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Author (up) Duke, D.; Quinn, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Methodological considerations for using remote cameras to monitor the ecological effects of trails users: lessons from research in Western Canada Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 441-445  
  Keywords MMV4, Remote cameras, access management, monitoring methods, wildlife  
  Abstract The Livingstone River Area in southwestern Alberta, Canada is an ecologically significant area of public land that provides an important connection between adjacent protected areas. Most of the area is zoned for multiple use; which means the area is available for resource extraction and recreational activity. Recreational use in this area consists primarily of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, random access camping and fly fishing. Recreational use is largely unmanaged and increasing. The proliferation of trails and campsites has become extensive in the past decade. Furthermore, much of this activity is concentrated along critical riparian movement corridors and in sensitive montane, subalpine and alpine environments. Human use and associated linear disturbance is recognized as among the most significant habitat fragmentation factor limiting sensitive wildlife (especially large carnivores) in the region. We have developed a sampling method that employs remote digital infrared cameras on known human trails and wildlife trails. The cameras have proven to be very effective for monitoring all trail use. We provide a review of our methods, report on the effectiveness of the cameras and provide some guidance on the use of cameras based on the lessons we have learned.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1074 Serial 2658  
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Author (up) Dumont, B.; Gulinck, H., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Push and pull assemblages for modelling visitor’s flows in complex landscapes Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 386-392  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Visitor flows can be represented as a landscape-recreation-model with eight components: entrances, goals, exits, field units, attractors or detractors, road segments, road junctions and barriers. The model can develop towards a real-time application by increasing its complexity. Starting from a basic situation (a landscape with one road and one entrance), the influence of landscape attractiveness is included; secondly diversity of the terrain and visitor is taken into account, thirdly time variation is added and finally, the interaction between the eight above-mentioned components is incorporated. The basic framework is a cost-distance function, to estimate the probability of on- and off-track visit of any location in a nature reserve on deliberate times and in specific terrain conditions. This can be represented by mean of a push-pull concept: some of the components (like entrances) have a push effect, while others, like goals, exits (when determined in advance) and attractors, have a pull-effect. To support the conversion towards a real-time application, GPS surveys, interviews, camera observation, photographic monitoring of seasonal changes, photo comparisons, step-bridges, walking experiments, experiments about field unit division and landscape preference studies were executed. This model is being developed in marshland nature reserves in central Belgium. Ultimately this system should lead to an impact assessment and decision support tool.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 332 Serial 2374  
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Author (up) Durand, M.H.; Thomassin, B.; Chaboud, C.; Stoica, G.; Ferrari, J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Conservation, tourism and fishermen communities in the Toliara region (SW Madagascar) Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 229-230  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract The win-win alliance between MPAs and recreational tourism, between environmental preservation and economy, is in question in Madagascar where roads are developing, and customary management has disappeared. MPAs are mainly used for the tourism development and to increase catches for export species when fishermen, dispossessed of their space and customary rights, are left in patron-client relationships with foreign operators. The exploitation of the aesthetic value of the coral reefs is not without damage and must be regulated as the exploitation of the biomass, in a system considered as a whole.  
  Call Number Serial 4115  
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Author (up) Eagles, P.F.J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Developing a National Policy on Training, Education and Research in Visitor Monitoring and Management: Lessons from Canada Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 2-4  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Canada has a long history of creating and managing parks, at all levels of government: national, provincial, regional, and municipal. However, the country lacks policy in two important areas: 1) an accepted strategy on training and education, and 2) a national research strategy. In April 2016 an initiative began to coordinate policy and operations of all park agencies and non-government bodies in the country. Ideas were discussed at the Canadian Parks Summit held in Canmore, Alberta, at an invitation-only meeting of policy leaders. At this Summit, a policy paper was presented by Paul F. J. Eagles from the University of Waterloo and Christopher J. Lemieux of Wilfred Laurier University, entitled: Policy on Training, Education and Research: A Call to Action. This MMV 8 abstract builds on that paper, and the subsequent discussions.  
