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Author Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L.,
Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143
Keywords (up) MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring
Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596
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Author Nasa, M.; Emphandhu, D.; Pattanakiat, S.; Kitisin, S.,
Title Database system development of nature-based tourism in protected areas, Chiang Mai province Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 315-319
Keywords (up) MMV4, Database System Development, Nature-based Tourism, Protected Areas, Chiang Mai Province
Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess the status of nature-based tourism resources, design and develop the database system and web application for tourism resources management in protected areas, Chiang Mai province. The data contained in the database system included tourism resource potential, recreation opportunity spectrum, and physical carrying capacity of the tourism sites in Chiang Mai’s protected areas. The tourism resource potential at 124 sites were assessed and classified into 72 conventional nature tourism (NT), 37 adventure tourism (AT), 5 ecotourism (ET), and 10 being qualified as both adventure and conventional nature tourism sites (NT/AT). The highest potential of the NT sites was identified as Keaw Mae Pan scoring 2.84 out of 3. While Mae Tang and Mae Cham – Tha Phra Sadej water rafting routes were the highest potentials for the AT (score 2.69), Doi Luang Chiang Dao for ET (2.46), and bicycling route Yod Doi Pui – Botanical Garden for the NT/AT (2.13). The recreation opportunity spectrum (ROS) offered nature closely related experiences in primitive (P), semi-primitive non motorized (SPNM), and semi-primitive motorized (SPM) totalling of 77 sites while 47 sited in semi-developed and developed areas offered less nature experience. The system was designed as relational database by System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) for the target group identified as tourism resources planners and managers. The database and web application was developed by MySQL and the available program in php script language, in that order. For the User Interface design, the web browser through internet connection was employed for database management. The database system testing regarding techniques and design earned the score 64%. While the evaluation score of user interface capability and the usefulness of the information contained in the database given by the expert in database development and the PA managers was 81% and 84%, respectively.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1028 Serial 2635
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Author Colson, V.; Lejeune, P.,
Title A regional travel model for predicting the number of visitors in forests: application to the Walloon region Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-421
Keywords (up) MMV4, decay curve, forest recreation, GIS, travel model, Wallonia
Abstract The Walloon forests are visited by local people and tourists but the importance of forest recreation is very different from one part of the Region to another. As it was particularly difficult to obtain quantified information by counting, a model has been built by GIS and taking results from different surveys (telephone survey and face-to-face interviews) into account. This model makes the distinction between local visitors and one-day tourists coming from the neighbouring regions (in a buffer zone of 50 km). A decay curve based on travel time is used for predicting the number of visits throughout all Walloon forests from each departure point. An attraction function is added to the model to attribute each visit to a woodland and different scenarios have been tested to obtain a distribution of people by regions of provenance as similar as the results of surveys. At a regional level, this model is a good alternative for counting and gives a good overview of the forests for which recreation activities are more relevant and have to be taken into account in forest management plans.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1066 Serial 2654
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Author Chilman, K.; Wadzinski, L.; West, A.,
Title A new recreation visitor inventory that parallels other resource inventories Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 301-304
Keywords (up) MMV4, Decision-making, management, public participation, visitor inventory
Abstract A Rapid Assessment Visitor Inventory (RAVI) has been developed for inexpensively obtaining representative samples of place-specific visitor numbers and perceptions of attributes of their visit experience. It has been tested in 13 studies on 7 federal and state parks and conservation areas in 4 states. The inventory data are used by field-level managers in decision meetings with other persons in the management organization and with individuals and groups external to the organization. Examples of the application and use of a RAVI study, and a repeat measurement for monitoring purposes are discussed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1022 Serial 2632
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Author Moore, S.A.,
Title What is the place of democracy in recreation ecology? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 57-61
Keywords (up) MMV4, democracy, practical wisdom, public, recreation ecology, visitors
Abstract What should be monitored and who decides has been debated for as long as recreation ecology has been with us. The early work on planning frameworks advocates consulting with visitors to determine what conditions are important to them and then derive resource and social indicators from this information. Any associated standards are then similarly set with visitors’ input. At the same time, recreation ecologists have selected indicators that allow measurement and predictions regarding the relationships between resource and social conditions and levels of visitor use. Where are we now regarding these choices? A democratic perspective would argue that visitors should have significant influence on indicator selection and the standards that might accompany them. But what role does this leave for scientists and institutionally derived scientific knowledge in recreation ecology? In this paper I argue that we are morally and societally bound to embrace a democratic approach to recreation ecology with scientists and managers working with visitors, and others with a vested interest in protected areas, to develop ‘practical wisdom’ that can be evoked as a central tenet of recreation ecology.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 904 Serial 2574
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Author Solinas, M.; Clò, S.; Nicosia, M.,
Title Eco-volunteering programs as good practices for nature conservation and sustainable tourism development in protected areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 283-287
Keywords (up) MMV4, Eco-volunteering, volunteer tourism, sustainable tourism, environment conservation, protected areas
Abstract The CTS, an Italian association involved in youth tourism and environment protection, acknowledged by the Ministry of the Environment, has a long experience in the planning and managing of programs in which environmental protection, local development and educational activities are linked. Since the early 90s, CTS started to issue volunteer tourism programs in which conservation and monitoring activities on endangered species were conceived as original features of summer camps for students and young people. This approach provided a new opportunity to support environmental initiatives chronically under-funded and was favourably considered by the European Commission, the Italian Ministry of the Environment and other institutions that granted the funds necessary to allow the projects increase and go on. Two more important results were also achieved: first, the development of tourist offers with a strong educational purpose and a low impact on the local environment; second, the creation of synergies between tourist and conservation programmes which, in turn, allowed to improve the local communities attitude towards research and conservation activities, thanks to the economic advantages generated by just such tourism. The success of the programs lies in the fact that tourist projects were created in harmony with scientific projects and were conceived to support and “serve” the research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1016 Serial 2629
