth, non-users and trends); (3) Urban proximate nature (outdoor recreational opportunities, economics and health); (4) Outdoor recreation in spatial planning (land use, conflict resolution, impact assessment and local management); (5) Outdoor recreation and nature conservation (integrated land management, environmental education and guiding); and (6) Nature-based tourism for regional development (demand, supply, impacts, protected areas and governance). Communication at three levels (information, dialogue and collaboration) will establish strong linkages and ensure that results are disseminated to a broad group of external stakeholders and practitioners. The program, which is financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, is planned for six years and involves 18 researchers at seven universities in Sweden. This presentation will give an overview of the program, current program activities, and highlights of recent results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1092 Serial 2667
Permanent link to this record

Author Karacsonyi, J.; Karacsonyi, Z.,
Title Solutions for a new challenge in the field of visitor flows: paragliding and nature protection Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 490-490
Keywords (up) MMV4, Paragliding, visitor flows, harmonization efforts, stakeholders’ workshop
Abstract One segment of the increasing number of visitors of nature areas are the visitors with sporting purpose. Among these the technical sports have essentially different characteristics. The relationship between exercisers of technical sports and nature, landscape involves the possibility of a non-harmonic relation and notrarely the fact of that. We delineate the characteristics of the paragliding sport its practice and its relationship with nature, landscape by examining the Hungarian situation. We review the status of the paragliding sport, the increasing number of sportsman and the paragliding clubs. We introduce the decisive authorisation procedures of paragliding (Civil Aviation Authority of Hungary, nature conservation) and its adaptation and problems. Presentation of the outcome of the workshop organized with the presence of the concerned parties (paragliders, national parks, aviation authorities) which was set up to formulate and negotiate the interest and opinion of the actors. It was the first time that a workshop gave the opportunity for the reconciliation, harmonization of the two differing demand. Tasks of the near future was formulated for create a long lasting co-operation between the paragliding sport and the demand for protecting the natural values.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1098 Serial 2670
Permanent link to this record

Author Eder, R.; Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Assessment of a passive infrared counter with a remote data transfer facility Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 480-482
Keywords (up) MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, remote data transfer, video monitoring
Abstract This study evaluated the reliability of the Ecocounter – Ecotwin© equipped with a remote control facility (Eco-GSM-unit) under different conditions. The counter is connected to a modem, which allows transferring data from the counter to the office via internet. We will discuss the reliability of the modem and the influences of the different locations and surroundings on it.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1090 Serial 2666
Permanent link to this record

Author Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title A comparison of passive infrared counter results with time lapse video monitoring at a shared urban recreational trail Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 485-489
Keywords (up) MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, shared trail, video monitoring, Vienna
Abstract This study compared two visitor counting methods at a heavily used multi-use access trail to the Donau-Auen National Park in Vienna, Austria. We compared visitor numbers gained by video monitoring with passive infrared counter results (Ecocounter – Ecotwin©). Both devices were installed at the same place and recorded the recreation use along the trail between December 2007 and January 2008. During daylight the video camera took pictures every 1.6 seconds. Counting by Ecotwin resulted in 3477 counts, while the total amount of counts by video monitoring was 4405. We will discuss causes for the differences in visitor numbers, and the pro and cons of both methods.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1096 Serial 2669
Permanent link to this record

Author Müller, M.; Mayer, M.; Woltering, M.; Job, H.,
Title Visitor attitudes towards natural disturbance: the case of the bark beetle in Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 347-352
Keywords (up) MMV4, perception, attitudes, natural disturbance, protected areas, tourism, bark beetles
Abstract Management authorities of protected areas have recently been faced with a considerable rise of natural disturbance such as fire or insect pests in ecosystems. Incorporating visitor experience of natural disturbance into management strategies is a crucial task. The present study uses multivariate statistical analysis to examine visitors’ attitudes towards large-scale bark beetle infestation in the case of Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Findings indicate that visitors have a neutral attitude towards the bark beetle and slightly reject controlling the bark beetle in the national park. Expectations of a successful recovery of the affected areas (green-up) and low personal issue salience are the two strongest predictors for support of not controlling the bark beetle. Our findings suggest that it is well possible to position protected areas as refuges where nature is supposed to follow its course without intervention rather than as landscaped representations of cultural ideal types. In order to communicate this idea of wilderness to visitors, park management authorities should design educational measures to raise visitors’ awareness of the ecological mandate of protected areas and of the role of disturbance agents in ecosystems.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1042 Serial 2642
Permanent link to this record

