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Author Chiari, S.; Schmid, F.; Muhar, A.; Muhar, S.,
Title Recreational functions of rivers in Austria: an approach to the visitors’ perspective Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 247-251
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour, preferences, requirements, river recreation, user survey
Abstract In the past Austrian rivers faced a series of human impacts leading to a loss of both ecological and social functionality. River restoration measures aim to improve this functionality, however, they are currently mostly targeted at ecological functions rather than at recreation. To prevent conflicts between ecological integrity and recreational needs integrated river management is demanded. So far river recreation in Austria is an unknown quantity, as profound data are lacking. The range of present river-based recreational activities can only roughly be estimated. The ongoing project “Future options for the development of riverine landscapes – space requirements for multifunctionality” aims to fill this gap. Concerning recreationists’ dispersion, behaviour and preferences data is collected along three rivers (Enns, Drau, Lech). The first step of the methodological approach was an explorative preparatory study conducted in 2007. Qualitative face-to-face interviews should clarify which factors influence river recreationists in terms of how they perceive the river, what they appreciate about the setting and what compromises their quality of experience. Based on these results a semi-standardised questionnaire was developed for a quantitative survey conducted in 2008, covering topics such as visitation motives, use patterns, habits, and perceptive aspects using image-based choice statements. Additionally the extent of river recreation is assessed via peak-day observations documenting recreational characteristics like number of visits, length of stay and activities. Preliminary results indicate that most people associate calmness and relaxation with river recreation rather than adventure and action. In particular, the acoustic scenery and certain natural attributes play a major role. Most people state, that they prefer natural river sections for recreational purposes. However, some ecologically valuable features such as woody debris seem to bother them. Further steps aim to identify key factors for the usability of rivers, integrating both objective factors such as the biophysical setting and subjective issues such as aesthetics and personal preferences.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 998 Serial 2620
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Author Vogt, L.,
Title Beyond economic impact research: an actor-oriented analysis of the competitiveness of trekking tourism in the Piedmont Alps (Italy) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 243-244
Keywords MMV4, Actor-centered institutionalism, economic effects, competitiveness, nature tourism, peripheral rural regions
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 996 Serial 2619
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Author Reimann, M.; Ehrlich, Ü.,
Title Dependence of tourism destinations non-market value on the visit rate: the contingent valuation case study of Jägala Waterfall Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 239-242
Keywords MMV4, Nature tourism, nature resource utilization, contingent valuation
Abstract The article discusses the resource utilisation conflict at the example of Jägala Waterfall, which is the highest and greatest natural waterfall in Estonia. There are plans to build a hydro-power plant there, which would conduct most of the water past the waterfall to the power plant’s turbines, reducing significantly natural and recreational values of the waterfall. The authors carried out a contingent valuation (CV) study to identify the monetary equivalent of non-market values related with Jägala waterfall. This paper examines the dependence of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) on whether or not they have visited the waterfall, indicating thus the significance of nature tourism for the formation of non-market value of natural features. The paper analyses also the dependence of the visit rate on the respondents’ sociometric characteristics. Using the Logit-model, it was identified that the statistically significant factors that influence the probability of visiting Jägala Waterfall are education, income and age. Gender and nationality are not statistictically significant factors for the probablity of visiting the Waterfall. It was also identified that visiting rate has positive impact to WTP.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 994 Serial 2618
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Author Mayer, M.; Vogt, L.; Pütz, M.,
Title Regional economic impacts of nature-based tourism in Switzerland – the relevance of activities and landscape elements Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 237-238
Keywords MMV4, economic effects, nature-based tourism, activities, landscape, destination choice
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 992 Serial 2617
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Author Marangon, F.; Spoto, M.; Visintin, F.,
Title Assigning economic value to natural protected areas: an environmental accounting model Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 232-236
Keywords MMV4, Ecosystem functions, environmental accounting, Long Term Financial Plan, natural marine reserve
Abstract The implementation of environmental accounting in Natural Reserves produced some significant results in terms of restrictions. First of all, environmental accounting introduced a limitation in scale, which was inapplicable on a micro scale. A second restriction concerned the physical unit measure that was used instead of a monetary unit measure. Finally, a third limitation was due to the fact that environmental accounting takes into account only costs, not environmental benefits. These three limitations led us to develop an environmental accounting model that considered resources in the Natural Reserve, both consumed and produced. The model applied to Miramare Natural Marine Reserve (Italy) aimed to supplement monetary accounting based on cost and revenue with environmental accounting which reflects not only environmental cost but also environmental revenues, i.e. environmental benefits. Environmental cost took into account anthropic presence, raw materials use, consumption of fuel for motor vehicles and heating fuel, consumption of electricity, water consumption, and administration expenses. Environmental benefits assessed ecosystem functions: gas regulation, nutrient cycling, biological control, food production, recreation, and culture. The difference between costs and benefits, both economic and environmental, represented the value produced or consumed by the Natural Reserve. The model demonstrated that the net benefit for the Reserve was approximately €654,000 covering the amount of public transfer (about €610,000) completely.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 990 Serial 2616
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Author Mahat, T.J.; Koirala, M.,
Title Assessing nature of visitors flow and revenue generation at the Central Zoo of Nepal Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 231-231
Keywords MMV4, Economic valuation, Nepal, payment of environmental services, travel cost method, zoo