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Author Hunziker, M.; Schletti, D.,
Title How to involve retailers into sensitization of end-users for ecologically responsible behavior – results of a snow-shoe-seller survey Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 116-120
Keywords (up) MMV4, ecological conflicts, outdoor recreation, persuasion, questionnaire, theory of planned behavior
Abstract The outdoor activity snow-shoe walking is experiencing an increase in popularity and is more and more frequently practiced. This tendency represents a desirable development of soft tourism, contributes to the regional economical development of remote areas and enables people to experience pure nature. However, snow-shoe walking is rather problematic from the perspective of nature conservation. Therefore, the willingness of snow-shoe walkers to change their behavior has been investigated in several studies. One opportunity to influencing the behavior of snow-shoe walkers is when they buy or rent the snow shoes. However, the question remained whether shop owners and their staff are willing to adopt this role. The aim of our study was to answer this question and to identify the drivers of their willingness to contribute to persuading snow-shoe walkers to behave in an ecologically responsible way. A questionnaire was sent to 754 sports shops in Switzerland to measure the willingness to apply measures of persuasion and to measure the drivers of this willingness. The questionnaire data show that the willingness to contribute to persuasion campaigns is rather small. In particular, the potential for participation in the persuasion work is quite low for contributions that require high efforts or costs,. The variables “subjectively perceived social norms”, “attitude to the behavior” and “attitude to information about the protection of nature and landscape” represent the strongest predictors of the willingness to contribute to the campaign. On the basis of the results, suggestions for measures to persuade snow-shoe sellers to support persuasion of snow-shoe walkers were developed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 940 Serial 2591
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Author Elmazi, L.; Gorica, K.,
Title Economic effect of alternative tourism. Events and festivals Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 368-372
Keywords (up) MMV4, Economic effects, alternative tourism, multicultural communities
Abstract The analyze of the tourism cities within Albania show that communities as emerged tourism destination offer culture, tradition and events, and also, show us that events and festivals have the capacity to celebrate community identity particularly in multi-cultural events and festivals. The involvement of local community in creating opportunities and furthermore, competitive advantages, is very important for management and marketing of events and festivals, especially in multi-cultural communities. The research investigates the different interpretations of community, the concept of communities and the role of events and festivals in articulating community identity within distinct localities. It is necessary the compilation of a strategic marketing plan which will involve the community in tourism events and festivals, which at last will follow up with sustainability. Drafting perfect marketing strategies is always one side of the management task that should not be underestimated. This task becomes extremely difficult since in many cases a direct conflict exists between the site managers who to keep restricted numbers of visitors for preservation reasons, local people who look the events as a way to generate revenues, and national governments who like to use its image as a marketing device. Heritage and Cultural Tourism is the most important part of the Albanian tourism product and successful element of the national economy. Albania is considered as a new cultural destination in the tourism marketplace, as a Balkan country of dramatic natural beauty, with a wealth of historic buildings and ancient archaeological sites that can compare, for interest and variety with any in the Mediterranean world.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1050 Serial 2646
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Author Mayer, M.; Vogt, L.; Pütz, M.,
Title Regional economic impacts of nature-based tourism in Switzerland – the relevance of activities and landscape elements Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 237-238
Keywords (up) MMV4, economic effects, nature-based tourism, activities, landscape, destination choice
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 992 Serial 2617
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Author Mahat, T.J.; Koirala, M.,
Title Assessing nature of visitors flow and revenue generation at the Central Zoo of Nepal Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 231-231
Keywords (up) MMV4, Economic valuation, Nepal, payment of environmental services, travel cost method, zoo
Abstract The only zoo of Nepal, Central Zoo, receives over 800,000 visitors annually. Economic valuation of the zoo was conducted to identify contributions made by the zoo to the economy as well as environmental awareness level of the visitor. The relevant information was collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct observation, direct count and focus group discussion. Several economic tools, including travel cost method, were employed for analysis. The study shows that a higher proportion of school children and adolescents visit the zoo in comparison to other age groups and professions. Brahmin, Chhetri and Newar were the dominant visiting caste-groups. Access to economical public transports such as buses, tempos and microbuses has facilitated arrivals of high proportion of visitors with relatively low income to the zoo. Most of the visitors are Nepalese and expatriates. The educational level of the visitors and their affiliation with environment related organizations are not significant determinants of the number and nature of their visits. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between the travel cost and the number of zoo visits. The per capita economic value of the zoo was estimated at US $ 3.15. The study recommends that a) the environmental hygiene inside the zoo be improved, b) the satisfaction level of the visitors be assessed, and c) fund raising sources be identified to expand zoo services as well as its territorial area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 988 Serial 2615
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Author Marangon, F.; Spoto, M.; Visintin, F.,
Title Assigning economic value to natural protected areas: an environmental accounting model Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 232-236
Keywords (up) MMV4, Ecosystem functions, environmental accounting, Long Term Financial Plan, natural marine reserve
Abstract The implementation of environmental accounting in Natural Reserves produced some significant results in terms of restrictions. First of all, environmental accounting introduced a limitation in scale, which was inapplicable on a micro scale. A second restriction concerned the physical unit measure that was used instead of a monetary unit measure. Finally, a third limitation was due to the fact that environmental accounting takes into account only costs, not environmental benefits. These three limitations led us to develop an environmental accounting model that considered resources in the Natural Reserve, both consumed and produced. The model applied to Miramare Natural Marine Reserve (Italy) aimed to supplement monetary accounting based on cost and revenue with environmental accounting which reflects not only environmental cost but also environmental revenues, i.e. environmental benefits. Environmental cost took into account anthropic presence, raw materials use, consumption of fuel for motor vehicles and heating fuel, consumption of electricity, water consumption, and administration expenses. Environmental benefits assessed ecosystem functions: gas regulation, nutrient cycling, biological control, food production, recreation, and culture. The difference between costs and benefits, both economic and environmental, represented the value produced or consumed by the Natural Reserve. The model demonstrated that the net benefit for the Reserve was approximately €654,000 covering the amount of public transfer (about €610,000) completely.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 990 Serial 2616