Author Takayama, N.,
Title The therapeutic effect of taking in the atmosphere of a forest Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 516-520
Keywords (up) MMV4, Profile of mood states, Semantic differential method, Taking in the atmosphere of the forest (Sinrin-yoku), Therapeutic effect
Abstract The concept of “Taking in the atmosphere of a Forest” (shinrin-yoku, in Japanese) was proposed in 1982 by the Japanese Forestry Agency to help people to relax and revitalize their body and soul (therapeutic effect). Previously, the therapeutic effect had been based on only empirical evidence. However, thanks to the rapid improvement of measurement technology and equipment, the government has been scientifically examining the therapeutic effect of forests and using the resulting data for the benefit of the public. The effect is thought to differ depending on the kinds of trees, the spatial structure and the specific atmosphere of the forest environment. Therefore, we decided to study the therapeutic effect of two old-growth forests. As a control, we selected a wellmaintained artificial forest. We measured and compared the therapeutic effect on the subjects, paying attention to 1) their impression of the forest space and 2) how their feeling changed after walking through each forest. Consequently, we found that subjects considered the old-growth forests with huge trees as more sacred, more comfortable, more serene and more natural than the control forest. Moreover, in the control forest there was no difference in any of the indicators used in the survey, while in the old-growth forests the therapeutic effect was confirmed by several indicators.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1116 Serial 2679
Permanent link to this record

Author Sanesi, G.; Fiore, M.; Colangelo, G.; Lafortezza, R.,
Title Monitoring visitor-flows in Tuscany’s forests: preliminary results and clues Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 40-44
Keywords (up) MMV4, Protected area – Forest resources – Environmental indicators – Forest Information System – Tuscany Region
Abstract In 2006, the Tuscany Region through its Agency for Agriculture and Forestry (ARSIA) has lunched a tool supporting the process of planning and managing forest areas within the region: RAFT – “RApporto sullo stato delle Foreste in Toscana” – Report on the status of Tuscany forests. The RAFT aims to monitor the status of forests and their main functions and services in relation to ecological and social aspects. This monitoring process has now reached its third year. Within the theme of “Environment and society”, the RAFT has analysed a number of indicators (following the P-S-R framework) related to the flows of visitors in Tuscany’s forests. Analyses show the relevance of forest areas in the region especially within protected areas. In this paper, we report a brief description of the RAFT and the some preliminary results related to the analysis of past and current flows of visitors in protected areas and hunting sites. We discuss the main strengths and the weaknesses associated with the past and current policies for managing visitors’ flows and propose new strategies to disseminate information and attract visitors during different seasons.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 894 Serial 2569
Permanent link to this record

Author Barbirato, A.; Favaretto, F.; Bottazzo, S.,
Title Peregrine Falcon at Rocca Pendice: a difficult but possible relationship Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 472-474
Keywords (up) MMV4, Protection, Peregrine falcon, alpine climbers
Abstract Among the family of Falconidae, Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) is considered to be the most beautiful and fascinating member of its family. The history and fame of this family dates back to ancient times and the frequent crisis that this species underwent in the years triggered preservation actions that often dealt with climbing and nesting of this bird. The discover in 2001 of a couple of Peregrine falcon that nested on the Eastern cliff of Rocca Pendice brought up the problem of overlapping between the two species (falcon and man) forcing the management of the Colli Euganei Park to assess the situation with LIPU and CAI in order to find a common strategy to solve the problem. From 2001 to nowadays several limitation strategies have been applied with different results depending upon the protected area along with the protection period. The action plans that are hereafter described have proved a positive effect on nesting of the bird. Although climbers have undergone disadvantages because of these decisions we have recorded an increased sensibility in the problem by them that led to a respectful use of the cliff. The encouraging results show how a good collaboration is possible to establish a peaceful cohabitation between sport tourism and endangered species in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1086 Serial 2664
Permanent link to this record

Author Thaxter, P.; Colas, S.,
Title Public participation Forests – conserve, protect, enjoy Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 521-521
Keywords (up) MMV4, Public participation, forest, wildlife monitoring
Abstract The PROGRESS Project is a joint EU funded project between France (Office National des Forêts and Comité Départemental du Tourisme de Seine et Marne), England (Forestry Commission and Natural England) and the Netherlands (Alterra Research Institute). It aims at improving recreation management in the New Forest (120 km south of London) and Fontainebleau Forest (60 km south of Paris), both protected areas. The main objective was to use a range of tools for a better understanding of forest biodiversity and recreation to help reconcile the needs of conservation and recreation. The strategy was to work closely with stakeholder groups and the general public using a participatory approach to help plan the environment for local people and tourists whilst optimising the benefit for the wildlife. This involved very detailed recreation surveys and information about ecological issues being discussed with the stakeholders, to allow changes about channelling the public and alternative facilities off Natura 2000 to be proposed. This was followed by consultation with the public to get acceptance and ownership of these proposals. This led to a variety of actions being implemented including totally new facilities, signage and access control. It also involved a communication program, sustainability program, and other initiatives such as computer-based lessons for schools, promotion of health walks and best practice guides. All of this was done in differing ways in France and England, and the presentation will document the clear success this had in legitimising management changes required for a sustainable balance, and also some insight to lessons learnt. This is being followed up by a five year program of recreation and wildlife monitoring to give long term results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1118 Serial 2680
Permanent link to this record