Abstract The only zoo of Nepal, Central Zoo, receives over 800,000 visitors annually. Economic valuation of the zoo was conducted to identify contributions made by the zoo to the economy as well as environmental awareness level of the visitor. The relevant information was collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, direct observation, direct count and focus group discussion. Several economic tools, including travel cost method, were employed for analysis. The study shows that a higher proportion of school children and adolescents visit the zoo in comparison to other age groups and professions. Brahmin, Chhetri and Newar were the dominant visiting caste-groups. Access to economical public transports such as buses, tempos and microbuses has facilitated arrivals of high proportion of visitors with relatively low income to the zoo. Most of the visitors are Nepalese and expatriates. The educational level of the visitors and their affiliation with environment related organizations are not significant determinants of the number and nature of their visits. It was found that there is an inverse relationship between the travel cost and the number of zoo visits. The per capita economic value of the zoo was estimated at US $ 3.15. The study recommends that a) the environmental hygiene inside the zoo be improved, b) the satisfaction level of the visitors be assessed, and c) fund raising sources be identified to expand zoo services as well as its territorial area.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 988 Serial 2615
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Author Tuulentie, S.,
Title Nature and environment in Finland’s and Lapland’s tourism strategies Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 224-228
Keywords MMV4, Climate change, nature tourism, rural development, textual analysis, tourism strategy
Abstract Nature is regarded as one of the main tourism attractions in Finland as well as in many other destinations. This makes tourism especially important for rural areas, such as Lapland. Rural communities in sparsely populated areas have to deal with environmental changes caused by the increase in the use of natural resources and also by global issues, e.g. climate change. Anticipation and adaptation are important for the strategic tourism planning. Strategic development work is part of the planning system at many geographical levels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how recent national and regional tourism strategy documents take into account issues related to those natural surroundings where tourism takes place in Finland. What is the role of national parks and other protected areas in tourism planning, which natural features are emphasised, and how such environmental issues as climate change are anticipated? The results of the textual analysis of three tourism strategy documents show that tourism development is often discussed only in economic and marketing terms and not much from the point of view of environmental or socio-cultural issues. For example, strategy documents refer to climate change in a very cursory way. National parks and other protected areas are noticed as attractions but their role has not been developed further. Forests are seldom mentioned which is especially interesting in the case of Finland where the use of forests has caused conflicts between tourism and forestry in Northern Finland. The concept of wilderness, which was present in the earlier tourism strategy of Lapland, has almost disappeared from the latest strategy document.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 986 Serial 2614
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Author Türk, S.,
Title Urban greens for recreation, outdoor activities and nature experience Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 220-223
Keywords MMV4, Urban greens, management concepts, guidelines
Abstract A modern management of recreational areas for communities should be understood as a useful planning tool. Only an active management of such natural areas nearby settlements, used for outdoor and recreational sports and nature experiences, will fulfill long-term recreation planning in communities and will yield in an increasing quality of life and environmental issues for its habitants. However an integrated concept is needed, which means all categories of recreational issues have to be brought together throughout all departments in a reasonable way. That accounts for all communities independent of its size and structure. Management of recreational areas is not a further inconvenient development planning tool; it is an effective instrument for advancing natural orientated recreational areas.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 984 Serial 2613
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Author Pröbstl, U.; Rid, W.,
Title Green strategies against increased land consumption in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 217-219
Keywords MMV4, Land consumption, compensation measures, open space, new concepts for urban green
Abstract Excessive land consumption is one of the more serious threats to the environment in Germany. Each day about 110 ha of cultural landscape are transformed to roads or settlement. This paper focus on two “green” strategies devised to address this issue: 1) the mandatory obligation to compensate for each impact, and 2) the opportunity to involve private house buyers in order to achieve more density. It is shown that the obligation to compensate has a significant effect on land consumption. The involvement of private home buyers via a multi-attribute survey demonstrates that green spaces and social infrastructure are crucial elements when considering less consumptive development alternatives. Therefore, the traditional planning tools, which are mostly reactive, should be expanded to include conservation strategies and state-of-the-art social science methods to explore the demand for non-existing developments and to influence the future market.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 982 Serial 2612
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Author Naviglio, L.,
Title The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST) integrated with other voluntary tools can facilitate a more effective tourism management in Natural Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 212-216
Keywords MMV4, sustainable tourism, protected areas, voluntary tools, public/private shared strategies
Abstract The European Charter for Sustainable Tourism (ECST), promoted by Europarc in EU protected areas, considers the natural resources conservation as the reason for tourist attractiveness and tourism economy. The main goal is to create a network between public and private subjects in order to individuate and to promote new sustainable tourism offers and to define common, shared, strategies and action plans able to improve local economy preserving natural resources. The ECST implementation can be improved by using procedures and approaches typical of other voluntary tools like ISO 14001/EMAS and Local Agenda 21 (LA21). In particular, the environmental analysis should be more addressed to the existing relationships between pressures produced by tourism and other human activities and the state of the environment (the DPSIR scheme proposed by EEA could be useful for that). A evaluation of criticisms and a rank of priorities should be introduced in the process (as in ISO 14001) and local stakeholders involvement can be referred to LA21. ISO 14001/EMAS should provide references also for monitoring plans and for the management of procedures aimed at using the “park logo” (http://qualitypark. casaccia.enea.it) as award for best practices.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 980 Serial 2611
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Author Jay, M.; Schraml, U.,
Title Migrants’ perspectives on urban forests: the influence of a migration background on patterns of forest use and perception Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 43-44
Keywords MMV5, empirical social research, forest recreation, Germany, migration
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 98 Serial 2698
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Author Goossen, M.,
Title What do people want in National Landscapes Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 211-211
Keywords MMV4, European Landscape Convention, protection, policy, Netherlands