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Author Bodnár, R.,
Title Vandalism and its prevention possibilities in the region of Lake Balaton Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 337-342
Keywords (up) MMV4, Environmental education, solution possibilities, vandalism, visitor conflicts
Abstract Lake Balaton – the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe – has been a favourite destination for hundred thousands of Hungarian and foreign visitors for long decades. The study area of the present paper, the Tapolca Basin that has a Mediterranean atmosphere is found on the northern shore of the lake. Nature protectional measures were able to impede mining damaging the basalt capped buttes of the basin providing scenery of European fame, however, they seem to be powerless against vandalism. Sad picture is gained while hiking on the study trails of the Balaton Uplands National Park experiencing that pointless destruction makes site tables unreadable. The main aim of the paper is to draw attention to that harmonizing current known methods and measures and applying new ideas significant improvement could be reached in protecting our natural values against vandalism at relatively low cost and with some care.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1036 Serial 2639
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Author Van Marwijk, R.; Pitt, D.G.,
Title Where Dutch recreationists walk: path design, physical features and walker usage Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 428-432
Keywords (up) MMV4, environmental values, outdoor recreation, spatial behaviour, physical environment
Abstract A comprehensive understanding of visitor use is fundamental for effective park management. This paper explores recreational spatial behaviour in a protected nature area with a focus on the physical environment. The current research is carried out in Dwingelderveld National Park in the north-eastern part of the Netherlands with approximately 2 million visitors a year. A total of 400 walkers carried a GPS to record their movements. We related spatial patterns to the (visible) physical environment. We characterized the physical environment in (1) the path network and (2) the surrounding environment. The environment is defined by use, experience, and narrative value variables. Hierarchical regression analyses show the importance of the use value variables signage and placement of parking areas as predictors for spatial behaviour. Experience and narrative value variables are less important. For recreational quality purposes, managers should clearly communicate recreational opportunities for each parking area to the public.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1070 Serial 2656
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Author English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Bowker, J.M.,
Title Trap shyness in onsite visitor surveys; evidence from the U.S Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 135-138
Keywords (up) MMV4, Estimation bias, onsite surveys, recreation visitation, trap shyness
Abstract In onsite surveys of visitors, whether the purpose is estimating visitation volume or characteristics of the visit population, those who visit the area multiple times per year are candidates to be surveyed more than one time. In such surveys, each visit represents a unique sampling unit. However, individuals may be unwilling to be surveyed after the first contact. The phenomenon is similar to ‘trap shyness’ in wildlife studies wherein an animal learns to avoid traps after the initial experience. If trap shyness exists, it has the potential to bias the results for either or both visitation estimation or describing the average visit characteristics. There is some anecdotal evidence that trap shyness does exist, and could be problematic for long-term surveys such as the National Visitor Use Monitoring program used by the US Forest Service. This paper describes the conceptual framework for how trap shyness can affect both visitation estimates and visit characteristics, identify empirical hypotheses to be tested that provide evidence of trap shyness, present results for the hypotheses, and describe possible improvements to sampling processes that could determine it existence and extent. Data for the paper come from onsite surveying collected during the period October 2004 – September 2007 for about three dozen National Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 948 Serial 2595
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Author Goossen, M.,
Title What do people want in National Landscapes Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 211-211
Keywords (up) MMV4, European Landscape Convention, protection, policy, Netherlands
Abstract The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is the first European Treaty that is aimed specifically at the landscape. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning. A main point is that the landscape contributes to the shaping of local cultures. Landscape is a basic component of European nature and cultural heritage. Landscape contributes to the well-being of people and the strengthening of the European identity. This produces everyone rights and responsibilities for protection, management and planning of the landscape. The ELC promotes the involvement of citizens at “their” landscape and stimulates the regional and national governments in Europe to create good conditions for the development and the management of the landscape. The ELC cover all landscapes, urban or rural, nicely or ugly. On the 10th of June 2005 the Dutch minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food quality announced that The Netherlands will ratify the European Landscape Convention. The Dutch landscape policy has been renewed and is entirely in line with this Convention. There are 20 National Landscapes in the Netherlands, which cover approx. 25% of the surface. In the Netherlands important spatial changes are in preparation, varying from new house construction projects to catching the impact of climate change. So involvement of citizens is very important. Therefore the government was interested in the opinion of inhabitants of these National Landscapes, and what their attitude is and what their preferences are. An on-line research with 4000 respondents was carried out to give the answers. The most important result is that the inhabitants agree with the policy. Their attitude is that (economic) development must continue, but with great care of the typical characteristics of the landscape. The preferences depend on the different recreation motives, but the desire for nature development is very popular.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 978 Serial 2610
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Author Kissling, M.,
Title The impact of experimental trampling on the biodiversity of beech forests: basic knowledge for the management of urban forest for recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 491-491
Keywords (up) MMV4, Experimental trampling, soil enzyme activity, outdoor recreation, urban forest, ground vegetation
Abstract In the last few years forests became an important function as natural recreation sites, especially in the surroundings of urban areas. Nowadays, large numbers of forest visitors can lead to conflicts between recreation and nature conservation The extent of damage to the forest vegetation depends not only on the kind of recreational activity and frequency of visitors, but also on the type of soil and forest vegetation. The effects of trampling on soil microorganisms and the level of disturbance that will cause changes are mostly unknown. In order to gain a better understanding of these relationships I investigated the effect of different trampling regime – single trampling versus repeated trampling – on the ground vegetation, soil microbial biomass and the activity of dehydrogenase (an indicator for the total metabolic activity of soil micro-organisms), glucosidase and phosphomonoesterase (both key enzymes in the nutrient cycle)