  Call Number Serial 3859  
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Author (up) Eagles, P.F.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Trends Affecting Tourism in Protected Areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 18-26  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract This paper discusses 16 important trends that are predicted to affect the planning and management of parks and protected areas in the medium term. While there are many trends visible, the ones chosen are mostly likely to require a management response. There are both challenges and opportunities for tourism-related benefits in parks and protected areas.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 298 Serial 2357  
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Author (up) Eagles,P.F.J.; Kajala,L. pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Administrative procedures for operation of a national visitor use monitoring program in protected areas Type
  Year 2014 Publication The 7th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Local Community and Outdoor Recreation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 7 - Proceedings Issue Pages 171-172  
  Keywords MMV7  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 3036  
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Author (up) Eder, R.; Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Assessment of a passive infrared counter with a remote data transfer facility Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 480-482  
  Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, remote data transfer, video monitoring  
  Abstract This study evaluated the reliability of the Ecocounter – Ecotwin© equipped with a remote control facility (Eco-GSM-unit) under different conditions. The counter is connected to a modem, which allows transferring data from the counter to the office via internet. We will discuss the reliability of the modem and the influences of the different locations and surroundings on it.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1090 Serial 2666  
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Author (up) Edwards, D.; Jay, M.; Jensen, F.S.; Lucas, B.; Marzano, M.; Mason, B.; Montagné, C.; Peace, A.; Weiss, G., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Public preferences for forests as sites for recreational use: a Pan- European perspective Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 136-138  
  Keywords MMV5, forest recreation, public preferences, silvicultural attributes, Delphi survey, Europe  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 172 Serial 2738  
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Author (up) Efthimious, G.; Roussou, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title A survey of visiting rat to National Parks of Greece Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 423-425  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract Purpose of this research is to become an initial approach of trafficking in National Parks of Greece which are managed by a Management Body (MB). Our research was conducted from May to December 2017, by sending questionnaires to the M.B., to gather information for registered visitors to them for the period 2010-2016.  
  Call Number Serial 4183  
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Author (up) Eisenhut, A.; Haller, R.; Raper, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title How does topography influence the use of the mobile guide WebParkSNP in the Swiss National Park? Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 433-437  
  Keywords MMV4, Location based services, Swiss National Park, Visitor management, Visitor monitoring  
  Abstract Since 2005, the Swiss National Park offers a mobile information system called WebParkSNP which provides content about the users surroundings using smart phone services and GPS. Up to now, little is known about the use of Location Based Services (LBS) by visitors of remote and protected areas and about the contents they are interested in. WebParkSNP logs time, location and content of each action the user conducts. Contents are not only pushed but can be accessed from every location. With the consent of 419 users, WebParkSNP’s log files of the summer season 2007 have been analysed in order to compare the user’s actions with the topography of the Park. Topography is composed of specific places (vegetation classes, aspect, and slope of the trail), facilities (resting areas, huts) and viewpoints. The results show that clustering of access occurs on steeper slopes, within facilities, and on viewpoints on certain routes. The content accessed differs between facilities and other places. Nevertheless, these patterns are not only determined by topography but also by behavioural aspects; the use of the guide depends on the daytime and on the distance from the starting point of the walk as well. These results allow the evaluation and improvement of LBS concerning content and locations. In addition, conclusions can be drawn about the development and improvement of other offers in the Park. Further analysis and the integration of other visitor surveys like census and questionnaires will show the potential for more general insights into visitor behaviour in protected areas.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1072 Serial 2657  
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Author (up) Elands, B.; Buijs, A., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Public support for the protection of nature and landscape explained by ethnicity and images of nature Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 39-40  
  Keywords MMV5, images of nature, nature bonding, ethicity, public support, lay people  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 102 Serial 2696  
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Author (up) Elands, B.; Lengkeek, J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The tourist experience of out-there-ness: theory and practice Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 85-86  
  Keywords MMV5, tourist experience, out-there-ness, typology, empirical research  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 58 Serial 2716  
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Author (up) Elands, B.; Postma, L.; Schouten van der Laan, A. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Future Stewards? Connection to nature starts from childhood experiences in nature areas Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-364  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract Recently, several interventions aimed at reconnecting children with nature, through real life nature experiences, have been initiated. Examples of these interventions are: the greening of children’s playing environment at nurseries, school and during leisure time and the introduction of nature experience programs for primary school children. The aim of this research is to investigate the connection of nature  
  Call Number Serial 4162  
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Author (up) Ellis, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Has cruise tourism puhsed marine ecosystems to the “tipping-point” of their physical-ecological carying capacity ? Perceptions of stakeholders Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 426-428  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract Researchers have proposed several measures to address problems of this nature however, these studies have focused on developed countries and the approaches used have been specific to the terrestrial environment. Furthermore, environmental and cultural differences limit the applicability of these approaches to other jurisdictions and hence a modified approach adaptable to other environments is warranted. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a “carrying capacity framework” for managing cruise visitors in marine spaces in Small Island developing States (SIDS), where incomparable challenges are faced. This paper specifically presents the findings of the first phase of the research, in which a baseline study was conduct on one of the islands in the Caribbean.  