Abstract The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is the first European Treaty that is aimed specifically at the landscape. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning. A main point is that the landscape contributes to the shaping of local cultures. Landscape is a basic component of European nature and cultural heritage. Landscape contributes to the well-being of people and the strengthening of the European identity. This produces everyone rights and responsibilities for protection, management and planning of the landscape. The ELC promotes the involvement of citizens at “their” landscape and stimulates the regional and national governments in Europe to create good conditions for the development and the management of the landscape. The ELC cover all landscapes, urban or rural, nicely or ugly. On the 10th of June 2005 the Dutch minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food quality announced that The Netherlands will ratify the European Landscape Convention. The Dutch landscape policy has been renewed and is entirely in line with this Convention. There are 20 National Landscapes in the Netherlands, which cover approx. 25% of the surface. In the Netherlands important spatial changes are in preparation, varying from new house construction projects to catching the impact of climate change. So involvement of citizens is very important. Therefore the government was interested in the opinion of inhabitants of these National Landscapes, and what their attitude is and what their preferences are. An on-line research with 4000 respondents was carried out to give the answers. The most important result is that the inhabitants agree with the policy. Their attitude is that (economic) development must continue, but with great care of the typical characteristics of the landscape. The preferences depend on the different recreation motives, but the desire for nature development is very popular.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 978 Serial 2610
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Author Rodrigues, Á.; Kastenholz, E.; Rodrigues, A.,
Title Walking trails in recreational and protected areas: an exploratory study of the tourist’s perception of natural areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 203-208
Keywords MMV4, Hiking, destination marketing, visitor survey, market analysis, natural areas
Abstract Nowadays, there is a growing demand for leisure, recreation and tourism activities in nature, with hiking being one of the most popular activities. Walking on a trail through nature, besides providing contact with nature, fruition and relaxation, also constitutes an effective way of interaction between men and nature that could awake an increased environmental awareness (Siqueira, 2004). However, tourists that visit natural areas are not a homogeneous segment (Wight, 2001). Specific motivations and personal characteristics make people look for natural areas with different desires. This understanding is very important for those responsible for the planning and management of natural areas. In this context there are two sides to be considered: supply and demand. One of the most efficient ways to manage flows of visitors in natural environments focuses on the careful design of walking trails. However, for that development to be planned and managed in a sustainable manner it is necessary to know the hikers’ profile. This paper presents the results of an exploratory survey of Portuguese and foreign hikers in Portuguese natural areas of different landscapes. Differences between the national and international visitor group could be identified as far as environmental preferences and nature perception is concerned, implying differentiated destination marketing strategies for protected areas.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 976 Serial 2609
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Author Petrova, E.; Aoki, Y.; Mironov, Y.; Petrova, A.; Furuya, K.; Matsushima, H.; Takayama, N.,
Title Comparison of natural landscapes appreciation between Russia and Japan: methods of investigation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 198-202
Keywords MMV4, aesthetic evaluation, appreciation of landscapes, landscape preferences in Russia and Japan
Abstract The research focusing on the aesthetic evaluation and appreciation of natural landscapes in recreational and protected areas is of great importance. While selecting landscapes for special care and protection one should take into consideration not only objective appraisal of their natural peculiarities, significance, and usefulness but also their aesthetic features. People belonging to different cultures differ by their landscape preferences due to a number of ethno-cultural factors as well as historical, social, and environmental peculiarities. The purpose of this study is to compare the landscapes appreciation in Russia and Japan, in two countries with deep-rooted traditions of landscape appreciation. The photo database of landscapes both similar and unique for Russia and Japan was made using the same methods. The respondents in both countries are suggested to classify and group photo images of different landscapes according to their personal perception as well as to estimate the attractiveness of given landscapes images. The results of the study will help us to answer: do representatives of different cultures – people in Russia and Japan – like similar landscapes due to aesthetic appreciation laws, which are common for the whole humanity, and if they don’t – then why not?
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 974 Serial 2608
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Author Partalidou, M.; Iakovidou, O.,
Title Safeguarding rural tourism experience. Do different quality norms exist? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 193-197
Keywords MMV4, management, quality, norms, rural tourism
Abstract Despite the growing body of research on rural tourism in Greece none is focused on managing quality experience. Towards this direction visitors’ norms can be of great importance and a rather useful tool in order to safeguard the overall experience in rural settings and help everyday managers of rural tourism as well as practitioners and policy makers. Whereas developed in sociology and social psychology, norms have been used as an organizing concept in outdoor recreation research and management. In this paper we try to use this concept of visitors’ norms in order to determine what rural tourism should offer for a unique experience. Self administered questionnaires were distributed randomly across seven well known rural tourism destinations of rural Greece. Day trippers were excluded and sample size was set at 339 rural tourists, according to estimations of the proportion of rural tourists to the overall number of visitors at each destination. Personal interview was used and statistical analysis gave answers to a multiple set of research questions.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 972 Serial 2607
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Author Parry, R.; Williams, S.; Watkins, J.A.,
Title Understanding the recreation preferences and constraints of low participation social groups Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 188-192
Keywords MMV4, constraints and preferences, participation, under-representation and exclusion
Abstract Current research has indicated that participation in informal outdoor recreation is relatively low among certain groups, such as young people, older people, women, ethnic minority groups and people with disabilities. There is pressure on policy makers and practitioners to address this apparent imbalance. This paper reviews the findings of an international literature review which highlighted that there has been a focus on ëconstraintsí rather than on ëpreferencesí, particularly in relation to participation in outdoor recreation in the UK. It would appear from the literature that there is a presumption that the main reasons for low participation are related to structural barriers (such as lack of transport) rather than a lack of understanding of the recreation preferences of non-traditional participants. This has raised the question of whether it is achievable to change the prevalent attitude amongst the countryside sector from one of ëwe expect people to want what we provideí, to one of ëwe will provide for what people wantí. Would such a paradigm shift be successful in achieving more equitable outdoor recreation participation?