Author Leung, Y.-F.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Lu, D.-J.,
Title Does recreation ecology have a place in East Asia? Some insights from Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 54-54
Keywords (up) MMV4, Recreation ecology, nature-based tourism, East Asia, visitor impact
Abstract The significance of East Asian protected areas to support biodiversity conservation and nature-based tourism is increasingly recognized, so is the tension between these two objectives. Recreation ecology, the scientific study of visitor impacts in protected areas and their effective management, seems to have a role to play in resolving this conflict. At the last MMV conference, the general status of recreation ecology research in East Asia was summarized (Leung 2006). Three major developmental stages of this area of research development and some key challenges were identified. This presentation at MMV4 is intended to follow up with this line of dialogue by examining recreation ecology research on Taiwan Island as a case example. In Taiwan, the common occurrence of visitor impacts in forest recreation areas has long been acknowledged by managers and researchers. There were significant concerns about extensive soil and water conservation problems associated with recreation facility development in sensitive mountain areas in the 1980s. Such concerns led to focused research efforts carried out by several researchers since the 1990s. However, the diversity of topics and research methodology remained low and many of these earlier studies had a weak connection to management practice. Many studies were short-term investigations with limited management utility, mirroring the nature of research funding mechanism. Despite the constraints, several recent projects are showing signs that some protected area administrators may be more receptive of the role of recreation ecology research and long-term impact monitoring in supporting a more proactive approach to visitor management in protected areas. These projects, the trends they may represent, and the implications to the East Asian region in regard to challenges and opportunities will be highlighted
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 900 Serial 2572
Permanent link to this record

Author Cole, D.N.,
Title The significance of recreation impacts: The importance of scale Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 53-53
Keywords (up) MMV4, Recreation ecology, special scale, ecological impact
Abstract Recreation managers often consider the ecological impacts of recreation to be serious problems that need to be mitigated. Conversely, protected area ecologists often consider such impacts to be trivial. Such differences of opinion result from applying divergent evaluative criteria to assessing the significance of recreation impacts. It reflects lack of attention to questions of significance and, in particular, inadequate exploration of scale issues in recreation ecology. Impacts might be considered significant if they represent a substantial loss of ecological integrity or if they are perceived by recreation users to be highly disagreeable. Although not mutually exclusive, impacts on ecological integrity and human perception provide different criteria for evaluating significance. Cole and Landres [1] propose that the ecological significance of an impact is a function of both impact and attribute characteristics. Significance increases with the areal extent, intensity and longevity of the impact and with the rarity and irreplaceability of the impacted attribute. To be significant, from the perspective of human perception, the impacts have to be noticeable. In addition, the most disagreeable impacts are one’s that result from what is considered inappropriate behavior. Given these relevant criteria, this paper explores research that can help in assessing the significance of ecological impacts and suggests which impacts are likely to be most critically important. In particular, the paper reviews what is known about the spatial scale of impacts, since this is relevant to assessing both the areal extent of impacts and how noticeable impacts are. The impacts that are most significant perceptually are often quite different from the impacts that are ecologically most significant.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 898 Serial 2571
Permanent link to this record

Author Wachowicz, M.; Orellana, D.; Renso, C.; Muñoz Moraga, E.; Parada, J.,
Title The spatial knowledge representation of players movement in mobile outdoor gaming Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 456-460
Keywords (up) MMV4, Recreation planning, mobile outdoor gaming, spatial knowlegde representation, ontology
Abstract This paper describes an innovative approach for developing a spatial knowledge representation based on the existence of multi tier spaces as a mental construction of human movement. The three “spaces” paradigm has been proposed to support the reasoning process in terms of sensing, symbolic, and social spaces. The spatial knowledge representation was implemented as a computational ontology in Protégé, and it has been applied to provide new insight about the actual behavioural patterns of players within a recreation site, accordingly to checkpoints and similar players´ interactions. This first experiment consisted of an educational game in Amsterdam using mobile phones and GPS-technology for 200 students having the age of 12-14. The results demonstrate that different types of inferences play a different role accordingly to what a recreational planner needs to infer, that is, the location of interactions among players and the environment.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1080 Serial 2661
Permanent link to this record