  Call Number Serial 4184  
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Author (up) Elmazi, L.; Gorica, K., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Economic effect of alternative tourism. Events and festivals Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 368-372  
  Keywords MMV4, Economic effects, alternative tourism, multicultural communities  
  Abstract The analyze of the tourism cities within Albania show that communities as emerged tourism destination offer culture, tradition and events, and also, show us that events and festivals have the capacity to celebrate community identity particularly in multi-cultural events and festivals. The involvement of local community in creating opportunities and furthermore, competitive advantages, is very important for management and marketing of events and festivals, especially in multi-cultural communities. The research investigates the different interpretations of community, the concept of communities and the role of events and festivals in articulating community identity within distinct localities. It is necessary the compilation of a strategic marketing plan which will involve the community in tourism events and festivals, which at last will follow up with sustainability. Drafting perfect marketing strategies is always one side of the management task that should not be underestimated. This task becomes extremely difficult since in many cases a direct conflict exists between the site managers who to keep restricted numbers of visitors for preservation reasons, local people who look the events as a way to generate revenues, and national governments who like to use its image as a marketing device. Heritage and Cultural Tourism is the most important part of the Albanian tourism product and successful element of the national economy. Albania is considered as a new cultural destination in the tourism marketplace, as a Balkan country of dramatic natural beauty, with a wealth of historic buildings and ancient archaeological sites that can compare, for interest and variety with any in the Mediterranean world.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1050 Serial 2646  
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Author (up) Emphandhu, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor Management forResource Conservation in Community-based Ecotourism,Thailand Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 379-381  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract KohPitakin Thailand is a small island located near Mu KohChomphon National park. Most are local fisheries.In 1992, marine resources were in crisis. The commercial fishing boats over-fished in the area close to Koh Pitak. The local people at KohPitakfinally announced conservation measures to protect marine resources and introduced community-based ecotourism (CBET) to motivate community members in resource conservation. Ecotourism at KohPitakhas become very popular that many visitors came to visit Koh Pitak, but limited resourcesand poor management has gradually created tourism impact.This paper aimed to examine how local community has applied visitor management as a tool for resource conservation and managing tourism impact.  
  Call Number Serial 3980  
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Author (up) Emphandhu, D.; Nasa, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Psychological carrying capacity of snorkeling activity at Mo Koh Chang National Park Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 308-310  
  Keywords MMV5, psychological carrying capacity, snorkeling activity, Mo Koh Chang National Park  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 138 Serial 2814  
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Author (up) Emphandhu, D.; Yemin, T.; Pattanakiat, S.; Tantasirin, C.; Ruschano, R.; Chettamart, S.; Nasa, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Recreation Carrying Capacity Analysis at Khao Leam Ya – Mu Ko Samed National Park, Thailand Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 183-190  
  Keywords MMV3, Recreation carrying capacity (RCC), impact, national park, Thailand  
  Abstract The objective of this research was to determine recreation capacity at Khao Leam Ya – Mu Ko Samed National Park (LY-KS NP). The study investigated the existing capacity of recreation resources by analyzing four capacity types: ecological (ECC), physical (PCC), facility (FCC), and social (SCC). This paper presented the findings on 3 main islands: Ko Samed, Ko Kudee, Ko Talu, and some snorkeling sites. The results found the ECC, PCC, and FCC exceeded at Ko Samed. At Ko Kudee, found the exceeded PCC while at Ko Talu found the exceeded PCC and FCC. One snorkeling site found FCC exceeded. The maximum carrying capacity at Ko Samed and Ko Kodee was 4,100 and 168 people per night respectively. Most ecological carrying capacities, however, have not yet determined since long term monitoring is needed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 661 Serial 2454  
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Author (up) Engelbauer, M.; Majewski, M.; Job, H. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Regional Economic Impact of tourism in German Biosphere reservess Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 313-314  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract Within the UNESCO Man and Biosphere program the concept of biosphere reserves aims as an innovative form of protected areas to achieve sustainable development in areas of cultural or/and natural importance. The apparent contradiction between protection and development is dealed with the help of a zoning model. Inside the development zone, surrounding the core and buffer zones of nature conservation, innovative approaches should be tested to strengthen a sustainable regional economy (Kraus et al. 2014). Tourism can be seen as one important vehicle to achieve sustainable conservation and development outcomes, especially in UNESCO Biosphere Reserves (Job et al. 2017).  