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 970 Serial 2606
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Author Hennig, S.,
Title The recreation perspective. A recreationalists typology on visitors and their behaviour by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 183-187
Keywords MMV4, visitor characteristics, recreational behaviour, typologies, management, statistical analysis
Abstract To perform its tasks management needs information on visitors. They provide insight into the recreational situation of protected areas and support management decisions. Therefor, data on visitor use and visitation behaviour have to be analyzed and mapped. However, information on visitors should not be reduced on singular variables. It is important to combine these different characteristics and build up types of visitors respectively visitor behaviour. In favour of this the approach of recreation perspective is elaborated. The concept takes account of existing typologies on (nature-based) tourism and their attributes (e.g. size, age). Furthermore, visitor behaviour is integrated. Distinguished in macro and micro behaviour it is expressed by choice of activity, destination, type, location and duration of extended stops etc.. Considering these aspects visitors can be categorized into several types. The recreation perspective is worked out and applied to the German Berchtesgaden National Park.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 968 Serial 2605
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Author Li, C.-L.; Hsu, Y.-C.; Lue, C.-C.; Absher, J.D.,
Title Re-examine the measure of values Cross-culturally: the case of recreation visitors in Hong Kong and Taiwan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 177-182
Keywords MMV4, Hofstede’s measure of values, Kahle’s List of Values, customer service, parks and recreation
Abstract Parks and recreation areas around the world increasingly serve as international visitor attractions and play an important role in the international tourism industry. Given the increasingly diverse visitors, changes in racial and ethnic composition have confronted the management of parks and recreation areas. Since values presumably influence perceptions and behaviors among members of different cultures, studying values among culturally diverse visitors are important if we are to understand their influence on perceptions as well as parks and recreation behavior. We are not aware of any measure of recreation or leisure values that has been validated cross-culturally. In order to better understand this issue, the purposes of this study are to examine two different types of broad values measures (i.e., Hofstede’s measures of values and Kahle’s List of Values [LOV]) that have been validated cross-culturally, and test values’ utility to predict service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions, both in Hong Kong and Taiwan. In 2005-2008, the visitors to Pokfulam Country Park in Hong Kong and Taroko National Park in Taiwan were surveyed. Using a convenient purposive on-site sampling approach, at sites known to be heavily used by visitors with diverse ethnic backgrounds, we obtained a sample combining the Hong Kong and Taiwan recreation visitors. The results from data analyses showed that Hofstede’s measure of values, as employed in the park and recreation context, needs to be further elaborated and refined to provide acceptable validity and reliability. On the other hand, we found the LOV to be a meaningful and useful measure of values in both settings. The findings also showed LOV’s four dimensions of values, i.e., Respect, Harmony, Achievement, and Hedonism, predicted visitors’ perceptions of service quality, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Discussion of the findings and implications are provided.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 966 Serial 2604
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Author Yuan, M.; Fredman, P.,
Title A call for a broad spatial understanding of outdoor recreation use Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 169-173
Keywords MMV4, outdoor recreation, monitoring, vertical data integration
Abstract To better understand the scope of outdoor recreation in a pan Europe context, many agencies and organizations have attempted to collect data at various spatial levels and for a multitude of uses. The aim of this paper is to suggest a need for better and broader understanding of outdoor recreation use at various spatial levels. Case examples from Swedish data collection efforts are provided and suggestions are made to have a better understanding of horizontal harmonization and vertical data integration.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 964 Serial 2603
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Author Colas, S.; Fitton, M.; Thaxter, P.,
Title The progress project: the dynamics of involving the public in managing Peri-Urban Forests Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 165-168
Keywords MMV4
Abstract The EU Forest Action Plan gives special emphasis to the benefits of Urban and Peri-urban forests for public recreation and as an aid to public understanding of conservation issues. At the same time forest and green recreation is being promoted in national agendas because of perceived therapeutic benefits. This strong promotion of forest recreation has re-kindled the concerns that recreation use would damage the resource and have major detrimental impact on biodiversity. The PROGRESS project, which focussed on two peri-urban forests in England and France, offered the opportunity to review these issues.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 962 Serial 2602
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Author Rupf, R.; Wernli, M.; Haller, R.,
Title How to elaborate precise visitor numbers? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 161-164
Keywords MMV4, Acoustic slab sensor, calibration, visitor census, visitor monitoring, Swiss National Park
Abstract Visitor numbers and visitor distribution are required information for various management tasks of recreational areas. Automatic data collection is a low-price opportunity to obtain data. The main problem of automatic methods is data precision. In the Swiss National Park, automatic visitor counting with acoustic slab sensors started in 2005. As precision did not appear to be satisfactory, the counting problems were investigated. Sensor installation strictly followed the instruction manuals given and fine tuning during the calibration period led to a deviance of 5%. Precise counting data resulted in the sum of persons counted whereas direction separated data was not as precise. Recommendations for counting site selection, installation and calibration counting are given.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 960 Serial 2601
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Author Kloek, M.; Schouten, M.,
Title Contemporary Dutch literature and nature images: Analyses of nature images in Dutch literature of autochthonous writers and allochtonous writers with a Moroccan background Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 45-46
Keywords MMV5, nature images, literature, ethnic groups, Morocco, the Netherlands
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 96 Serial 2699
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Author Jochem, R.,
Title Building the model right and building the right model: Verification and validation of the recreation simulation model MASOOR Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 160-160
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour simulation, MASOOR, recreation model, behavioural rules and preferences