Author Kruger, L.E.,
Title Affinity to place and serious leisure: implications of amenity migration for nearby recreational and protected areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 256-256
Keywords (up) MMV4, Recreational and protected areas, place’s affinity, leisure
Abstract People have long been attracted to places with high amenity values. The first Baby Boomers have begun to collect Social Security checks and many more will follow. Increasing retirees who make up a growing numbers of migrants are moving into communities fortunate to have highly valued environmental and cultural resources and recreation opportunities. Tourists and retirees are drawn to natural amenities and opportunities for both tranquillity and adventure. Wilderness can be especially attractive and introduces people to rural and remote locations. Resort real estate, full and fractional ownership arrangements (time shares), residence clubs, and a variety of other options provide an array of investment possibilities. Rapid growth of retirees has implications for communities and public land managers. For land managers, growth is likely to increase population density in proximity to public lands, increase pressure on riparian and other environmentally sensitive areas and increase the demand for recreation opportunities and facilities. The changing values within the neighbouring community may change the issues and concerns residents have about recreational and protected area management. Healthy retirees are looking for a variety of recreation and volunteer opportunities. Communities need to consider infrastructure, especially in health and transportation sectors. As amenity migrants settle in their new community, the physical changes are readily apparent: new homes, new business, new roads, rising real estate values. Rising levels of disposable income among the middle and skilled working classes and the growth of a “leisure society” with time for recreation and travel have fueled demand for recreation. What are the implications for recreational and protected area management? This paper explores concepts of place and serious leisure as they are related to amenity migration and implications for management of recreational and protected areas near amenity communities. How can these concepts inform our understanding of the changing demands of amenity migration communities? In what ways are concepts of place attachment and sense of place useful in planning for change in high amenity communities and the surrounding recreational and protected areas?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1002 Serial 2622
Permanent link to this record

Author Duke, D.; Quinn, M.,
Title Methodological considerations for using remote cameras to monitor the ecological effects of trails users: lessons from research in Western Canada Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 441-445
Keywords (up) MMV4, Remote cameras, access management, monitoring methods, wildlife
Abstract The Livingstone River Area in southwestern Alberta, Canada is an ecologically significant area of public land that provides an important connection between adjacent protected areas. Most of the area is zoned for multiple use; which means the area is available for resource extraction and recreational activity. Recreational use in this area consists primarily of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, random access camping and fly fishing. Recreational use is largely unmanaged and increasing. The proliferation of trails and campsites has become extensive in the past decade. Furthermore, much of this activity is concentrated along critical riparian movement corridors and in sensitive montane, subalpine and alpine environments. Human use and associated linear disturbance is recognized as among the most significant habitat fragmentation factor limiting sensitive wildlife (especially large carnivores) in the region. We have developed a sampling method that employs remote digital infrared cameras on known human trails and wildlife trails. The cameras have proven to be very effective for monitoring all trail use. We provide a review of our methods, report on the effectiveness of the cameras and provide some guidance on the use of cameras based on the lessons we have learned.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1074 Serial 2658
Permanent link to this record

Author Figueiredo, E.,
Title Quiet struggles – conflicts between residents, visitors and protected and recreational areas’ administrations Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 26-32
Keywords (up) MMV4, remote rural areas, rural protected and recreational areas, social conflicts, social perceptions
Abstract The paper aims to discuss the conflicting situations which can occur between residents, visitors and political and administrative entities in protected and recreational areas, particularly in the ones located in remote rural spaces. Rural areas (both legally protected and without protection status) are increasingly valued in contemporary societies as environmental reserves. Consequently rural areas are progressively perceived as amenities and as objects of consumption mainly by urban or non local populations. The visitors’ demands and consumptions of rural protected and recreational areas tend to prevail over the local populations’ needs and aspirations in terms of socioeconomic development. The non coincidence between the desired and the lived rural environment tends to create a number of conflicts among the various stakeholders. These areas tend to become the scenario for both latent and manifest struggles, considering the contradictory perceptions, needs, interests and desires held by the different social actors. Based on empirical evidence from some Portuguese rural protected and recreational areas we will debate not only the existence of two clearly contrasting visions, but also the consequences these can have in terms of future social and economic development and environmental protection strategies.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 890 Serial 2567
Permanent link to this record

