|   | 
Author Pouwels, R.; Jochem, R.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.,
Title Criteria for scientific tools for recreation planning in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 320-324
Keywords (up) MMV4, Adaptive management, integrating scientific tools, recreation planning, biodiversity
Abstract Recreation is increasing the last decades in Northwest-Europe. Although these visitors might have a negative impact on biodiversity values, they are important for the support of biodiversity actions. Therefore a major objective for planning and managing of visitor landscapes is to avoid the negative effects of recreational use and to ensure that expectations of visitors can be afforded. Scientific knowledge and scientific tools always have and always will be important in managing recreation in visitor landscapes. However it is an illusion scientists will deliver ready-to-go answers. In this paper we will define criteria that scientific tools should meet. We will follow the arguments of Haider [1] and McCool et al. [2] that the use of knowledge and tools should be implemented in decision strategies like adaptive management and use experiences from a case study of recreation planning in the New Forest (UK). We will show that scientific tools should be flexible to adapt to local data to gain credibility and legitimacy and should be able to show which management alternative is most likely to meet recreation objectives and conservation objectives. Therefore the recreation tool has to be linked to the biodiversity tool. The scientific tools also should be useful in communication between stakeholders so they learn each other’s key processes and values and better understand the “other side of the table”. Especially because stakeholders have different views about what should or should not be considered a problem.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1030 Serial 2636
Permanent link to this record

Author Petrova, E.; Aoki, Y.; Mironov, Y.; Petrova, A.; Furuya, K.; Matsushima, H.; Takayama, N.,
Title Comparison of natural landscapes appreciation between Russia and Japan: methods of investigation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 198-202
Keywords (up) MMV4, aesthetic evaluation, appreciation of landscapes, landscape preferences in Russia and Japan
Abstract The research focusing on the aesthetic evaluation and appreciation of natural landscapes in recreational and protected areas is of great importance. While selecting landscapes for special care and protection one should take into consideration not only objective appraisal of their natural peculiarities, significance, and usefulness but also their aesthetic features. People belonging to different cultures differ by their landscape preferences due to a number of ethno-cultural factors as well as historical, social, and environmental peculiarities. The purpose of this study is to compare the landscapes appreciation in Russia and Japan, in two countries with deep-rooted traditions of landscape appreciation. The photo database of landscapes both similar and unique for Russia and Japan was made using the same methods. The respondents in both countries are suggested to classify and group photo images of different landscapes according to their personal perception as well as to estimate the attractiveness of given landscapes images. The results of the study will help us to answer: do representatives of different cultures – people in Russia and Japan – like similar landscapes due to aesthetic appreciation laws, which are common for the whole humanity, and if they don’t – then why not?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 974 Serial 2608
Permanent link to this record

Author Skov-Petersen, H.,
Title The role of agent-based simulation in recreational management and planning Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 33-39
Keywords (up) MMV4, Agent based models, ABM, simulation, recreational management and planning
Abstract It is expected that agent-based simulation models will be increasingly implemented during planning and management of visitor landscapes. This expectation is based on a) changes of recreation towards greater visitation levels and more complex settings in terms of stake-holder interests, recreational behavior types and a higher focus on protection of biodiversity, b) technological development of digital equipment, and c) a changing approach to nature planning and management to be more open, inviting and aimed at stake-holder and public participation. Based on these three lines of sight, the paper will discuss future trends in application of ABM’s in recreational management and planning.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 892 Serial 2568
Permanent link to this record

Author Skov-Petersen, H.; Kefaloukos, P.; Snizek, B.,
Title Kvintus.org – a choice based agentbased simulation model integrated with Google Maps Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 446-450
Keywords (up) MMV4, Agent-based simulation, choices, Google Map, recreation
Abstract Kvintus.org is a new agent-based simulation tool especially constructed to model recreational behavior integrated with models of animal behavior. The entire model which is available as ‘open source’ is based on the generic software package REPAST [4]. Model configuration – in terms of base parameters, entry points, timetables, agent types and state/transitions – are established, manipulated, loaded and saved via XML-files which enables a high degree of flexibility and user interaction. At run time, agents can be displayed in Google Maps [1]. This way models can be applied in most regions of the World without access to base maps, aerial photos etc. Further – which is probably even more important – using a standard Internet platform like Google Maps it is possible to enable non-expert users to ‘play with’ the models and this way focus more on communicative and participatory aspects.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1076 Serial 2659
Permanent link to this record

Author Burns, R.; Graefe, A.; English, D.,
Title Visitor measuring and monitoring challenges on remote national forests: The case of Alaska, USA Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 134-134
Keywords (up) MMV4, Alaska, recreation use, national forests, visitor monitoring
Abstract The purpose of this project was to identify and evaluate the set of issues associated with recreation use studies measuring and monitoring in Region 10 of the USDA Forest Service (Alaska), and more specifically within the Chugach and Tongass National Forests. The unique environment and conditions of Alaska have long posed significant challenges to recreation monitoring efforts, and several previous efforts have been undertaken to address this topic, both internally (Reed, 2003) and externally (Stynes, 2006). The US Forest Service uses the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) protocol to measure and monitor visitor use on all of its national forests. In 2000, an initial attempt to measure visitor use on the Tongass National Forest was conducted. Only 138 of 165 planned sampling days were completed, resulting in a completion rate of 84 percent (USDA 2001). This was the lowest achievement rate among all regions, which averaged 95 percent overall. An in depth review suggested that weather was not a factor and that the low accomplishment rate was attributable to personnel and strategic problems experienced by the sample districts. Approximately 12 interviews were conducted, along with a review of literature focusing on this issue. A series of approximately 20—25 recommendations were made to managers as a result of the review and interviews. It is intended that the results of this review will ultimately aid in customizing the survey protocol and instruments for the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) and related recreation use monitoring studies in this region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 946 Serial 2594
Permanent link to this record