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1100 Serial 2671
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Author Luthe, T.; Roth, R.,
Title Extended vulnerability of ski tourism to global change Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords (up) MMV4, Extended Vulnerability Factors, Global Change, Ski tourism, Sustainable Adaptation
Abstract The current and forecasted outcomes of global change put ski destinations under different stresses. Climate change is the most discussed and the most obvious factor that directly affects the economic success of ski areas. Latest since the last OECD report a broad discussion about such ski areas that will lose from climate change, namely the lower and smaller ones, and those potentially winning being the higher and bigger ski areas, got started. This discussion has been focusing on the main vulnerability factors elevation, size and snow making capacity. Technical snow making is the main kind of adaptation to climate change being discussed and applied. But in addition to climate change there are socioeconomic and demographic developments that lead to other grades of vulnerability for ski tourism. In the research project SkiSustain we aim to develop a sustainability management framework for ski destinations responding to global change. In the supply side part we did personal qualitative interviews in thirty six ski areas of four Alpine countries after the extremely warm winter of 2006/07. Ski areas were picked for interviews as the main drivers of investments and employment in ski destinations. Research questions were about the perception of vulnerability to global change and strategies and possibilities of adaptive capacity. In the interviews ski area managements were confronted with recent results from the customer demand survey Save-Snow to find out about the possibilities to drive changes to chances, for example by softer means of adaptation and more mitigation and partnering more with the customer. Results show that the view on vulnerability of ski destinations needs to be extended from a current climate change and elevation focused view to a much more diverse one. Current means of adaptation will not be suitable to tackle the sum of challenges from global change.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 924 Serial 2584
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Author Almik, A.; Maran, K.; Karoles, K.; Rammo, M.,
Title Implementation of results of visitor and environmental impact monitoring: an example of Kauksi campsite of the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 463-466
Keywords (up) MMV4, Forest recreation, visitor and environmental impact monitoring, recreational load, campsite condition monitoring, damages on trees, soil vegetation and soil
Abstract Kauksi campsite, located in the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre, is an area of intensive and long-term recreational use. In the years 2003 and 2007 a permanent monitoring network was established in the area and the environmental situation and its changes were evaluated. Based on the results of the environmental status assessment and visitor monitoring, recommendations were made for improving the campsite condition and an action plan for performing the works was prepared. In 2004-2007 an infrastructure for the protection of campsite and the lakeshore dunes was designed and constructed, and measures of landscape protection were introduced, as a result of which the environmental condition has stabilised and for some indicators, considerably improved. This case shows that in an area of intensive use it is important to know the user and use specifics and, in order to support the periodic assessment of environmental impacts, to continuously monitor environmental status and perform preventive landscape protection works in order to maintain the stable condition and the recreational values of the area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1082 Serial 2662
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Author Ziener, K.,
Title Formal concept analysis – a method for exploring complex responses of tourist surveys Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 325-329
Keywords (up) MMV4, Formal Concept Analysis, hierarchical structures, Lake Neusiedl Region, tourist surveys
Abstract The Formal concept analysis goes back to the 1940s and is advanced by Rudolf Wille in the eighties. Based on the algebraic lattice theory so-called concept lattices will be used for visualisation of hierarchical structures in a line diagram. The method needs as input a context consisting of sets of objects and attributes and a binary relation between these objects and attributes. In a concept lattice quantitative and qualitative data can be combined and relations between the objects as well as between the attributes can be analysed. Therefore concept lattices are suitable for analysing the results of surveys. The respondents and their answer patterns constitute the context. Precondition is a hierarchical structure of the answers (e.g. ordinal ordered data). In this presentation will be demonstrated how to use the line graph of the concept lattice for analysing complex questions of tourist surveys. As an example the main activities of about 600 tourists and daily visitors in the Lake Neusiedl Region are analysed. With the procedure of Formal Concept Analysis the different answer patterns of respondents are arranged as nodes in a line diagram. This diagram is constructed by means of two partial concept lattices that will be integrated later. The interpretation of the line graph will start at the biggest nodes, consider the whole structure of the graph and include additional attributes in order to describe groups of tourists with the same activity pattern.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1032 Serial 2637
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Author Ligtenberg, A.; Van Marwijk, R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.,
Title Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 422-427
Keywords (up) MMV4, GIS, Movement Behavior, Spatial Temporal Analyses
Abstract This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking visitors. Two examples are presented for a case study carried out in the Dutch National Park Dwingelderveld. About 461 visitors were tracked using a GPS device. Based on these GPS recordings their trajectories have been reconstructed. The relation between the type of landscape in terms of openness and the speed of movement have been analyzed. Additionally a similarity analyses based on Fréchet analysis shows clusters of movements.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1068 Serial 2655
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Author Taczanowska, K.; Muhar, A.; Brandenburg, C.,
Title Potential and limitations of GPS tracking for monitoring spatial and temporal aspects of visitor behaviour in recreational areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 451-455
Keywords (up) MMV4, GPS, GPS tracking, spatial behaviour, monitoring methods, visitor flows, recreation
Abstract The application of satellite based navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) to record spatial/temporal aspects of visitor behaviour has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potentials and the limitations of GPS-tracking, based on empirical data collected in the Danube Floodplains National Park in Austria (Nationalpark Donau-Auen). A total amount of 485 hiking itineraries were collected in the field using Garmin e-Trex devices. After returning the GPS receiver visitors were interviewed and additionally asked to draw their route on the map. 372 complete records (GPS tracks plus map sketches) were thereby obtained for further analysis. The highly detailed spatial resolution of the data allowed deriving more exact route characteristics compared to traditional data collection methods such as trip diaries. GPS-tracking was more accurate than map sketches in areas with poorly defined trail network. Some respondents were not able to report the exact route, due to insufficient map reading skills or orientation problems in the outdoor environment. In such cases, in particular, the GPS approach proved its intrinsic advantages. Nevertheless, some limitations of the GPS use have also been identified. In particular, problems with the quality of the satellite signal in areas covered by dense deciduous forest turned out to be a major limiting factor for GPS-tracking in the presented National Park setting.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1078 Serial 2660