Author Jodlowski, M.,
Title Climbing management in protected areas of southern Poland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 484-484
Keywords (up) MMV4, Rock climbing, climbing management, environmental impact, bolts, Southern Poland
Abstract Hundreds of rock cliffs and isolated rocks can be found in Southern Poland within upland, mid-mountain or high-mountain landscapes. Most of these sites are, to a various extent, protected by law – within national parks, landscape parks, nature reserves or nature monuments. They are major tourist attractions for visitors of the respective protected areas who generally do not interfere with cliffs ecosystems. This is not the case with climbing activities which remain a subject of an unremitting controversy.This work focuses on the analysis of the climbing management with respect to the assessment of the impact of climbing activities on cliff environment. Polish environmental law does not regulate climbing management, referring it to the competence of protected area managers. However, in the majority of protected areas management consists only in a total closure of some areas to any climbing activities. Trees have been frequently planted in the vicinity of rocks; rock surfaces on which climbing had been curtailed are now overgrown with mosses and herbaceous vegetation, while natural xerophyte and heliophyte communities have been destroyed. Resulting landscape changes largely decreased many geosites’ attractiveness not only for climbing but tourism in general. Only recently in some climbing areas trees and shrubs in the vicinity of cliffs have been cleared, however, frequently such actions are not previously consulted with reserve or national park managers. With the growing popularity of this type of qualified tourism, it is necessary to create a modern system of climbing management, based on environmental conservation. Conservation and management plans for protected areas should contain detailed regulations of access to particular geosites where climbing activities are to be allowed. Such regulations may impose seasonal closure of particular cliffs or parts of cliffs to climbing during bird nesting periods or closures due to protection of cliff plant communities. Specified should be the types of permitted climbing activities together with protection method. Finally, monitoring of climbing intensity and environmental impact should be carried out for sustainable tourism development
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1094 Serial 2668
Permanent link to this record

Author Saparbayev, S.K.; Woodward, D.B.,
Title Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) as an indicator species and increasing recreation loads in the Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 511-515
Keywords (up) MMV4, Snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica), Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, ecotrail
Abstract The purpose of this research is to analyze the data on ecology, biology and dynamics of snow leopard population in the Almaty Nature Reserve and to identify if the increasing numbers of ecotourists could contribute to the decrease of Uncia uncia population. The results of the study show that increasing recreation loads in the Reserve and adjacent territories elevate the disturbance level to the snow leopard’s main prey Siberian Ibex and to the predator itself that could result in a decrease of population of this endangered species or its total extinction.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1114 Serial 2678
Permanent link to this record

Author Newman, P.; Manning, R.E.; Fristrup, K.,
Title Managing Soundscapes in National Parks: an adaptive management approach in Muir Woods National monument, California Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 353-353
Keywords (up) MMV4, Soundscapes, visitor-caused noise, adaptive management Muir Woods National Monument, national parks
Abstract Research in national parks has begun to address the issue of human-caused noise and its resource and social impacts. This paper reports the results of a study conducted in the summer of 2007 that tested the efficacy and acceptability of management actions designed to reduce visitor-caused noise The study used an experimental or “adaptive” management” approach designed to test the effectiveness of temporal and spatial zoning to protect natural quiet in Muir Woods National Monument, California, an old growth redwood forest. The adaptive management experiment consisted of two treatments and an associated control. During all three periods, visitorcaused noise was recorded at a fixed location in the park and a visitor survey was conducted. The first treatment tested the effectiveness of a spatial zoning approach by establishing a “quiet zone” in Cathedral Grove through a series of park signs. The second treatment tested the effectiveness of a temporal zoning approach by establishing “quiet days” throughout the park through a series of park signs. The control period included neither of these treatments. Study findings indicate that both the “quiet zone” and “quiet day” treatments were effective in lowering the level of visitor-caused noise in the park as measured during the control period, and that visitors were highly supportive of these management actions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1044 Serial 2643
Permanent link to this record

Author Cottrell, S.P.,
Title Perceptions, attitudes and perceived benefits of local residents about tourism development in and around European Protected Area Network Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 72-76
Keywords (up) MMV4, Sustainability, tourism, indicators, monitoring
Abstract This paper presents the European Protected Area Network (PAN Parks) approach (mixed methods) for monitoring resident beliefs about the benefits of PAN Parks status and satisfaction with tourism development. Comparison of results and lessons learned from studies done in Poland, Bulgaria, and Finland are given. Hypothesizes imply that economic, socio-cultural, ecological, and institutional dimensions of sustainable tourism influence perceived benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development. As residents’ satisfaction with the economic, socio-cultural, institutional and ecological aspects of sustainable tourism increase, so do beliefs about the benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development in the PAN Park regions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 914 Serial 2579
Permanent link to this record