Author Maresi, G.; Didonato, F.,
Title Towards a sustainable tourism for the Italian mountains: the role of CAI Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 497-501
Keywords (up) MMV4, Alpine club, climbing, hiking, refuges, protected area
Abstract Since its foundation in 1863, The “Club Alpino Italiano” has been playing an active and often decisive role for the invention, the spread and the development of mountain tourism either on Alps and Apennines. In the last years this role has been more and more related to a clear attention to sustainability and protection of mountain environment. Both Association’ activities (hiking, climbing, caving and sky-tourism) and structures (refuges and paths) were object of a practical and cultural work aimed to reduce impact especially in protected areas. For activities, the main work is still based on improving knowledge of mountain environment in association members during technical formation courses, focusing to all the attentions to be adopted to avoid damages at wildlife and vegetation. Refuges proved to be experimental sites for innovative application of alternative source of energy and new solution of waste management. Creation of new paths and management of old ones are now carried out following practical criteria adopted at national scale and aiming to reduce damages due to erosion and impact on vegetation and wildlife. A GIS approach for excursionist paths net has been adopted in different situation, proving effective as a tool for a environmentally sustainable planning and management. Parks and protected area were strongly supported by CAI in the last years, when the Association was between the more active promoters of new protected areas. A strong collaboration is now working on with Parks, both national and regional: the target is a responsible frequentation protection of mountain endangered habitat.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1106 Serial 2674
Permanent link to this record

Author Wirth, V.; Pröbstl, U.; Haider, W.,
Title The role of sport activities in Alpine summer tourism Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 94-98
Keywords (up) MMV4, Alps, destination choice, discrete choice experiment, sport activities, summer tourism
Abstract Throughout the Alps, natural integrity, outstanding landscape beauty, and the opportunity to pursue various sport activities are key elements of the tourism product, and influence the choice of destinations. This paper focuses on the role of sports activities in the choice of Alpine destinations. The data were collected from a representative random sample of German tourists. The core element of the survey is a stated choice survey in which respondents had to make repeated choices between two hypothetical alpine destinations which were disguised as web sites with changing characteristics and landscape features. The results of the discrete choice experiment show that the sport activities contribute significantly to the destination choice, and that the respondents are rather heterogeneous, leading to the identification of different segments in a latent class segmentation. The largest segment is comprised of the social and activity oriented tourists (55%), followed by nature and alpine oriented tourists (31%), and finally by tourists interested predominantly in relaxing (14%). Their divergent preferences and expectations will be described below. The importance of this research is that these segments have been identified directly from the choice responses, instead of from some attitudinal or motivational set of questions. The findings indicate that sport activities play an important role in the destination choice for alpine summer holidays, but their significance differs between segments. For marketing and management purposes these results highlight that the target groups and related marketing campaigns must be adapted to new trends and societal changes. To attract and enlarge the less active tourism segment the Alps should be positioned as silent place where relaxing in a healthy environment and outstanding landscape is possible.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 928 Serial 2586
Permanent link to this record

Author Magro, T.C.; Santiago, C.D.M.; Robim, M.D.J.,
Title Finding a balance: applied ecology is not a second-class research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 55-56
Keywords (up) MMV4, Applied research, recreation ecology, research financial support
Abstract Nevertheless the recreation ecology research provides answers to current environmental and social problems; we need a challenge to gains social recognition. The consequences of not been positively evaluated in academic circles and in governmental financing agencies is that the research institutions staff who also have charge of protected areas are not being able to request financial support for research.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 902 Serial 2573
Permanent link to this record

Author Melendez, G.C.N.; Magro, T.C.,
Title Can tourism change the traditional use of Potsotaroki (Trichilia pallida)? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 505-509
Keywords (up) MMV4, Asháninka People, Indigenous handcraft, Potsotaroki, Trichilia pallida
Abstract The traditional people who live from the resources that come from the forest had kept an almost symbiotic relation with their surrounding land, using the resources. However the contact with factors that are different from their culture, including tourism, can generate variations in the way of traditional handling, causing impacts in the environment. In this paper we analyze the traditional employment of the tree bark from “Potsotaroki” (Trichilia pallida), used as dye in the production of cotton handcrafts. The evaluated factors have the goal of registering the status of this forest species, and its relation with the natural process of insertion of the indigenous communities in the dominant social system. The research was done in an Asháninka community, from the high forest in the Peruvian Amazon.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1110 Serial 2676
Permanent link to this record

Author Roberts, J.,
Title An audience based approach to communication intervention Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 502-504
Keywords (up) MMV4, Audience-based communication, Codes of conduct, Recreational impacts
Abstract Communication Interventions (CIs) are often used by the environmental and outdoor sectors to try to manage and mitigate the impacts of recreation. This research audited the CIs currently being used in Wales, reviewed the process of creating them and explored the way that audiences gather and responded to advice, instruction and guidance. It found that currently most CIs are too narrow in their delivery and do not consider behaviour change sufficiently, tending to over focus on the message. The study recommends that CIs should utilise a broad range of integrated media, linked, if possible, to direct ‘points of contact’. A guide to creating effective audience based CIs is being developed using the results and recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1108 Serial 2675
Permanent link to this record

Author Lewis, A.R.,
Title Sustainable camping at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: overcoming methodological challenges Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 278-282
Keywords (up) MMV4, Australia, environmental impacts, methods, Ningaloo, recreation
Abstract This paper outlines issues relating to campsite assesment along the Ningaloo coastline, Western Australia. A solution to methodological challenges, through the utilisation of both qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques are suggested. The Ningaloo coastline is gaining popularity as a remote camping destination in Western Australia. Camping activities in this semi-arid environment are largely unrestricted, and gradual environmental degradation is observable in many locations. The following factors make the Ningaloo camping experience unique within Australia: A remote, semi-arid environment; multiple management/ownership of land; off-road vehicle accessibility to campsites; elaborate camp set-ups (often with a campervan and four-wheel drive); and the long average length of stay (47 days). Existing literature largely focuses on camping impacts within a wilderness environment, with short visitor stays, pedestrian-only access and a single management regime. This research will undertake an initial environmental assessment of sample campsites within different locations along the Ningaloo coast. Campers’ daily activities, resource (water, energy) use and waste production will also be determined. This research is highly significant from a local and regional perspective, given government plans to develop multiple camping ‘nodes’ along the Ningaloo coast by 2015. The data will therefore contribute to a stronger understanding of campsite sustainability, with regard to campsite placement and facilities. This research will also address information gaps within the field of recreation ecology
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1014 Serial 2628
Permanent link to this record

Author Buckley, A.,
Title Right or responsibility? Local people as ‘visitors’ in protected areas on the south coast of Western Australia Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-367
Keywords (up) MMV4, Australian protected areas, local people, passive and active nature-based recreation, remote areas
Abstract The environmental impact of local people recreating in nature is an under-studied aspect of protected area management. A recent review of nature-based recreation was undertaken in regional south-western Australia. Surrounded by an array of protected areas — including a national park with World Heritage status — the local residents of this remote Western Australian location have relatively unrestricted access to a variety of protected landscapes. A recent mineral resources boom in Western Australia has heralded a return to mining in the area, accompanied by a considerable population increase — both as itinerant and permanent miners. For local people and environmental managers alike, this influx has raised concerns about the carrying capacity of this fragile ecosystem to sustain the wilderness recreation activities of the newly arrived mining community. This paper draws on evidence gathered from a study commissioned by the regional environmental authority and outlines the extent to which local people, both long term and recent arrivals can be considered ‘visitors’ to these protected places.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1048 Serial 2645
Permanent link to this record