Abstract MASOOR (Multi Agent Simulation Of Outdoor Recreation) is a multi-agent recreational behaviour simulation model. MASOOR is developed to evaluate both existing management policies and effects of various management actions. In addition, it can serve as a communication tool in participatory processes. By visualizing recreational behaviour on maps the model helps different stakeholders (recreationists, managers, scientists) to interpret the complex patterns of visitor use and support the discussion among those stakeholders. However, it is important that the model is verified and validated. Verification can be defined as the process of testing whether or not the logic of the model is acceptable. It involves checking that the model behaves as expected and it is sometimes referred to as testing the ëinner validityí of the model. Verification deals with building the model right. Validation relates to the extent that the model adequately represent the actual situation that is modeled. Validation deals with building the right model. Validity can be ascertained by comparing the output of the model with comparable data collected from a real-world system using a various statistics. In this paper we verify MASOOR by an assessment of recreational path use at different numbers of replications. We validate MASOOR by comparing the modeled output with real world data. Finally, we focus the validation on specific behavioural rules such as preference for path type and chunking direction
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 958 Serial 2600
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Author Itami, R.M.,
Title Level of sustainable activity: bottom up vessel traffic management Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 155-159
Keywords MMV4, Vessel Traffic Management, Level of Sustainable Activity, RBSim, Recreation Behaviour Simulation, Bottom Up Decision Making
Abstract This paper presents a decision-making framework called “Level of Sustainable Activity”(LSA) which is a user-based approach to vessel traffic planning and management of high volume multiple use urban waterways. The method is adapted from the US Federal Highway Administrations “Level of Service” for traffic capacity. However the LSA framework links user estimates of traffic density to quality of service objects and a risk management framework to identify social and environmental risk factors. The results of the method are then used to interpret simulations of existing and projected use for making management decisions. The LSA framework was developed to define traffic capacity to urban waterways, however a spinoff of the method has been improved stakeholder buy-in into the process and a much stronger basis for management decision making. This is a direct result of the “bottom up” approach taken to both developing behavioural simulation models and the methods of obtaining information from users for populating and validating the simulation model. This paper advocates the LSA approach for a wider range of management applications by taking a user-based approach for describing existing conditions, projecting future growth, identifying key issues, and developing management actions. A case study of a vessel traffic management plan for Hobson’s Bay in Melbourne, Australia is used to demonstrate the concepts described in this paper.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 956 Serial 2599
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Author Zanon, D.; Hall, J.; Shaw, R.,
Title Long term benefits of visitor monitoring – An Australian experience Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 148-152
Keywords MMV4, Visitor Satisfaction, Visitor Segments, Park Visitors, Structural Equation Model, Park Management Planning
Abstract Parks Victoria manages Victoria’s (Australia) national, state and urban parks. These parks make up approximately 17% of the state’s area and annually receive 45.3 million visits. Parks Victoria has been dedicated to the development of scientifically sound methods for monitoring visitors and the community since 1994. The three main ongoing monitoring streams are: visit quantities, community perceptions of management and visitor experience (Visitor Satisfaction Monitor). Accumulated research data from the Visitor Satisfaction Monitor (VSM) has been used to profile and refine the organisation’s understanding of its various park visitors. After 10 years that data has matured to produce a comprehensive visitor-product market segmentation. Over 11,000 interviews at 34 major parks (including 68 visitor sites) between 2000 and 2004 were used to group park visitors into seven segments. The segments are Nature Admirers, Urban Socials Trail Users, Passives and Other Users, Activity Centrics, Access Made Easy and Country Vacationers. Each park visitor segment, or group, had substantial differences from the other groups, while the individuals within each segment had much more in common; Nature Admirers visit in small groups for a short spectacular scenic experience whereas Urban Socials visit in large groups for half-day social interactions such as birthday parties and picnics. Further analyses have been conducted to identify individual sub-segments within each of the major segments. These sub-segments provide detailed information that can be used for the future development of parks and associated services. Subsequent analysis using Structural Equation Modelling provides evidence that the relationships between services and satisfaction are better understood when considering segments. Parks Victoria has been using segments in park management applications such as wild fire recovery plans, tourism strategy formulation, park management planning and visitor risk management. It has proved to be an efficient and effective systematic way of meeting visitor needs.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 954 Serial 2598
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Author Von Ruschkowski, E.; Valdeig, S.; Jakob, R.; Homann, S.,
Title Designing a visitor monitoring concept for Harz National Park in Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 144-147
Keywords MMV4, Harz National Park, visitor monitoring concept, Germany
Abstract Germany’s protected areas encounter many specific challenges in regards to visitor management. Due to a high population density, they are frequented by high visitor numbers who also enter unaccounted for from diffuse ingress points as access is free of charge. Additionally, Germany’s parks are historically young. Thus, scientific monitoring is often limited to conservation issues whereas socioeconomic dimensions are not always considered a core management issue. Harz National Park with an area of 246 km2, situated in the German states of Lower Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt, is a typical example. Although visitor counts have been conducted in several recreational “hot spots” within in the park, no quantitative and qualitative visitor use statistics for the park as a whole exist. As a consequence, the park administration lacks information that is necessary to analyse and evaluate potential conflicts between visitor use and conservation objectives. In 2007, the Institute of Environmental Planning and the Harz National Park administration joined efforts to develop a long-term strategy to implement visitor use monitoring with the national park. Based on extensive interviews, mainly with park staff, and an evaluation of current available technologies, a first framework was developed which will address the methodological challenges outlined above. Key pillars of the framework are a concept for quantitative visitor counts by means of pyroelectric counters and a modular-structured questionnaire to collect qualitative data such as visitor preferences, and value added to the region. The framework will now further undergo scientific evaluation to be implemented from 2009 onwards.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 952 Serial 2597