Author Naviglio, L.,
Title The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST) integrated with other voluntary tools can facilitate a more effective tourism management in Natural Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 212-216
Keywords (up) MMV4, sustainable tourism, protected areas, voluntary tools, public/private shared strategies
Abstract The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST), promoted by Europarc in EU protected areas, considers the natural resources conservation as the reason for tourist attractiveness and tourism economy. The main goal is to create a network between public and private subjects in order to individuate and to promote new sustainable tourism offers and to define common, shared, strategies and action plans able to improve local economy preserving natural resources. The ECST implementation can be improved by using procedures and approaches typical of other voluntary tools like ISO 14001/EMAS and Local Agenda 21 (LA21). In particular, the environmental analysis should be more addressed to the existing relationships between pressures produced by tourism and other human activities and the state of the environment (the DPSIR scheme proposed by EEA could be useful for that). A evaluation of criticisms and a rank of priorities should be introduced in the process (as in ISO 14001) and local stakeholders involvement can be referred to LA21. ISO 14001/EMAS should provide references also for monitoring plans and for the management of procedures aimed at using the “park logo” (http://qualitypark. casaccia.enea.it) as award for best practices.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 980 Serial 2611
Permanent link to this record

Author Jodlowski, M.; Depta, L.; Wójcik, P.,
Title Climbing impact on the relief and vegetation of the Tatra National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 85-85
Keywords (up) MMV4, Tatra National Park, climbing impact, relief, vegetation
Abstract The Tatra Mts. are the only high-mountain range in Poland, protected as a national park since 1954. The environment of rock cliffs, and especially the vegetation is unique within the mountain ecosystem. However, harsh environmental conditions result in high level of ecosystem vulnerability. In the Tatra National Park climbing activity encompasses all of its disciplines: sport climbing on equipped routes, both short and multi-pitched, traditional climbing as well as the alpine climbing. Recently, new climbing disciplines, such as dry-tooling and bouldering, have also became popular. The climbing impact has been a subject to competitive debate between national park managers, naturalists and climbers, although it has been relatively weakly studied. This study focuses on the landscape changes resulting from climbing activities on the cliff ecosystems located in forest, subalpine and alpine geoecological belts, both on carbonate and crystalline substrate. Within some crags climbing activity is permitted by law, however the others are a subject to illegal exploration. The basis for this study was surveying the existing climbing routes (and state of protection. e.g. bolts and pitons) as well as monitoring of the climbing intensity on specific crags. The landscape changes were identified by geomorphic mapping of cliffs and adjacent slopes as well as botanical studies. Observed landscape changes caused by climbers result mainly in mechanical damage of vegetation, growing instability of slope covers, and micro-relief alteration. The impact significantly differs with reference to climbing disciplines and geological substrate. The largest changes encompassing complete removal of vegetation layer and soil cover result from dry-tooling on limestone cliffs, whereas sport climbing on granite cliffs causes only limited removal of weathered rocks and restraining of lichens succession.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 920 Serial 2582
Permanent link to this record

Author Türk, S.,
Title Urban greens for recreation, outdoor activities and nature experience Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 220-223
Keywords (up) MMV4, Urban greens, management concepts, guidelines
Abstract A modern management of recreational areas for communities should be understood as a useful planning tool. Only an active management of such natural areas nearby settlements, used for outdoor and recreational sports and nature experiences, will fulfill long-term recreation planning in communities and will yield in an increasing quality of life and environmental issues for its habitants. However an integrated concept is needed, which means all categories of recreational issues have to be brought together throughout all departments in a reasonable way. That accounts for all communities independent of its size and structure. Management of recreational areas is not a further inconvenient development planning tool; it is an effective instrument for advancing natural orientated recreational areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 984 Serial 2613
Permanent link to this record

Author Itami, R.M.,
Title Level of sustainable activity: bottom up vessel traffic management Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 155-159
Keywords (up) MMV4, Vessel Traffic Management, Level of Sustainable Activity, RBSim, Recreation Behaviour Simulation, Bottom Up Decision Making
Abstract This paper presents a decision-making framework called “Level of Sustainable Activity”(LSA) which is a user-based approach to vessel traffic planning and management of high volume multiple use urban waterways. The method is adapted from the US Federal Highway Administrations “Level of Service” for traffic capacity. However the LSA framework links user estimates of traffic density to quality of service objects and a risk management framework to identify social and environmental risk factors. The results of the method are then used to interpret simulations of existing and projected use for making management decisions. The LSA framework was developed to define traffic capacity to urban waterways, however a spinoff of the method has been improved stakeholder buy-in into the process and a much stronger basis for management decision making. This is a direct result of the “bottom up” approach taken to both developing behavioural simulation models and the methods of obtaining information from users for populating and validating the simulation model. This paper advocates the LSA approach for a wider range of management applications by taking a user-based approach for describing existing conditions, projecting future growth, identifying key issues, and developing management actions. A case study of a vessel traffic management plan for Hobson’s Bay in Melbourne, Australia is used to demonstrate the concepts described in this paper.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 956 Serial 2599
Permanent link to this record