Author Brandenburg, C.; Lexer, W.; Heckl, F.; Muhar, A.; Reimoser, F.; Zink, R.; Bartel, A.,
Title Nobody knows the trouble they cause? The behaviour of forest users and their knowledge about wildlife disturbance Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 343-343
Keywords (up) MMV4, Awareness of wildlife disturbance, sustainable recreational use, visitor management
Abstract The Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald frames the west and south side of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. High biodiversity and conservation values are given by a large contiguous forest area and interlocked grass lands. The Wienerwald is a major large-scale wildlife habitat and part of a supra-regional ecological corridor. Due to the close proximity of the city, the area is characterised by high use intensities and pressures caused by intense recreational uses, a strong demand for hunting opportunities: high hunting pressure as well as urban sprawl, land take, habitat loss and fragmentation. In order to reduce negative impacts towards wildlife caused by recreational activities, foresting and farming, landowners and tourism management organisations developed various regulations and management regimes for the use of the Wienerwald. The aim of the presented research project funded by the Austrian Academy of Science was to investigate the familiarity with those rules as well as the level of acceptance and compliance with the site regulations. On-site interviews and mailing surveys using standardised questionnaires were taken to address the project objectives. Altogether 1334 land users like foresters and farmers as well as recreationists, like hikers, horse riders, mountain bikers and joggers were asked if they were aware of the problems and conflicts caused to wildlife and wildlife management by certain behaviour such as off-trail use, off leash dog walking, if they knew the further-reaching implications of disturbing wildlife, and in the end if they observed the rules.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1038 Serial 2640
Permanent link to this record

Author Grigel, F.P.,
Title Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose: visit types across Canada’s National Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 310-314
Keywords (up) MMV4, Behaviour patterns, national parks, latent class modelling, trip diaries, activities
Abstract Parks Canada is continuing to use latent class analysis to identify behaviour-based ‘visit type’ segments (created through the analysis of reported activities and the places visited) in different national parks. The current paper reviews three studies conducted in different national parks. We will discuss improvements in the efficiency of data collection and highlight the consistency in visit type segments across different national parks. The appearance of consistent visit type segments across national parks serves to reinforce Parks Canada’s move to behaviour-based segmentation. These visit type segments contrast with the different visitor profiles of each national park (as measured by origin and motivations for visiting). Identifying consistent visit type segments across different national parks allows Parks Canada to develop regional-level programs and products for each of these groups, rather than continuing to develop products for each park in isolation.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1026 Serial 2634
Permanent link to this record

Author Jochem, R.,
Title Building the model right and building the right model: Verification and validation of the recreation simulation model MASOOR Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 160-160
Keywords (up) MMV4, Behaviour simulation, MASOOR, recreation model, behavioural rules and preferences
Abstract MASOOR (Multi Agent Simulation Of Outdoor Recreation) is a multi-agent recreational behaviour simulation model. MASOOR is developed to evaluate both existing management policies and effects of various management actions. In addition, it can serve as a communication tool in participatory processes. By visualizing recreational behaviour on maps the model helps different stakeholders (recreationists, managers, scientists) to interpret the complex patterns of visitor use and support the discussion among those stakeholders. However, it is important that the model is verified and validated. Verification can be defined as the process of testing whether or not the logic of the model is acceptable. It involves checking that the model behaves as expected and it is sometimes referred to as testing the ëinner validityí of the model. Verification deals with building the model right. Validation relates to the extent that the model adequately represent the actual situation that is modeled. Validation deals with building the right model. Validity can be ascertained by comparing the output of the model with comparable data collected from a real-world system using a various statistics. In this paper we verify MASOOR by an assessment of recreational path use at different numbers of replications. We validate MASOOR by comparing the modeled output with real world data. Finally, we focus the validation on specific behavioural rules such as preference for path type and chunking direction
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 958 Serial 2600
Permanent link to this record

Author Chiari, S.; Schmid, F.; Muhar, A.; Muhar, S.,
Title Recreational functions of rivers in Austria: an approach to the visitors’ perspective Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 247-251
Keywords (up) MMV4, Behaviour, preferences, requirements, river recreation, user survey
Abstract In the past Austrian rivers faced a series of human impacts leading to a loss of both ecological and social functionality. River restoration measures aim to improve this functionality, however, they are currently mostly targeted at ecological functions rather than at recreation. To prevent conflicts between ecological integrity and recreational needs integrated river management is demanded. So far river recreation in Austria is an unknown quantity, as profound data are lacking. The range of present river-based recreational activities can only roughly be estimated. The ongoing project “Future options for the development of riverine landscapes – space requirements for multifunctionality” aims to fill this gap. Concerning recreationists’ dispersion, behaviour and preferences data is collected along three rivers (Enns, Drau, Lech). The first step of the methodological approach was an explorative preparatory study conducted in 2007. Qualitative face-to-face interviews should clarify which factors influence river recreationists in terms of how they perceive the river, what they appreciate about the setting and what compromises their quality of experience. Based on these results a semi-standardised questionnaire was developed for a quantitative survey conducted in 2008, covering topics such as visitation motives, use patterns, habits, and perceptive aspects using image-based choice statements. Additionally the extent of river recreation is assessed via peak-day observations documenting recreational characteristics like number of visits, length of stay and activities. Preliminary results indicate that most people associate calmness and relaxation with river recreation rather than adventure and action. In particular, the acoustic scenery and certain natural attributes play a major role. Most people state, that they prefer natural river sections for recreational purposes. However, some ecologically valuable features such as woody debris seem to bother them. Further steps aim to identify key factors for the usability of rivers, integrating both objective factors such as the biophysical setting and subjective issues such as aesthetics and personal preferences.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 998 Serial 2620
Permanent link to this record