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Author Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L.,
Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143
Keywords MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring
Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596
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Author English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Bowker, J.M.,
Title Trap shyness in onsite visitor surveys; evidence from the U.S Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 135-138
Keywords MMV4, Estimation bias, onsite surveys, recreation visitation, trap shyness
Abstract In onsite surveys of visitors, whether the purpose is estimating visitation volume or characteristics of the visit population, those who visit the area multiple times per year are candidates to be surveyed more than one time. In such surveys, each visit represents a unique sampling unit. However, individuals may be unwilling to be surveyed after the first contact. The phenomenon is similar to ‘trap shyness’ in wildlife studies wherein an animal learns to avoid traps after the initial experience. If trap shyness exists, it has the potential to bias the results for either or both visitation estimation or describing the average visit characteristics. There is some anecdotal evidence that trap shyness does exist, and could be problematic for long-term surveys such as the National Visitor Use Monitoring program used by the US Forest Service. This paper describes the conceptual framework for how trap shyness can affect both visitation estimates and visit characteristics, identify empirical hypotheses to be tested that provide evidence of trap shyness, present results for the hypotheses, and describe possible improvements to sampling processes that could determine it existence and extent. Data for the paper come from onsite surveying collected during the period October 2004 – September 2007 for about three dozen National Forests.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 948 Serial 2595
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Author Burns, R.; Graefe, A.; English, D.,
Title Visitor measuring and monitoring challenges on remote national forests: The case of Alaska, USA Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 134-134
Keywords MMV4, Alaska, recreation use, national forests, visitor monitoring
Abstract The purpose of this project was to identify and evaluate the set of issues associated with recreation use studies measuring and monitoring in Region 10 of the USDA Forest Service (Alaska), and more specifically within the Chugach and Tongass National Forests. The unique environment and conditions of Alaska have long posed significant challenges to recreation monitoring efforts, and several previous efforts have been undertaken to address this topic, both internally (Reed, 2003) and externally (Stynes, 2006). The US Forest Service uses the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) protocol to measure and monitor visitor use on all of its national forests. In 2000, an initial attempt to measure visitor use on the Tongass National Forest was conducted. Only 138 of 165 planned sampling days were completed, resulting in a completion rate of 84 percent (USDA 2001). This was the lowest achievement rate among all regions, which averaged 95 percent overall. An in depth review suggested that weather was not a factor and that the low accomplishment rate was attributable to personnel and strategic problems experienced by the sample districts. Approximately 12 interviews were conducted, along with a review of literature focusing on this issue. A series of approximately 20—25 recommendations were made to managers as a result of the review and interviews. It is intended that the results of this review will ultimately aid in customizing the survey protocol and instruments for the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) and related recreation use monitoring studies in this region.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 946 Serial 2594
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Author Bråtå, H.O.; Moranduzzo, M.,
Title Managing and monitoring allowance for new second homes in the Rondane Region, Norway Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 129-133
Keywords MMV4, Common pool resource, regional planning, Rondane, second homes, wild reindeer
Abstract The Rondane mountain region, in South-East Norway, is very popular for recreational purposes. The region is also the habitat for 4500 wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). The reindeer are hunted in controlled forms as part of the area management and harvesting of nature. This rural region suffers from decreasing population figures, reduced agricultural activity and declining economic activity in general. Boosting economic activity by increasing tourism, especially in second homes, is thought to be one way of mitigating this decline. Increased recreational activity may however negatively influence a sustainable development of the wild reindeer herd. In order to manage this possibly conflicting interest, local and regional authorities in 1991 set up a regional development plan, covering relevant parts of 14 municipalities in the Hedmark and Oppland counties. Research indicates that taken actions to some extent have managed to balance increase in tourism and protect vital space for wild reindeer. Still, the exact localization of existing and new second homes, and hence the development of new interventions, was until some years ago, not possible to analyse at an aggregated level. Such monitoring is important. A Norwegian real estate register, mapping the exact geographic position of buildings and their year of construction, has however become an important means for such monitoring. By the end of 2005 there were about 18,000 second homes mapped in the region. Increased GIS knowledge has now made it possible to develop detailed analysis of localization of second homes, i.e. distance from the wild reindeer core area, and analyse the development by statistic tools. This is a breakthrough and is anticipated to influence the management of the region and strengthen the potential for balancing economic activity and maintenance of biological diversity.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 944 Serial 2593
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Author Pfeifer, J.; Hennig, S.; Opp, C.,
Title Analysis of visitor nodes as a tool for visitor management by the example of Berchtesgaden National Park Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 121-126
Keywords MMV4, visitor nodes, recreational use, visitor management, infrastructure and statistical analysis
Abstract Infrastructural elements in protected areas play an important role for visitors. They provide equipment to visitor activities and their demands. However data on infrastructure is frequently disregarded. Concepts and models to collect and deal with infrastructure data have to be developed. In Berchtesgaden National Park the concept of visitor nodes is used in order to support visitor management. Identification of 81 visitor nodes in this protected area took place. They have been classified into five categories: “place for excursions”, “destination for hiking”, “information”, “resting” and “orientation”. Each category is characterized through a defined standard supply. By using categories, evaluation of each visitor node was done. Deficits as well as satisfying situations became observably.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 942 Serial 2592