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Author Von Ruschkowski, E.; Valdeig, S.; Jakob, R.; Homann, S.,
Title Designing a visitor monitoring concept for Harz National Park in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 144-147
Keywords (up) MMV4, Harz National Park, visitor monitoring concept, Germany
Abstract Germany’s protected areas encounter many specific challenges in regards to visitor management. Due to a high population density, they are frequented by high visitor numbers who also enter unaccounted for from diffuse ingress points as access is free of charge. Additionally, Germany’s parks are historically young. Thus, scientific monitoring is often limited to conservation issues whereas socioeconomic dimensions are not always considered a core management issue. Harz National Park with an area of 246 km2, situated in the German states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, is a typical example. Although visitor counts have been conducted in several recreational “hot spots” within in the park, no quantitative and qualitative visitor use statistics for the park as a whole exist. As a consequence, the park administration lacks information that is necessary to analyse and evaluate potential conflicts between visitor use and conservation objectives. In 2007, the Institute of Environmental Planning and the Harz National Park administration joined efforts to develop a long-term strategy to implement visitor use monitoring with the national park. Based on extensive interviews, mainly with park staff, and an evaluation of current available technologies, a first framework was developed which will address the methodological challenges outlined above. Key pillars of the framework are a concept for quantitative visitor counts by means of pyroelectric counters and a modular-structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data such as visitor preferences, and value added to the region. The framework will now further undergo scientific evaluation to be implemented from 2009 onwards.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 952 Serial 2597
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Author Koscak, M.,
Title Slovenia: a case-study in sustainable rural development for agriculture and tourism Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 257-261
Keywords (up) MMV4, Heritage Trails, Dolenjska, Bela krajina, Slovenia, planning, carrying capacity, marketing
Abstract This paper deals with the concept of the heritage trail which main purpose is rural regeneration through sustainable tourism. A heritage trail is a regional network of natural and cultural heritage sites, activities and tourism facilities which is created with a well defined product identity in order to support an interesting and varied tourist visit up to one week. The heritage trail does not necessarily have a single theme, with the visitor following a pre-determined route. It can be designed as a coherent menu of natural, cultural and landscape attractions, out of which visitors can create their own itinerary. The aim of heritage trail marketing is to attract the visitor to the region in the first place, by offering a specific and attractive experience. Once in the region, other facilities and experiences can be offered which are not featured in the heritage trail promotion itself
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1004 Serial 2623
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Author Rodrigues, Á.; Kastenholz, E.; Rodrigues, A.,
Title Walking trails in recreational and protected areas: an exploratory study of the tourist’s perception of natural areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 203-208
Keywords (up) MMV4, Hiking, destination marketing, visitor survey, market analysis, natural areas
Abstract Nowadays, there is a growing demand for leisure, recreation and tourism activities in nature, with hiking being one of the most popular activities. Walking on a trail through nature, besides providing contact with nature, fruition and relaxation, also constitutes an effective way of interaction between men and nature that could awake an increased environmental awareness (Siqueira, 2004). However, tourists that visit natural areas are not a homogeneous segment (Wight, 2001). Specific motivations and personal characteristics make people look for natural areas with different desires. This understanding is very important for those responsible for the planning and management of natural areas. In this context there are two sides to be considered: supply and demand. One of the most efficient ways to manage flows of visitors in natural environments focuses on the careful design of walking trails. However, for that development to be planned and managed in a sustainable manner it is necessary to know the hikers’ profile. This paper presents the results of an exploratory survey of Portuguese and foreign hikers in Portuguese natural areas of different landscapes. Differences between the national and international visitor group could be identified as far as environmental preferences and nature perception is concerned, implying differentiated destination marketing strategies for protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 976 Serial 2609
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Author Li, C.-L.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Absher, J.D.,
Title Re-examine the measure of values Cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 177-182
Keywords (up) MMV4, Hofstede’s measure of values, Kahle’s List of Values, customer service, parks and recreation
Abstract Parks and recreation areas around the world increasingly serve as international visitor attractions and play an important role in the international tourism industry. Given the increasingly diverse visitors, changes in racial and ethnic composition have confronted the management of parks and recreation areas. Since values presumably influence perceptions and behaviors among members of different cultures, studying values among culturally diverse visitors are important if we are to understand their influence on perceptions as well as parks and recreation behavior. We are not aware of any measure of recreation or leisure values that has been validated cross-culturally. In order to better understand this issue, the purposes of this study are to examine two different types of broad values measures (i.e., Hofstede’s measures of values and Kahle’s List of Values [LOV]) that have been validated cross-culturally, and test values’ utility to predict service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, both in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In 2005-2008, the visitors to Pokfulam Country Park in Hong Kong and Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed. Using a convenient purposive on-site sampling approach, at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample combining the Hong Kong and Taiwan recreation visitors. The results from data analyses showed that Hofstede’s measure of values, as employed in the park and recreation context, needs to be further elaborated and refined to provide acceptable validity and reliability. On the other hand, we found the LOV to be a meaningful and useful measure of values in both settings. The findings also showed LOV’s four dimensions of values, i.e., Respect, Harmony, Achievement, and Hedonism, predicted visitors’ perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Discussion of the findings and implications are provided.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 966 Serial 2604
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Author Clivaz, C.; Favre, N.,