Author Griffin, T.; Moore, S.A.; Darcy, S.; Crilley, G.,
Title Developing a national approach to visitor data collection, management and use for protected areas: thoughts from Australian research and practice Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 305-309
Keywords (up) MMV4, Benchmarking, national approach, performance indicators, protected area management, visitor data
Abstract Information on visitor numbers, activities, expectations and satisfaction is vital for protected areas managers on two counts: to assist in the provision of the services and facilities that visitors need and want; and to determine if managers have been efficient and effective in meeting these demands. This paper builds on a recently completed national study in Australia of visitor data collection and usage, and the future visitor data needs, of protected area management agencies. Australia is a federation of states and provides a challenging backdrop for developing a national approach as most responsibilities for protected areas rest with the states rather than the national government. Thus, the success of such an approach rests on cooperation rather than an overarching national regulatory responsibility. The study found that all protected area agencies collected visitor data, however, their approaches were highly variable in what was measured, how the measurements were applied and how data were managed and used. This variability was problematic because it becomes very difficult to determine issues of general importance for protected area management or to benchmark performance across areas. Based on these findings and knowledge of the institutional settings for protected area management in Australia, this paper poses some ideas for progressing a national approach for standardising the measures and measurement of key variables so that comparisons and benchmarking become possible and reliable. Core and supplementary visitor data variables can be identified, with the former being of national interest and hence requiring collection and storage under national coordination and guidance. Implementing such an approach will require working creatively and collaboratively within the current institutional settings.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1024 Serial 2633
Permanent link to this record

Author Tempesta, T.; Arkilo, S.,
Title Recreational demand of the Euganean Hills Regional Park (Veneto – Italy) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 288-292
Keywords (up) MMV4, Benefits Estimation, Recreational demand, Regional Park
Abstract The Euganean Hills Regional Park is a hilly area of about 180 square kilometres that rises isolated in the central Veneto plain. It was established in 1989 but there is no data available on the number of visitors, and economic benefits for the local economy and for the visitors. With the aim of estimating visitor flow, a telephone survey was conducted. A sample of 309 families living on the Veneto and Emilia Romagna plain was interviewed. In order to estimate the visitors’ expenditure, a subsequent in-person survey was made on site. The research highlighted that the Park, with 168 visits per hectare per year, is probably the most frequently visited of the Veneto Region. Also the expenditure of the daily visitors (4.025 euros per hectare per year) and the recreational benefits (837 euros per hectare per year) are much greater than in the other Regional Parks of a similar size.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1018 Serial 2630
Permanent link to this record

Author Campbell, M.J.; Walker, D.,
Title The future of recreation ecology in Canada: go big or go home? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 47-52
Keywords (up) MMV4, Big science and multi disciplinary teams, necessity and inevitability of impacts, recreation ecology, recreation habitats
Abstract In Canada, tension between the reaction to the declining number of visitors to protected areas and the potential for unmitigated impacts of the attendant attempts to increase visitation, highlights the need for an expansion of the role of recreation ecology from merely chronicling impacts to, what might hopefully be termed, “optimizing” them. Despite over four decades of significant growth and development internationally, recreation ecology remains a somewhat obscure discipline in Canada. At MMV-3 Marion (1) identified a small group of “active” recreation ecology researchers in Canada many of whose work was an extension of their primary research purpose. Indeed most researchers working in recreation ecology in Canada are unlikely to view themselves as recreational ecologists, but in terms of their source disciplines (Botany, Zoology, Ecology, Geography). As such, recreation ecology in Canada is often an avocation reflecting the intersection of the researchers’ primary interest with an opportunity presented or identified by park managers. One result of this has been an almost exclusive focus on impacts with all its attendant negative associations. Impacts associated with outdoor recreation have been recognized as inevitable (2). I would argue that they are also necessary and that much outdoor recreation cannot take place without impacts. Recent research on recreational habitats in remote areas of northern Canada highlighted the importance of impacted nodes and corridors to recreational activity (3). The rearguard action we have been engaged in with the focus on previously impacted sites has prevented the effective application of recreation ecology to as yet “undiscovered” recreation areas and the optimization of impacts for recreation. Doing so will require an investment in “big science” incorporating multi-disciplinary teams. This will be challenging given that recreation ecology has struggled to be funded even at “small science” levels, particularly so in Canada, where it falls between the cracks of the national granting councils.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 896 Serial 2570
Permanent link to this record

Author Marandola, D.; Malvolti, M.E.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Biodiversity and rural development: the case-study of the “Shepherd’s walnut”. An action model for sustainable rural development shaped on the peculiar features of a rural area Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 494-496
Keywords (up) MMV4, Biodiversity, local resources, rural development
Abstract Walnut tree, for nutritional value, wood and its connections to local culture and society, is a very typical product of the Apennine rural areas. Anyway, the economical value of the traditional/local varieties is today very reduced and this may expose rural areas to a loss of biodiversity, cultural values and landscape elements. FIMONT is a research project which aims to calibrate action models to increase the value of mountain traditional food products. The research, starting from some specific morpho-genetic analisys carried out by IBAF, has considered the possibility to increase the value of local walnut calibrating a model based on the peculiar features of the rural territory. An ancient path for sheeps transhumance has been choosen like a “red line” for the model.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1104 Serial 2673
Permanent link to this record

Author Kangas, K.; Siikamäki, P.; Luoto, M.; Ihantola, A.,
Title Does tourism affect bird populations in protected areas? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 344-346
Keywords (up) MMV4, Birds, Disturbance, Protected areas, Tourism
Abstract Human induced disturbance can have various impacts on birds. Disturbance has been found to affect for example behaviour, breeding success, species composition and density of birds. Despite of the growing number of disturbance research, little is known about impacts of recreation on forest bird communities as the focus has been mainly on behavioural responses of single species. There is a need for research on tourism-induced changes in bird communities in protected areas, as they are important for many rare and threatened species preferring natural habitats. We studied impacts of tourism on birds in Oulanka National Park, north-eastern Finland. Data on breeding bird pairs were collected with line transect method in hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas. We used general additive models (GAM) to investigate the importance of the tourism-related variables, i.e. visitor numbers in hiking trails and the area of infrastructure, as well as the habitat variables in explaining the variation in bird communities. The preliminary results show that the current tourism pressure has not caused substantial changes in bird communities of Oulanka NP. However, open-cup nesters showed negative response to the number of visitors.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1040 Serial 2641
Permanent link to this record

Author Vaccari, F.; Baronti, S.; Magno, R.; Trampetti, S.; Giannini, F.; Raschi, A.,
Title TuristiCO2: a carrying capacity assessment for sustainable tourism in a park island Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 522-525
Keywords (up) MMV4, Carrying Capacity, Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse effect, Park Islands
Abstract Carrying capacity has been a long-standing issue in management of parks, outdoor recreation and tourism. This paper describes the first analysis concerning a project on touristic carrying capacity assessment on Pianosa, an island of the Parco Nazionale of Arcipelago Toscano, using an Eddy-Covariance tower for CO2 fluxes measurement. The preliminary results show that Pianosa represents a sink of carbon, thus actively contribute to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1120 Serial 2681
Permanent link to this record