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Author Hunziker, M.; Schletti, D.,
Title How to involve retailers into sensitization of end-users for ecologically responsible behavior – results of a snow-shoe-seller survey Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 116-120
Keywords MMV4, ecological conflicts, outdoor recreation, persuasion, questionnaire, theory of planned behavior
Abstract The outdoor activity snow-shoe walking is experiencing an increase in popularity and is more and more frequently practiced. This tendency represents a desirable development of soft tourism, contributes to the regional economical development of remote areas and enables people to experience pure nature. However, snow-shoe walking is rather problematic from the perspective of nature conservation. Therefore, the willingness of snow-shoe walkers to change their behavior has been investigated in several studies. One opportunity to influencing the behavior of snow-shoe walkers is when they buy or rent the snow shoes. However, the question remained whether shop owners and their staff are willing to adopt this role. The aim of our study was to answer this question and to identify the drivers of their willingness to contribute to persuading snow-shoe walkers to behave in an ecologically responsible way. A questionnaire was sent to 754 sports shops in Switzerland to measure the willingness to apply measures of persuasion and to measure the drivers of this willingness. The questionnaire data show that the willingness to contribute to persuasion campaigns is rather small. In particular, the potential for participation in the persuasion work is quite low for contributions that require high efforts or costs,. The variables “subjectively perceived social norms”, “attitude to the behavior” and “attitude to information about the protection of nature and landscape” represent the strongest predictors of the willingness to contribute to the campaign. On the basis of the results, suggestions for measures to persuade snow-shoe sellers to support persuasion of snow-shoe walkers were developed.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 940 Serial 2591
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Author O’Brien, L.; Ambrose-Oji, B.; Morris, J.,
Title What enables or prevents diverse groups, including black and ethnic minorities, from using and enjoying British woodlands? Type
Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 47-48
Keywords MMV5, black and minority ethnic groups, diversity, social inclusion, trees, woods
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 94 Serial 2700
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Author Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Quality assessment of public use in National Parks. Application to the Spanish National Park System Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 112-115
Keywords MMV4, Visitor information and visitor management, Visitor monitoring methods, Public use quality
Abstract In recent years, we have observed how, worldwide, the goal of nature preservation has to be developed in a scenario of continuous increment in the number of visitors who are interested in experiencing PA resources, landscapes and stories. Spain is a good example of this process. It’s estimated that the whole Spanish PA receive over 50 million visitors a year, ten of them to the National Park System. The progressive influx of visitors in a short period of time has made administrations and managers to offer and develop a broad network of facilities and programs in order to provide these visitors with information, knowledge and recreation. But, are we doing it in the best way? In this context, this investigation defines an evaluation tool to asses the quality of public use programs developed in National Parks which has been applied to the Spanish National Park System, and could be applied to other parks and systems. It examines different trends and provides with some future recommendations.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 936 Serial 2590
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Author Ghelichipour, Z.; Muhar, A.,
Title Visitor risk management in core zones of protected areas: First results from a survey of European park administrations Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 107-111
Keywords MMV4, Conservation regulations, European Protected Areas, Questionnaire, Visitor Risk Management
Abstract Effective visitor risk management practices play an important role in the management of outdoor recreation. Many forms of outdoor recreation have inherent risks associated with them, indeed for many recreational activities risk and challenge are integral components. In many European countries, the administrations of protected areas are legally liable for some kinds of visitors’ injuries, e.g. caused by falling trees or damaged handrails. Sometimes this liability may cause legal problems for the managers, as management measures (e.g. removal of trees) might be in conflict with conservation regulations. These problems are particularly serious in core zones of protected areas, because of their stronger conservation status. In this study, visitor safety management and likely conflicts with conservation regulations in different European protected areas has been surveyed. The findings imply that today visitor risk management is not considered as an important aspect of the management process in core zones of protected areas. This might change in the future: In many core zones of European parks regular forest management for timber production has only recently been discontinued, which will lead to an increased visitor risk when natural processes of ecosystem development take over.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 934 Serial 2589
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Author Clivaz, C.; Favre, N.,
Title Valais excellence: a system to better manage visitor flows during sport events Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-106
Keywords MMV4, Impact analysis, Management system, Sport events
Abstract The tourist areas seek more and more to organize (outdoor) sport events. These events generate many impacts from the point of view of sustainable development. Often proceeding in rural and/or protected landscapes, their environmental impact must be managed in an optimal way by the organizers. In the same time, these events have to maximize their social and economic benefits for the host area. This paper presents the management system “Valais excellence” developed in Switzerland and discusses its contribution to a sustainable management of the various impacts of sport events.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 932 Serial 2588
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Author Absher, J.D.; Graefe, A.R.; Kyle, G.T.,
Title A reassessment of the encounter – norm – crowding relationship for reservoir-based recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 101-101
Keywords MMV4, Carrying capacity, recreational capacity management, reservoir-based recreation