Author Hennig, S.,
Title The recreation perspective. A recreationalists typology on visitors and their behaviour by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 183-187
Keywords (up) MMV4, visitor characteristics, recreational behaviour, typologies, management, statistical analysis
Abstract To perform its tasks management needs information on visitors. They provide insight into the recreational situation of protected areas and support management decisions. Therefor, data on visitor use and visitation behaviour have to be analyzed and mapped. However, information on visitors should not be reduced on singular variables. It is important to combine these different characteristics and build up types of visitors respectively visitor behaviour. In favour of this the approach of recreation perspective is elaborated. The concept takes account of existing typologies on (nature-based) tourism and their attributes (e.g. size, age). Furthermore, visitor behaviour is integrated. Distinguished in macro and micro behaviour it is expressed by choice of activity, destination, type, location and duration of extended stops etc.. Considering these aspects visitors can be categorized into several types. The recreation perspective is worked out and applied to the German Berchtesgaden National Park.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 968 Serial 2605
Permanent link to this record

Author Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Quality assessment of public use in National Parks. Application to the Spanish National Park System Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 112-115
Keywords (up) MMV4, Visitor information and visitor management, Visitor monitoring methods, Public use quality
Abstract In recent years, we have observed how, worldwide, the goal of nature preservation has to be developed in a scenario of continuous increment in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing PA resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. It’s estimated that the whole Spanish PA receive over 50 million visitors a year, ten of them to the National Park System. The progressive influx of visitors in a short period of time has made administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it in the best way? In this context, this investigation defines an evaluation tool to asses the quality of public use programs developed in National Parks which has been applied to the Spanish National Park System, and could be applied to other parks and systems. It examines different trends and provides with some future recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 936 Serial 2590
Permanent link to this record

Author Pfeifer, J.; Hennig, S.; Opp, C.,
Title Analysis of visitor nodes as a tool for visitor management by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 121-126
Keywords (up) MMV4, visitor nodes, recreational use, visitor management, infrastructure and statistical analysis
Abstract Infrastructural elements in protected areas play an important role for visitors. They provide equipment to visitor activities and their demands. However data on infrastructure is frequently disregarded. Concepts and models to collect and deal with infrastructure data have to be developed. In Berchtesgaden National Park the concept of visitor nodes is used in order to support visitor management. Identification of 81 visitor nodes in this protected area took place. They have been classified into five categories: “place for excursions”, “destination for hiking”, “information”, “resting” and “orientation”. Each category is characterized through a defined standard supply. By using categories, evaluation of each visitor node was done. Deficits as well as satisfying situations became observably.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 942 Serial 2592
Permanent link to this record

Author Zanon, D.; Hall, J.; Shaw, R.,
Title Long term benefits of visitor monitoring – An Australian experience Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 148-152
Keywords (up) MMV4, Visitor Satisfaction, Visitor Segments, Park Visitors, Structural Equation Model, Park Management Planning
Abstract Parks Victoria manages Victoria’s (Australia) national, state and urban parks. These parks make up approximately 17% of the state’s area and annually receive 45.3 million visits. Parks Victoria has been dedicated to the development of scientifically sound methods for monitoring visitors and the community since 1994. The three main ongoing monitoring streams are: visit quantities, community perceptions of management and visitor experience (Visitor Satisfaction Monitor). Accumulated research data from the Visitor Satisfaction Monitor (VSM) has been used to profile and refine the organisation’s understanding of its various park visitors. After 10 years that data has matured to produce a comprehensive visitor-product market segmentation. Over 11,000 interviews at 34 major parks (including 68 visitor sites) between 2000 and 2004 were used to group park visitors into seven segments. The segments are Nature Admirers, Urban Socials Trail Users, Passives and Other Users, Activity Centrics, Access Made Easy and Country Vacationers. Each park visitor segment, or group, had substantial differences from the other groups, while the individuals within each segment had much more in common; Nature Admirers visit in small groups for a short spectacular scenic experience whereas Urban Socials visit in large groups for half-day social interactions such as birthday parties and picnics. Further analyses have been conducted to identify individual sub-segments within each of the major segments. These sub-segments provide detailed information that can be used for the future development of parks and associated services. Subsequent analysis using Structural Equation Modelling provides evidence that the relationships between services and satisfaction are better understood when considering segments. Parks Victoria has been using segments in park management applications such as wild fire recovery plans, tourism strategy formulation, park management planning and visitor risk management. It has proved to be an efficient and effective systematic way of meeting visitor needs.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 954 Serial 2598
Permanent link to this record