Author Absher, J.D.; Graefe, A.R.; Kyle, G.T.,
Title A reassessment of the encounter – norm – crowding relationship for reservoir-based recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 101-101
Keywords (up) MMV4, Carrying capacity, recreational capacity management, reservoir-based recreation
Abstract It is generally accepted that recreation capacity decisions rely heavily on an evaluative component, especially those related to crowding. However, there are many unresolved issues in measurement and recreational capacity management arising from such an approach (e.g., Vaske & Donnelley, 2002; Manning, et al., 1999). This paper reviews the research that supports a normative approach and analyzes data from seven reservoirs in the US (California, Arizona, Nevada and Texas; n= 4,682). For each lake similar preference, expectation, and evaluative measurements were obtained. The seven lakes serve a variety of boating interests including daily launch (trailer access), marina slip, and rental boating. For this analysis we compare expectations-based norms and differences in evaluative standards and effect size indicators that are appropriate to boating recreation on these lakes. Separately we also address type of access, craft, and setting specific crowding indicators (e.g. at launch site, on open water). Crowding is measured using the now standard 9-point scale (Vaske & Shelby, 2008). Analyses rely on simple comparative tests: t-test, effect size and ANOVA. Overall, the results show that for reservoir boating there is evidence for a generalized encounter-norm relationship and further demonstrate that self reports of crowding are useful to gauge variation attributable to particular uses and settings. The paper concludes with implications for further development of the notion of carrying capacity and its reliance on crowding measures as robust social indicators useful to boating management decisions
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 930 Serial 2587
Permanent link to this record

Author Puhakka, R.; Cottrell, S.P.; Siikamäki, P.,
Title Role of Oulanka PAN Park in Local Community Development in Northeastern Finland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 78-82
Keywords (up) MMV4, certification, national parks, PAN Parks, sustainable tourism
Abstract As a result of the growth of nature-based tourism, national parks have become important tourist attractions in Finland, and they have an increasing role as tools for regional development especially in the northern peripheries of the country. Meanwhile, new international initiatives to develop sustainable nature-based tourism have been introduced in Finland. PAN (Protected Area Network) Parks Foundation is a non-profit organization aimed to balance the needs of wilderness protection and community development by facilitating sustainable tourism development in European parks. This study examines the socio-cultural sustainability of tourism in Oulanka National Park perceived by local stakeholders. The central question concerns the role of PAN Parks certification in community and tourism development. Does it benefit socio-cultural development in the region, and does it have some disadvantages from the perspective of local people? The study is based on a mixed methods approach including a questionnaire (n=314) and semi-structured interviews (n=40) conducted in Oulanka region in 2007 for representatives of NGOs, tourism and other businesses, municipalities and public sector, and local residents. Findings show that most of the stakeholders have a positive attitude towards tourism development in Oulanka. The economic benefits of PAN Parks status have not yet been realized, but locals expect the benefits will grow while tourists’ familiarity with PAN Parks increases. Local residents’ knowledge of PAN Parks is still weak. Although nature-based tourism benefits community in various ways, locals also perceive disadvantages caused by the park. The biggest problems identified in the study are related to participation possibilities and contradictions with traditional subsistence economies (e.g., fishing, hunting and reindeer herding). Thus, it is essential to pay attention to the distribution of benefits and burdens of the park development – also to those which are not related to monetary interests. Increasing co-operation with local stakeholders could improve the mutual relations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 918 Serial 2581
Permanent link to this record

Author Raschi, A.; Crisci, A.; Mikicic, S.,
Title Climate change and ski areas in Trentino region, Italy Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 93-93
Keywords (up) MMV4, Climate change, meteo, ski, winter tourism
Abstract The existence of an ongoing climate change cannot be denied, or hidden, and tourism is going to be affected by it to a large extent. The analysis of current trends in the response of tourism to climate change, in conjunction with the forecast of future climate scenaries, can help us in focusing the possible solutions to future possible problems. This work focused on the existing trends in winter tourism in the Trentino region (Italian Alps), by analysing, for the years 1981/1982 to 2007/2008, the climate data from six meteo stations located in ski resorts characterized by different height and geographical position. Data analysis showed that the number of the days with more than 20 cm of snow, minimum level for permitting skiing, is reducing, and interannual variability is increasing. The trend is particularly evident for lower altitude areas. The average, minimum and maximum temperatures of above mentioned winter periods was compared with tourist arrivals suggesting an inverse correlation, with a marked decrease in tourists arrivals in higher temperature periods. The results support the conclusion that the tourists will be obliged to reach higher ski areas with lower temperature and adequate snow level, while a further increase in temperatures will lead the lower ski areas to disappear, and the high seasonal variability will put at risk winter tourism itself in many areas. The further perspective of research, on tourism trends in summer season, will also be outlined.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 926 Serial 2585
Permanent link to this record

Author Tuulentie, S.,
Title Nature and environment in Finland’s and Lapland’s tourism strategies Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 224-228
Keywords (up) MMV4, Climate change, nature tourism, rural development, textual analysis, tourism strategy
Abstract Nature is regarded as one of the main tourism attractions in Finland as well as in many other destinations. This makes tourism especially important for rural areas, such as Lapland. Rural communities in sparsely populated areas have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and also by global issues, e.g. climate change. Anticipation and adaptation are important for the strategic tourism planning. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how recent national and regional tourism strategy documents take into account issues related to those natural surroundings where tourism takes place in Finland. What is the role of national parks and other protected areas in tourism planning, which natural features are emphasised, and how such environmental issues as climate change are anticipated? The results of the textual analysis of three tourism strategy documents show that tourism development is often discussed only in economic and marketing terms and not much from the point of view of environmental or socio-cultural issues. For example, strategy documents refer to climate change in a very cursory way. National parks and other protected areas are noticed as attractions but their role has not been developed further. Forests are seldom mentioned which is especially interesting in the case of Finland where the use of forests has caused conflicts between tourism and forestry in Northern Finland. The concept of wilderness, which was present in the earlier tourism strategy of Lapland, has almost disappeared from the latest strategy document.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 986 Serial 2614
Permanent link to this record