Abstract It is generally accepted that recreation capacity decisions rely heavily on an evaluative component, especially those related to crowding. However, there are many unresolved issues in measurement and recreational capacity management arising from such an approach (e.g., Vaske & Donnelley, 2002; Manning, et al., 1999). This paper reviews the research that supports a normative approach and analyzes data from seven reservoirs in the US (California, Arizona, Nevada and Texas; n= 4,682). For each lake similar preference, expectation, and evaluative measurements were obtained. The seven lakes serve a variety of boating interests including daily launch (trailer access), marina slip, and rental boating. For this analysis we compare expectations-based norms and differences in evaluative standards and effect size indicators that are appropriate to boating recreation on these lakes. Separately we also address type of access, craft, and setting specific crowding indicators (e.g. at launch site, on open water). Crowding is measured using the now standard 9-point scale (Vaske & Shelby, 2008). Analyses rely on simple comparative tests: t-test, effect size and ANOVA. Overall, the results show that for reservoir boating there is evidence for a generalized encounter-norm relationship and further demonstrate that self reports of crowding are useful to gauge variation attributable to particular uses and settings. The paper concludes with implications for further development of the notion of carrying capacity and its reliance on crowding measures as robust social indicators useful to boating management decisions
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 930 Serial 2587
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Author Wirth, V.; Pröbstl, U.; Haider, W.,
Title The role of sport activities in Alpine summer tourism Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 94-98
Keywords MMV4, Alps, destination choice, discrete choice experiment, sport activities, summer tourism
Abstract Throughout the Alps, natural integrity, outstanding landscape beauty, and the opportunity to pursue various sport activities are key elements of the tourism product, and influence the choice of destinations. This paper focuses on the role of sports activities in the choice of Alpine destinations. The data were collected from a representative random sample of German tourists. The core element of the survey is a stated choice survey in which respondents had to make repeated choices between two hypothetical alpine destinations which were disguised as web sites with changing characteristics and landscape features. The results of the discrete choice experiment show that the sport activities contribute significantly to the destination choice, and that the respondents are rather heterogeneous, leading to the identification of different segments in a latent class segmentation. The largest segment is comprised of the social and activity oriented tourists (55%), followed by nature and alpine oriented tourists (31%), and finally by tourists interested predominantly in relaxing (14%). Their divergent preferences and expectations will be described below. The importance of this research is that these segments have been identified directly from the choice responses, instead of from some attitudinal or motivational set of questions. The findings indicate that sport activities play an important role in the destination choice for alpine summer holidays, but their significance differs between segments. For marketing and management purposes these results highlight that the target groups and related marketing campaigns must be adapted to new trends and societal changes. To attract and enlarge the less active tourism segment the Alps should be positioned as silent place where relaxing in a healthy environment and outstanding landscape is possible.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 928 Serial 2586
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Author Raschi, A.; Crisci, A.; Mikicic, S.,
Title Climate change and ski areas in Trentino region, Italy Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 93-93
Keywords MMV4, Climate change, meteo, ski, winter tourism
Abstract The existence of an ongoing climate change cannot be denied, or hidden, and tourism is going to be affected by it to a large extent. The analysis of current trends in the response of tourism to climate change, in conjunction with the forecast of future climate scenaries, can help us in focusing the possible solutions to future possible problems. This work focused on the existing trends in winter tourism in the Trentino region (Italian Alps), by analysing, for the years 1981/1982 to 2007/2008, the climate data from six meteo stations located in ski resorts characterized by different height and geographical position. Data analysis showed that the number of the days with more than 20 cm of snow, minimum level for permitting skiing, is reducing, and interannual variability is increasing. The trend is particularly evident for lower altitude areas. The average, minimum and maximum temperatures of above mentioned winter periods was compared with tourist arrivals suggesting an inverse correlation, with a marked decrease in tourists arrivals in higher temperature periods. The results support the conclusion that the tourists will be obliged to reach higher ski areas with lower temperature and adequate snow level, while a further increase in temperatures will lead the lower ski areas to disappear, and the high seasonal variability will put at risk winter tourism itself in many areas. The further perspective of research, on tourism trends in summer season, will also be outlined.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 926 Serial 2585
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Author Luthe, T.; Roth, R.,
Title Extended vulnerability of ski tourism to global change Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-92
Keywords MMV4, Extended Vulnerability Factors, Global Change, Ski tourism, Sustainable Adaptation
Abstract The current and forecasted outcomes of global change put ski destinations under different stresses. Climate change is the most discussed and the most obvious factor that directly affects the economic success of ski areas. Latest since the last OECD report a broad discussion about such ski areas that will lose from climate change, namely the lower and smaller ones, and those potentially winning being the higher and bigger ski areas, got started. This discussion has been focusing on the main vulnerability factors elevation, size and snow making capacity. Technical snow making is the main kind of adaptation to climate change being discussed and applied. But in addition to climate change there are socioeconomic and demographic developments that lead to other grades of vulnerability for ski tourism. In the research project SkiSustain we aim to develop a sustainability management framework for ski destinations responding to global change. In the supply side part we did personal qualitative interviews in thirty six ski areas of four Alpine countries after the extremely warm winter of 2006/07. Ski areas were picked for interviews as the main drivers of investments and employment in ski destinations. Research questions were about the perception of vulnerability to global change and strategies and possibilities of adaptive capacity. In the interviews ski area managements were confronted with recent results from the customer demand survey Save-Snow to find out about the possibilities to drive changes to chances, for example by softer means of adaptation and more mitigation and partnering more with the customer. Results show that the view on vulnerability of ski destinations needs to be extended from a current climate change and elevation focused view to a much more diverse one. Current means of adaptation will not be suitable to tackle the sum of challenges from global change.
Call Number (down) ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 924 Serial 2584
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