Title Valais excellence: a system to better manage visitor flows during sport events Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-106
Keywords (up) MMV4, Impact analysis, Management system, Sport events
Abstract The tourist areas seek more and more to organize (outdoor) sport events. These events generate many impacts from the point of view of sustainable development. Often proceeding in rural and/or protected landscapes, their environmental impact must be managed in an optimal way by the organizers. In the same time, these events have to maximize their social and economic benefits for the host area. This paper presents the management system “Valais excellence” developed in Switzerland and discusses its contribution to a sustainable management of the various impacts of sport events.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 932 Serial 2588
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Author Yuan, Y.-L.; Lue, C.-C.,
Title Leisure involvement differences in information searching difficulty and wilderness knowledge among hikers Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 526-527
Keywords (up) MMV4, Information searching difficulty, Leave no trace, wilderness knowledge, hiker, backcountry, Taiwan
Abstract This paper draws on findings from recent research to examine the type of information searching difficulty in searching hiking-related information and the relationships between the level of leisure involvement of hikers and their information searching behaviours as well as wilderness knowledge. The information difficulty include their information difficulties as measured by perceived easiness of acquiring four types of hiking-related information, and their channel preferences. The relationships are presented in a proposed conceptual framework of the outdoor recreationist information search process, and tested through two hypotheses using a survey sample. It became apparent in the study that hikers who have higher level of leisure involvement have least difficulty to acquire different types of hiking-related information and have better understanding of Leave No Trace practices. It is also found that there are significant differences in the level of difficulty of acquiring instrumental information and reassurance information. Generally, reassurance information was rated the most difficulty to obtain for hikers. The article concludes by discussing the implications for wilderness mangers that is presented, and highlights the need for further investigation into outdoor recreationist information searching difficulties.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1122 Serial 2682
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Author Beunders, N.,
Title The role of destination management in facing the challenges for protected area tourism development Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 71-71
Keywords (up) MMV4, Innovative approach, visitor management, Pan Parks, sustainable tourism management
Abstract These are PAN Parks introduced a holistic approach to protected area management, integrating standards for conservation and management practices, visitor management, sustainable tourism strategies and partnerships. It has been field tested successfully in 10 protected areas. Simultaneously tourism in protected areas became the focus of a growing number of publications. Common ground can be identified in a predominance of strategic, process oriented approaches to tourism. Key issues: planning, visitor management, linkages with the tourism industry, community involvement. Results of the first decade: 1. A more structured and focused co-operation between PA and local stakeholders. Research shows positive results in awareness and co-operation 2. Multistakeholder approaches have proven to be effective in formulating tourism strategies 3. Tourism became an integrated part of protected area management, including a more pro-active, strategic approach. 4. The model works in diverse cultural, institutional and political contexts 4. PAN Parks has been a laboratory for sustainable tourism development for protected areas. Five main challenges can be identified: 1. Loading the brand: make value added of PAN Parks tangible for tourist. How can conservation benefits, distinctiveness and quality of the experience be guaranteed? 2. Identify success factors for development, marketing and management of competitive destinations 3. Consequently the brand lacks a decisive impact on the holiday decision making process. Economic stakeholder value is still limited 4. Leverage of local economic activities (synergy with other sectors) 5. Mind shift from process orientation (development) to focus on output (marketing, management). Suggestions for a research agenda for the next decade are listed here: Economic sustainability remains a concern for conservation based tourism development. Local stakeholders, regional economy and tour operators need healthy business perspectives. Eco-tourism markets are highly competitive. Distinctiveness and competitiveness of destinations require market oriented approaches. The positioning of protected areas as (part of) destinations requires research. Expertise must be developed for destination -development and -management. Innovative approaches for local supply chain development should strengthen the role of protected area tourism in regional development. Quality standards for destinations and local providers should be elaborated. Destination management could be the umbrella to integrating these fields of expertise. Probably a “paradigm shift” from sustainable tourism development approaches to a destination perspective is needed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 912 Serial 2578
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Author Woodward, D.B.; Bastin, L.,
Title The impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 354-359
Keywords (up) MMV4, Kazakhstan, Almaty State Nature Reserve, ecotourism, impact on vegetation
Abstract The results of a pilot research project to assess the impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, are presented in this paper. Geobotanical, GIS, ground truth and statistical methods were used. The results proved that significant differences existed between the species richness, vegetation condition, vegetation cover and the mean height of grass stands in experimental quadrats compared to the control quadrat. The recommendations include strategies to mitigate the impact of ecotourism on vegetation in the Reserve.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1046 Serial 2644
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Author Pröbstl, U.; Rid, W.,
Title Green strategies against increased land consumption in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 217-219
Keywords (up) MMV4, Land consumption, compensation measures, open space, new concepts for urban green
Abstract Excessive land consumption is one of the more serious threats to the environment in Germany. Each day about 110 ha of cultural landscape are transformed to roads or settlement. This paper focus on two “green” strategies devised to address this issue: 1) the mandatory obligation to compensate for each impact, and 2) the opportunity to involve private house buyers in order to achieve more density. It is shown that the obligation to compensate has a significant effect on land consumption. The involvement of private home buyers via a multi-attribute survey demonstrates that green spaces and social infrastructure are crucial elements when considering less consumptive development alternatives. Therefore, the traditional planning tools, which are mostly reactive, should be expanded to include conservation strategies and state-of-the-art social science methods to explore the demand for non-existing developments and to influence the future market.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 982 Serial 2612
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Author Lupp, G.; Konold, W.,
Title Landscape preferences and perception in Mueritz National Park (Germany) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 373-377
Keywords (up) MMV4, Landscape preferences and perception, lifestyle groups, national park, user survey