Author Arca, B.; Duce, P.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.; Dore, P.,
Title Assessing the impact of recurrent wildfires and tourist activities in a Mediterranean area Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 333-336
Keywords (up) MMV4, Coastal areas, shrubland vegetation, vulnerability, anthropogenic disturbances
Abstract The coastal landscapes of Sardinia are characterized by a mosaic of beaches, protected areas and lands subjected to several anthropogenic disturbances. The wildland fire can be considered as a permanent disturbance that induces changes in the spatial pattern of vegetation, canopy cover, and soil properties. The structural characteristics of fire prone species can support the action of other disturbances. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of both wildland fire and touristic activities on the coastal area of northern Sardinia. A coastal area was sampled by the line intercept method in order to characterize the vegetation. The study found differences in species composition, plant cover, and plant height that can be attributed primarily to the effect of fire, but also to the increased vulnerability of the fire prone ecosystems to the other disturbances.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1034 Serial 2638
Permanent link to this record

Author Riseth, J.Å.,
Title Parks for whom? A Norwegian policy dilemma: recreation vs indigenous interests Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389
Keywords (up) MMV4, Commercial tourism, convention on biological diversity, indigenous interests, IUCN category VI Yellowstone model
Abstract As most countries, Norway has adopted the Yellowstone model for nature protection; limiting humans’ role to be guests in nature. The country established its first national park in 1962. In 2008, 14.3 % of the mainland is formally protected; including 29 national parks, many established newly. Recent decades’ growing concern of the insufficiency of this protection model includes the lack of seeing conservation as a social issue, not only a biological one, was confirmed by the Vth World Park Conference in 2003. The same year the Norwegian government advanced a new policy for increased use of national parks for commercial tourism, named the “Mountain Text”. The fact not addressed is that 18 of 29 parks are situated in Sámi reindeer pasture areas. The contemporary policy has revealed an unexpected conflict of objectives. Whereas the Mountain Text strengthen the goal of recreation, affected Sámi herders fear that parks instead of protection for them will mean increased disturbance of vulnerable animals and areas and accordingly have changed their basic attitudes from being positive to becoming ambiguous towards new parks and park extensions. This is a problem both in equity as well as efficiency perspective and also a source of new conflicts. Norway currently reforms its conservation legislation to reinforce biodiversity protection. Though indigenous interests have not so far become a core issue in this process; this process and the international process under the Convention on Biological Diversity together create a window of opportunities for reconciling conflicting objectives. One of the relevant instruments is the IUCN Category VI, available from 1994, which juxtaposes biodiversity protection and sustainable use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1056 Serial 2649
Permanent link to this record

Author Bråtå, H.O.; Moranduzzo, M.,
Title Managing and monitoring allowance for new second homes in the Rondane Region, Norway Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 129-133
Keywords (up) MMV4, Common pool resource, regional planning, Rondane, second homes, wild reindeer
Abstract The Rondane mountain region, in South-East Norway, is very popular for recreational purposes. The region is also the habitat for 4500 wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). The reindeer are hunted in controlled forms as part of the area management and harvesting of nature. This rural region suffers from decreasing population figures, reduced agricultural activity and declining economic activity in general. Boosting economic activity by increasing tourism, especially in second homes, is thought to be one way of mitigating this decline. Increased recreational activity may however negatively influence a sustainable development of the wild reindeer herd. In order to manage this possibly conflicting interest, local and regional authorities in 1991 set up a regional development plan, covering relevant parts of 14 municipalities in the Hedmark and Oppland counties. Research indicates that taken actions to some extent have managed to balance increase in tourism and protect vital space for wild reindeer. Still, the exact localization of existing and new second homes, and hence the development of new interventions, was until some years ago, not possible to analyse at an aggregated level. Such monitoring is important. A Norwegian real estate register, mapping the exact geographic position of buildings and their year of construction, has however become an important means for such monitoring. By the end of 2005 there were about 18,000 second homes mapped in the region. Increased GIS knowledge has now made it possible to develop detailed analysis of localization of second homes, i.e. distance from the wild reindeer core area, and analyse the development by statistic tools. This is a breakthrough and is anticipated to influence the management of the region and strengthen the potential for balancing economic activity and maintenance of biological diversity.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 944 Serial 2593
Permanent link to this record

Author Campbell, M.J.; MacKay, K.J.; Walker, D.J.; Dranzoa, C.,
Title Strengthening local support for community tourism (in Uganda) through University – Community Partnerships Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 475-479
Keywords (up) MMV4, Community tourism, GIS, partnerships, Uganda
Abstract Rural poverty, poor environmental health and the resultant threat to biodiversity are significant impediments to sustainable tourism development in Uganda. These problems reinforce one another and are compounded by: a) weak institutional linkages between rural communities, NGOs, universities, government departments and public policy makers; b) deficiencies in community oriented professional skills in sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation; c) the need to transform community attitudes to view parks and protected areas and wildlife as natural capital on which rural livelihoods can be improved; and d) the need for interdisciplinary approaches in higher learning to address intertwined problems of biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism development. The University of Manitoba in co-operation with Makerere University in Uganda has initiated a program to address these issues though the development of: 1) a master’s degree at Makerere University; 2) a strategic partner’s network and; 3) three demonstration projects in communities surrounding national parks. This poster presents initial results that illustrate how the university community-partnership is leading to stronger institutional links to not only the university and community but also to NGOs and government departments while providing much needed capacity building in local communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1088 Serial 2665
Permanent link to this record

Author Lee, J.-H.; Bürger-Arndt, R.,
Title A comparative study of offers for recreation in nature parks in Germany and in recreation forests in Korea Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 86-88
Keywords (up) MMV4, comparative study, German Nature Park, internet search, Korean Recreation Forest, recreation, recreational offer, recreational use
Abstract This comparative study was designed to search for the difference in recreational use and recreational offers between German Nature Parks and Korean Recreational Forests. To review current recreational offers, a complete search of the websites of all German Nature Parks and 50% of Korean Recreation Forests was undertaken. The result is compared per category of offers. Hiking is offered as a recreational forest activity in nearly all Nature Parks in Germany (95%) and Recreation Forests in Korea (98%). Apart from hiking, biking (92%) and horse riding (71%) were offered by most of the German Nature Parks whereas Walking (96%) and Fitness trail (76%) activities were mostly offered in Korea. Swimming (66%), canoeing (62%), fishing (43%) and sailing (38%) were very famous water activities in German Nature Parks. However, there are very few water activities except swimming (74%) in Korean Recreation Forests. Environmental education plays an important role in nature friendly recreation. In terms of quantity and quality, there were better offers in environmental education in Germany than in Korea. Nature educational trails were offered by 68% of German Nature Parks compared to 26% of Recreation Forests in Korea. Various environmental education programs for children were 63% in German and only 40% in Korea. Furthermore, there were more offers in German Nature Park, for example environmental guide (56%), environmental education program (47%) and environmental touring (26%). There were nine tour themes in German Nature Parks with the largest proportion (66%) dedicated to experience with nature and 8% for the disabled people. On the other hand, the Korean Recreation Forest has not so many tour themes as in German Nature Parks. Nevertheless, the activities comprise of nature experience (80%), cultural history (72%) and wellness (32%). The demand of recreation users on Infrastructures is very high, therefore almost all of Korean Recreation Forests have Toilet (94%), Kitchen & Water (80%) and shower rooms (68%). They exhibit passive recreation and the environmental education program is less compared to that of German Nature Park, but the infrastructure plays a very important role in nature recreation of Koreans. It sums that, German Nature Parks have more of almost all kinds of recreational offers than Korean Recreation Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 922 Serial 2583
Permanent link to this record