Author Van Der Donk, M.,
Title Ten years of experience in providing wilderness experience opportunities in Europe’s certified PAN Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 77-77
Keywords (up) MMV4, Wilderness, network, experiences, Europe, tourism
Abstract Today ten years ago, the first steps were taken to realise a marriage between conservation and the tourism industry in the most important wilderness areas of Europe. This initiative awards wilderness areas that meet the highest standards of management for conservation and sustainable tourism development strategies with the PAN Parks quality seal. It can be considered as a gold standard for well- managed protected areas. Based on the PAN Parks principles and criteria and the verification reports, park managers are encouraged to increase the management effectiveness of their protected areas and to plan, provide and maintain high quality recreation opportunities inside the park. Five principles make up the PAN Parks verification scheme, three of which deal with visitor experiences: Visitor management (principle 3), Sustainable Tourism Development Strategy (Principle 4), and Partnerships (Principle 5). Tourism development is used as a means to give economic value to wilderness areas and to create support for conservation. By creating unique and high quality opportunities for wildernessbased recreation, the marriage has proven to be successful as it results in benefits for nature, for communities in and around the protected area and in unique experience opportunities for visitors. This is measured by using mixed methodologies in the Analysis of Perceptions and Attitudes (APA) studies done in 3 of the certified areas. After ten years of working on the development and implementation of the concept in different European countries that cope with different and similar opportunities and obstacles, we can draw interesting lessons learned. Among them: The value of the network and the certificate to the park, local businesses and local people, the principles and criteria as management tools for planning and managing of tourism, providing the (certified) European wilderness experience for different types of tourists, generating revenues through tourism, communication and cooperation with stakeholders
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 916 Serial 2580
Permanent link to this record

Author Goossen, M.; Elands, B.; Van Marwijk, R.,
Title Preface – Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 11-12
Keywords (up) MMV5
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 284 Serial 2683
Permanent link to this record

Author Schouten, M.,
Title Wildlife reserves: sanctuaries, commons or commodities? Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 18-18
Keywords (up) MMV5
Abstract Nature does not know itself as nature. We perceive it as such. And in that perception we project our images of nature. Such images are social constructs that vary in time and between cultures: nature as the enemy, nature as a resource, nature as an uncorrupted domain…..
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 216 Serial 2686
Permanent link to this record

Author Restad, C.; Aas, Ø.; Wold, L.C.,
Title On the stone footpath – Reactions to abrasion reducing measures at Besseggen, Jotunheimen National Park, Norway Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 29-30
Keywords (up) MMV5, abrasion reducing measure, visitor survey, user satisfaction
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 278 Serial 2691
Permanent link to this record

Author Pouwels, R.; Opdam, P.,
Title Uncertainties and new management strategies: solving the recreation- biodiversity conflict with local stakeholders Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 267-269
Keywords (up) MMV5, adaptive management, boundary management, incomplete knowledge, unpredictability
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 104 Serial 2798
Permanent link to this record

Author Rupf, R.; Koechli, D.; Haider, W.; Skov-Petersen, H.; Pröbstl, U.,
Title Framework Mafreina: management toolkit recreation and wildlife in the Swiss Alps Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 121-123
Keywords (up) MMV5, agent-based model, discrete choice experiment, environmental planning, GPS-logging, recreation
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 226 Serial 2732
Permanent link to this record

Author Landauer, M.; Fredman, P.,
Title Nature-based artificial recreation environments: typology, empirical correlates and implications Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 103-104
Keywords (up) MMV5, artificial, outdoor recreation, nature tourism, commodification, authenticity
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 52 Serial 2724
Permanent link to this record

Author Arnberger, A.; Eder, R.; Allex, B.; Sterl, P.; Burns, R.C.,
Title Exploring relationships between visitor motives, satisfaction, recreation quality and attitudes towards protected area management in the Gesaeuse National Park, Austria Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 63-64
Keywords (up) MMV5, attitudes, motives, National Park, visitor survey
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 80 Serial 2707
Permanent link to this record