Abstract In Mueritz National Park, Germany, landscape changes are ongoing due to wetland restoration, reduction of agricultural acticvities and abandonment of timber oriented forest management. This study assesses the perception of the landscape and landscape preferences of both local visitors and tourists. Passers-by were interviewed at five different places inside the park. Preferences and perception of landscapes were identified in three steps: general preferences, perception of the scenery at the interview site and by using pictures. The results were differentiated and compared according to residents, first time visitors and regular visitors as well as lifestyle groups. Lakes, traditionally maintained farmland and ancient lately unmanaged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), containing deadwood, are preferred most. The results show that background knowledge about natural processes is essential for a positive perception of these landscape features.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1052 Serial 2647
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Author García-Ventura, D.; Tejedo, P.; Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Potential interpretation index: a tool for assessing landscape diversity from pathways Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 510-510
Keywords (up) MMV4, Landscape, pathways, ecological divesity index
Abstract Nowadays, a well developed net of pathways allows people to enjoy nature in countryside. Into natural protected areas, the pathway network is generally used to bring closer natural /cultural values and visitors. However, the design of these interpretation pathways usually doesn’t bear in mind how much representative are them to make a complete visit through all landscapes of the natural protected area. We have developed an index based on useful and popular ecological diversity index (Shannon-Wiener, 1948), which has been applied to 56 pathways open to visitors in 6 Spanish National Parks. This Potential Interpretation Index takes into account several factors with high attractiveness to visitors, like environmental units, water bodies and slopes. In addition, we consider these topics either crossed by the pathways than observed from these ones. Spatial data was processed by GIS tools in order to obtain landscape diversity and viewshed from each pathway in these National Parks. The result of this work is an index easier to apply in natural protected areas and the whole countryside, in order to asses its significance for interpretation activities and for guaranteeing a representative visit to the area. This tool could be added to others planning models in natural protected areas management, with the aim of reconcile conservation and visitors use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1112 Serial 2677
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Author Cihar, M.; Trebicky, V.; Stankova, J.,
Title Stakeholder’s monitoring and involvement: management option for Sumava National Park (Czech Republic) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 271-276
Keywords (up) MMV4, Local people, management, monitoring, nature tourism, public administration, visitors
Abstract The paper presents the results of long-term monitoring and surveys of three major stakeholder’s groups in Sumava National Park (SNP) – visitors, local people and public administration (mayors). SNP is the largest Czech national park situated in the southeast part of the country. In 1990s and 2000s the park became a popular nature tourism destination, mainly for domestic visitors. Views and attitudes of stakeholder groups to conservation and environmental management activities were analysed and compared. Primary data was statistically treated using the χ2 test for evaluation of homogeneity of results from different years of monitoring and different stakeholder groups. The results show that management, development and nature tourism in SNP went through significant changes over the last ten years. Monitoring of stakeholder’s opinions and attitudes and their involvement in a local decision making process is crucial for development of a new management plan of SNP.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1010 Serial 2626
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Author Eisenhut, A.; Haller, R.; Raper, J.,
Title How does topography influence the use of the mobile guide WebParkSNP in the Swiss National Park? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 433-437
Keywords (up) MMV4, Location based services, Swiss National Park, Visitor management, Visitor monitoring
Abstract Since 2005, the Swiss National Park offers a mobile information system called WebParkSNP which provides content about the users surroundings using smart phone services and GPS. Up to now, little is known about the use of Location Based Services (LBS) by visitors of remote and protected areas and about the contents they are interested in. WebParkSNP logs time, location and content of each action the user conducts. Contents are not only pushed but can be accessed from every location. With the consent of 419 users, WebParkSNP’s log files of the summer season 2007 have been analysed in order to compare the user’s actions with the topography of the Park. Topography is composed of specific places (vegetation classes, aspect, and slope of the trail), facilities (resting areas, huts) and viewpoints. The results show that clustering of access occurs on steeper slopes, within facilities, and on viewpoints on certain routes. The content accessed differs between facilities and other places. Nevertheless, these patterns are not only determined by topography but also by behavioural aspects; the use of the guide depends on the daytime and on the distance from the starting point of the walk as well. These results allow the evaluation and improvement of LBS concerning content and locations. In addition, conclusions can be drawn about the development and improvement of other offers in the Park. Further analysis and the integration of other visitor surveys like census and questionnaires will show the potential for more general insights into visitor behaviour in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1072 Serial 2657
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Author Partalidou, M.; Iakovidou, O.,
Title Safeguarding rural tourism experience. Do different quality norms exist? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 193-197
Keywords (up) MMV4, management, quality, norms, rural tourism
Abstract Despite the growing body of research on rural tourism in Greece none is focused on managing quality experience. Towards this direction visitors’ norms can be of great importance and a rather useful tool in order to safeguard the overall experience in rural settings and help everyday managers of rural tourism as well as practitioners and policy makers. Whereas developed in sociology and social psychology, norms have been used as an organizing concept in outdoor recreation research and management. In this paper we try to use this concept of visitors’ norms in order to determine what rural tourism should offer for a unique experience. Self administered questionnaires were distributed randomly across seven well known rural tourism destinations of rural Greece. Day trippers were excluded and sample size was set at 339 rural tourists, according to estimations of the proportion of rural tourists to the overall number of visitors at each destination. Personal interview was used and statistical analysis gave answers to a multiple set of research questions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 972 Serial 2607
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Author Zhang, C.Z.; Xu, H.G.; Su, B.T.,
Title Meeting needs equals enhancing satisfaction? Case study of cableway and lift riding in World Heritage Site Wulingyuan, China Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 293-297
Keywords (up) MMV4, Meeting needs, tourist satisfaction, motivation-hygiene theory