Author Ankre, R.; Petersson Forsberg, L.; Emmelin, L.,
Title Silence – an article of short supply in outdoor recreation? Handling noise conflicts in Swedish planning Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 399-403
Keywords (up) MMV4, Conflicts, noise, planning, outdoor recreation, zoning
Abstract Outdoor recreation areas are exposed to several causes of conflict. Many interests, along with different types of recreation activities, are competing in the same area. In these areas, conflicts are handled by spatial planning and by the separation in space of different functions. One source of conflict is noise. The lack of noisefree areas in the Swedish coastal areas has become an amenity problem. Does this make noise an important problem to consider in planning? An assumption is that the sound environment is relevant for the visitors’ experience; spending time in nature is associated with peace and quiet, where one should not be disturbed. In this study, it will be investigated how silence and noise actually are considered in the Swedish municipal planning. “Silence” is one of the amenity categories reported in the Swedish tourism data base. Is there a discrepancy between the existing municipal planning and the visitors’ opinions, attitudes and experiences? Furthermore, there will be an analysis of how silence and noise could be handled in spatial planning. One possible method is zoning. By excluding certain outdoor recreation activities from some areas, zoning may handle, or at least reduce, the problem of conflicts. The biosphere reserve concept (where zoning is an important part) will for that reason be discussed as a potential tool. A case study of the Blekinge archipelago, Sweden is the foundation of the study, which data consist of planning documents and questionnaire surveys considering outdoor recreation and nature tourism.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1060 Serial 2651
Permanent link to this record

Author Buckley, R.,
Title Tourism as a Conservation Tool Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 19-25
Keywords (up) MMV4, Connectivity, funding, ecotourism, wildlife
Abstract Tourism and conservation interact principally through public visitation to public protected areas. In addition, however, tourism can generate funding and political support for conservation in multiple-use areas, community conservancies or private reserves. These tenures are likely to prove increasingly important for conservation under growing pressure from human population growth and anthropogenic climate change. The most successful model seems to be through up-market wildlife-watching lodges in private reserves adjacent to larger public protected areas in developing countries. Private companies such as Conservation Corporation Africa and Wilderness Safaris, operating principally in sub-Saharan Africa, have developed successful business models which do also make significant net contributions to conservation of biological diversity.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 888 Serial 2566
Permanent link to this record

Author Ghelichipour, Z.; Muhar, A.,
Title Visitor risk management in core zones of protected areas: First results from a survey of European park administrations Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 107-111
Keywords (up) MMV4, Conservation regulations, European Protected Areas, Questionnaire, Visitor Risk Management
Abstract Effective visitor risk management practices play an important role in the management of outdoor recreation. Many forms of outdoor recreation have inherent risks associated with them, indeed for many recreational activities risk and challenge are integral components. In many European countries, the administrations of protected areas are legally liable for some kinds of visitors’ injuries, e.g. caused by falling trees or damaged handrails. Sometimes this liability may cause legal problems for the managers, as management measures (e.g. removal of trees) might be in conflict with conservation regulations. These problems are particularly serious in core zones of protected areas, because of their stronger conservation status. In this study, visitor safety management and likely conflicts with conservation regulations in different European protected areas has been surveyed. The findings imply that today visitor risk management is not considered as an important aspect of the management process in core zones of protected areas. This might change in the future: In many core zones of European parks regular forest management for timber production has only recently been discontinued, which will lead to an increased visitor risk when natural processes of ecosystem development take over.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 934 Serial 2589
Permanent link to this record

Author Parry, R.; Williams, S.; Watkins, J.A.,
Title Understanding the recreation preferences and constraints of low participation social groups Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 188-192
Keywords (up) MMV4, constraints and preferences, participation, under-representation and exclusion
Abstract Current research has indicated that participation in informal outdoor recreation is relatively low among certain groups, such as young people, older people, women, ethnic minority groups and people with disabilities. There is pressure on policy makers and practitioners to address this apparent imbalance. This paper reviews the findings of an international literature review which highlighted that there has been a focus on ëconstraintsí rather than on ëpreferencesí, particularly in relation to participation in outdoor recreation in the UK. It would appear from the literature that there is a presumption that the main reasons for low participation are related to structural barriers (such as lack of transport) rather than a lack of understanding of the recreation preferences of non-traditional participants. This has raised the question of whether it is achievable to change the prevalent attitude amongst the countryside sector from one of ëwe expect people to want what we provideí, to one of ëwe will provide for what people wantí. Would such a paradigm shift be successful in achieving more equitable outdoor recreation participation?
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 970 Serial 2606
Permanent link to this record

Author Aoki, Y.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Comparative research on outdoor recreation between Austria and Japan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 467-471
Keywords (up) MMV4, Cross-cultural comparison, outdoor recreational activities, climate, Austria, Japan
Abstract The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba conducted a research project to identify differences and commonalities in outdoor recreation activities between Austria and Japan. Between 2005 and 2007 the recreational use in several recreational urban and peri-urban areas was investigated in both countries using a range of methods. Standardized data collecting procedures were established for comparative analyses. The results of this cross-cultural research project showed that although different outdoor activities were carried out, several commonalities in recreation use patterns and recreationists’ perceptions were found. This inter-area and cross-cultural comparison of green space users added to the understanding of urban green space use in Japan and Austria. Urban green space management of both countries will benefit from this cross-cultural research project.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1084 Serial 2663
Permanent link to this record

Author Mann, C.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Crowding in European forests: Status quo and implications for forest management and research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 67-67
Keywords (up) MMV4, Crowding, Europe, forest recreation, methods, scales, social impacts
Abstract Providing forests on a sustainable basis include knowledge about recreation quality of forest visitors and perceived impacts. While ecological impacts have been a central topic for forest recreation research, social impacts such as use-conflict and crowding were rarely investigated. This paper analyses research attempts in European forests dealing with visitors’ crowding perceptions at a first time. For data collection, the Cost Action E33 “Forest for recreation and nature tourism” network, as well as a focused literature research was used. Compared to recreation research in the United States, where crowding is a prominent topic, only 16 European crowding studies were identified since the 1980s, predominantly carried out in Central and Northern Europe. Reported crowding- perceptions ranged from 1064%. Among these, correlations between use-levels and crowding perceptions were yielded, as well as manifold significant influences of setting attributes and visitor characteristics. Most studies used a theoretical foundation oriented towards the US recreation crowding literature, but differ in their methods of measuring crowding. As a result, the use of different scales and data collection methods, restrict a nation-and European-wide comparisons. In most Southern, Eastern and several Central European countries, crowding is not recognized as an issue for forest recreation research and management. Besides less political willingness and financial constraints, general access rights to forests, and the lack of legal requirements are considered among the main obstacles of putting more emphasis on recreation crowding research. Due to the ongoing societal demands for outdoor recreation together with trends to concentrate uses on fewer paths and areas for ecological reasons crowding may be of higher importance in the future. A need for standardized crowding research is stated to gain more insights of cultural differences and commonalities. Changes of the recreation systems, its uses and users can be better recognized for a sustainable, future-oriented forest recreation management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 910 Serial 2577
Permanent link to this record

Author Aikoh, T.; Arnberger, A.; Shoji, Y.; Mieno, T.,
Title Comparison of motivations and crowding preferences between Austrian and Japanese urban forest visitors Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 65-65
Keywords (up) MMV4, crowding, motivation, urban forest visitor, choice mode
Abstract Do Japanese urban forest visitors have the same crowding perceptions than European visitors? Traditionally, it has been considered that an Asian is more tolerant of congestion compared to Western people, because of their different cultural backgrounds and living conditions. However, in many Asian countries, life style has been rapidly westernized, and many Asian people travel or immigrate to Western countries. Our purpose is to investigate the differences of recreation motives and crowding preferences of urban forest visitors between Austria and Japan. We compared motivations and crowding perceptions of on-site forest visitors using the same questionnaires, asked in 2006. Visitors to the Viennese part of the Danube Floodplains National Park, Austria (N = 312) and visitors to the Nopporo Forest Park in Sapporo, Japan (N = 302) were asked to rate 15 motivation items and to choose preferred scenarios of computer-generated choice set images of a discrete choice experiment. Among 15 motivation items, a statistic significant difference was found in 14 items. Both Austrian and Japanese respondents assigned high importance scores to health and nature observation. The Austrians rated highly the motives exercise/sport, quietness and recreation, whereas Japanese visitors placed more importance on experiencing nature and family. We found four motivation factors: Landscape, Solitude, Nature and Health. Results of the choice model showed that Austrian respondents preferred less walkers and dog walkers, whereas Japanese preferred less bikers, joggers and plant pickers. Japanese visitors scored higher on nature observation, and fewer bikers are in this urban forest. Conflicts with dog walkers have been one of the main management issues in the Austrian forest. We found that visitors’ crowding preferences are related to current trail use conditions, and to their motivations. Tourism and recreation become more and more globalized, and this information about differences and similarities of visitor attitudes based on different backgrounds will be helpful for urban forest management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 906 Serial 2575
Permanent link to this record

Author Arnberger, A.; Eder, R.,
Title Over- and undercrowding in the urban context: A comparison among Viennese green spaces Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 66-66
Keywords (up) MMV4, Crowding, perception, urban recreation, urban park users
Abstract Urban green spaces are essential natural environments for densely populated areas and offer refuges from the hectic city life and work environments. They constitute spaces that provide relatively low levels of social contacts, at the same time they are settings for social gathering. High-use levels as well as too low use levels in urban recreational areas may also be associated with negative effects due to overcrowding, safety concerns or too low social stimulation levels. Given the prominence of urban recreation areas in our daily life, it is surprising that so far rather little research has focused on the crowding perceptions and the social carrying capacities of urban park users, particularly in Europe. In eight different green spaces in Vienna, about 1700 on-site visitors were interviewed on randomly selected eight sampling days in 2006. Green spaces were heavily used small inner urban parks, various historical gardens and forests, and peri-urban recreation areas with a large area size and with low visitation. Interviews lasted between 15 and 20 minutes in most cases. One or two interviewers were used per study site. Crowding issues were asked in three separate questions using bi-polar measures: Visitors were asked about their crowding perceptions of the respective recreation area for both Sundays and workdays, using a 7-point scale ranging from a too lonely situation to an overcrowded situation (global measures of crowding). Actual crowding at the time of the interview was investigated using the same 7-point scale (actual measure of crowding). Crowding expectations and perceived development of use levels since the first visit were also asked. Overcrowding and undercrowding perceptions were expressed. About 47% of respondents expressed overcrowding perceptions for Sundays, while for workdays mostly pleasant crowding perceptions were reported. All crowding measures differed significantly, and significant differences were found across the green spaces. Research was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF).
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 908 Serial 2576
Permanent link to this record

Author Veress, E.,
Title Green and/or pleasant countryside? Possibilities and barriers of the mountain tourism in Transylvania, Romania Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 409-413
Keywords (up) MMV4, Cultural and natural heritage, mountain tourism, representation of nature, Zetea/Zetelaka
Abstract One of the main changes in the mentality of both the local people and the representatives of the regional and central governments is that the economy of rural areas must not be exclusively based on agriculture. This has been a great gain for those marginal areas that did not have nor the economic nor the natural resources that could help them in developing a sustainable agriculture. Another change of the mentality came from the urban (and not only urban) people who started to appreciate the possibilities of recreation in the rural areas and especially in those ones where the landscape did not change significantly. In literature this change of mentality is most often connected to the postmodern conception of nature and environment. These two elements have led to the elaboration of projects in order to develop alternatives for sustainable rural development. As a consequence, tourism in the remote mountain areas has developed. But the old problem of poor infrastructure can still be considered as being a barrier in the evolution of this type of services. And this seriously affects the number (and quality) of tourists who would come by car or by bus. This attracts another type of tourists (usually younger ones and with less money) who are more attracted to the wilderness of the landscape. The paper intends to present the evolution of mountain tourism through a case-study from a mountain village (Zetea/Zetelaka) from the Eastern part of Transylvania.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1064 Serial 2653
Permanent link to this record