Abstract Meeting the needs of tourists to satisfy tourists is the policy basis for many mangers of world heritage sites in China. The paper, based on the case study of lift riding in world heritage site Wulingyuan China, challenge the policy. With tourist survey and online interview methods, the authors argue that lift do meet part of tourists’ needs, but it do not enhance the satisfaction level as the managers supposed, the assertion “meet the needs of tourists, thus enhancing their satisfaction” is not built on solid ground, and catering to the needs of tourists is at least not a valid reason for tourism developments in heritage sites. The results of this study coincide with the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Some factors may not give positive satisfaction, but dissatisfaction results from their absence, such as good service quality and management skills. The improvement of services and management skills may eliminate dissatisfaction, but cannot enhance tourist satisfaction. They are called hygiene factors. Those factors that can provide positive satisfaction are called motivators. Cableway and lift act as motivators that can induce more satisfaction if properly operated.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1020 Serial 2631
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Author Kalisch, D.; Klaphake, A.,
Title The dilemma of recreational use versus nature protection – Responses from National Park authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 404-408
Keywords (up) MMV4, national park tourism, recreation management, visitor activities, monitoring
Abstract National Parks in Central Europe, which attract millions of visitors annually, are being threatened by a wide variety of negative impacts. In this highly populated region, we find numerous hazards caused by infrastructure, agriculture and tourism. For this reason, preserving the environment is the main goal of the National park authorities. As visitor numbers increase, there is a consequential increase in environmental impacts and conflicts between different visitor groups. In order to balance tourism and conservation and to reduce and minimize negative effects on the ecosystem, authorities implement visitor management strategies. These require specified knowledge about visitor flows, visitor numbers and the main activities undertaken by visitors. Over the past years most european National Parks have adopted periodical visitor monitoring, to gather data about visitor numbers and characteristics. There exists however differences in quality and extent of monitoring programs. With this in mind, we surveyed a number of National Park authorities to gauge their perception of recreation use level, different National Park activities and the application of management tools in the parks. Overall we asked 21 authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland to complete a questionnaire which includes questions about current and expected visitor numbers, monitoring of the current recreation use and impacts, measures to control the recreational use, conflicts between nature and tourism and cooperation with other stakeholders in the area. The result of the survey suggests that most of the authorities (81%) simply estimate the recreational use in national park. More than half of authorities anticipate an increase of visitor numbers (especially in National Parks founded in the late 1990s) and none expect that numbers will decrease. They report various suitable protective measures that are in operation and accepted by the National Park visitors. All in all, the authorities consider any negative environmental impacts of visitor activities to be moderate.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1062 Serial 2652
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Author Marandola, D.; Raschi, A.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Are Natura2000 SPAs and SACs perceived by local communities like important elements for local development? The case study of Fortore-Alto Tammaro, a rural area on the mid-southern Apennines Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 492-493
Keywords (up) MMV4, Natural resources, eco-agri-tourism, rural development
Abstract Apenninic areas cover a wide part of the italian surface and represent an important element of conservation for cultural, biological, economical and social diversity. Many difficulties, however, expose these internal areas to high risks of abandonment and loss of diversity. A long-run research project aims to calibrate action models for sustainable rural development based on eco-agri-tourism, also to promote conservation and knowledge of local natural resources.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1102 Serial 2672
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Author Reimann, M.; Ehrlich, Ü.,
Title Dependence of tourism destinations non-market value on the visit rate: the contingent valuation case study of Jägala Waterfall Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 239-242
Keywords (up) MMV4, Nature tourism, nature resource utilization, contingent valuation
Abstract The article discusses the resource utilisation conflict at the example of Jägala Waterfall, which is the highest and greatest natural waterfall in Estonia. There are plans to build a hydro-power plant there, which would conduct most of the water past the waterfall to the power plant’s turbines, reducing significantly natural and recreational values of the waterfall. The authors carried out a contingent valuation (CV) study to identify the monetary equivalent of non-market values related with Jägala waterfall. This paper examines the dependence of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) on whether or not they have visited the waterfall, indicating thus the significance of nature tourism for the formation of non-market value of natural features. The paper analyses also the dependence of the visit rate on the respondents’ sociometric characteristics. Using the Logit-model, it was identified that the statistically significant factors that influence the probability of visiting Jägala Waterfall are education, income and age. Gender and nationality are not statistictically significant factors for the probablity of visiting the Waterfall. It was also identified that visiting rate has positive impact to WTP.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 994 Serial 2618
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Author Ollenburg, C.; Buckley, R.,
Title Farm tourism experiences in rural Australia: a continent-wide study of geographical distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of farm tourism operators Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 262-262
Keywords (up) MMV4, Nature tourism, rural tourism and experiences in recreational and protected areas
Abstract Worldwide changes in agricultural commodity prices and production systems, coupled with increasing demand for rural tourism in urbanized developed nations, have lead many farm landholders to turn to tourism operations as an alternative or additional source of income. The proportions of farmers and rural landholders who have made this move, however, differ considerably from one country to another, and between different areas in the same country. There is a great demand side interest to visit farms, but only some farm landholders provide a tourism experience. For the purpose of this paper tourism experiences on farms include accommodation and activities. A revealed preference approach was applied, at a continent-wide scale examining the geographical distribution and socio-economic characteristic of Australian farm tourism operators. Using multiple data sources, we inventoried, mapped and characterized all known Australian farm tourism enterprises, and examined patterns using both size-based and multi-criterion classifications. Results from revealed-preference analyses are congruent with stated-preference studies but yield considerable additional information and insights. There are clusters of farm tourism enterprises close to cities and gateways, and isolated operations in more remote areas. We identified four groups of farm tourism providers: full-time, part-time, retirement and lifestyle operators. Characteristics of the farm property and business, the farming family, and the farm tourism business differ significantly between groups. Most (88%) of these farm tourism operators offer nature-based as well as farm-based activities; and in aggregate, they use only four fifths of their land for farming, with the remaining fifth, presumably, potentially available for other recreational activities or conservation.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1006 Serial 2624
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