  Call Number Serial 4147  
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Author (up) English, D., Askew, A., Bowker, J., pdf  url
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Recreation travelers’ carbon footprint Type
  Year 2012 Publication The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Abbreviated Journal NULL  
  Volume MMV 6 - Proceedings Issue NULL Pages 130-131  
  Keywords MMV6  
  Abstract NULL  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 432 Serial 2876  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M.; Arnold, J.R.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Warren, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor Use of USDA Forest Service Recreation Areas: Methods and Results from the National Visitor Use Monitoring Effort Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 246-251  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract One stratum of survey sites in the USDA Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) effort contains agency-managed elements of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two related methods are used to estimate the amount of visitation that occurs in these areas. One utilizes annual information on the number of use permits at the sites where these are mandatory; the other employs a double-sampling approach to estimate visitation. In both cases, on-site visitor sampling is required to obtain the information necessary to estimate actual visitation. A few additional questions on the survey enable us to describe visitor demographics, evaluate customer satisfaction, and estimate economic values and impacts of these visits. The presentation discusses development of the sampling design as well as calibration issues for both use estimation methods. A comparison of the statistical accuracy and cost of each is made. Because the sample design is based on the spatial-temporal combination of Wilderness exit points and the days they are open, some analytic adjustment to the sample survey data is required (beyond simple sample means) to get results that describe the visiting population. The analytic framework is presented, along with some empirical results from the first year of sampling at six selected National Forests to give the flavor of the managerially-relevant information we have so far obtained. The presentation concludes with a discussion of how we plan to extend the analysis that can include issues such as developing models of visitor flows and relating visitation levels to perceptions of crowding.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 486 Serial 2306  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M.; Cordell, H.K.; Green, G., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Estimating Recreation Market Share for National Forests Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 389-390  
  Keywords MMV3, Land management, land use, recreation activity, recreation resources, market share  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 790 Serial 2518  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M.; Zarnoch, S.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Characteristics and Use Patterns of Visitors to Dispersed Areas of Urban National Forests Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 179-184  
  Keywords MMV2, Urban forests, use patterns, visitor perceptions, crowding, visitor characteristics, demographics, wilderness  
  Abstract Public recreation areas near large urban centers are experiencing increasing pressure from visitation, especially in undeveloped and wildland areas that are close to expanding population centers. Understanding the use patterns, characteristics, and perceptions of recreation visitors is critical to managing these areas for maximum sustainable benefits. Of the over 120 National Forests in the United States, eighteen have been officially designated as ‘Urban’, because of their proximity to large metropolitan areas. Sixteen of these forests have designated Wilderness areas within them. This paper examines the recreation visitors to the undeveloped portions of those National Forests. Key market segments of visitors are identified with respect to demographics, residence, annual use frequency, and visit duration. In addition, visitor perceptions of crowding and safety and their relationship with visitation levels are examined.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 366 Serial 2391  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; White, E.M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Comparing the economic impacts of recreation to rural and urban National Forests Type
  Year 2010 Publication Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 5 - Proceedings Issue Pages 241-242  
  Keywords MMV5, economic impacts, visitor spending, GDP, urban national forests  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 178 Serial 2786  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Bowker, J.M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Trap shyness in onsite visitor surveys; evidence from the U.S Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 135-138  
  Keywords MMV4, Estimation bias, onsite surveys, recreation visitation, trap shyness  
  Abstract In onsite surveys of visitors, whether the purpose is estimating visitation volume or characteristics of the visit population, those who visit the area multiple times per year are candidates to be surveyed more than one time. In such surveys, each visit represents a unique sampling unit. However, individuals may be unwilling to be surveyed after the first contact. The phenomenon is similar to ‘trap shyness’ in wildlife studies wherein an animal learns to avoid traps after the initial experience. If trap shyness exists, it has the potential to bias the results for either or both visitation estimation or describing the average visit characteristics. There is some anecdotal evidence that trap shyness does exist, and could be problematic for long-term surveys such as the National Visitor Use Monitoring program used by the US Forest Service. This paper describes the conceptual framework for how trap shyness can affect both visitation estimates and visit characteristics, identify empirical hypotheses to be tested that provide evidence of trap shyness, present results for the hypotheses, and describe possible improvements to sampling processes that could determine it existence and extent. Data for the paper come from onsite surveying collected during the period October 2004 – September 2007 for about three dozen National Forests.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 948 Serial 2595  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Kocis, S.M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Designing a Sampling System for Concurrently Measuring Outdoor Recreation Visitation and Describing Visitor Characteristics Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 28-33  
  Keywords MMV2, National Visitor Use Monitoring, onsite sampling, sampling plan, use estimation, visitor characteristics, sample allocation  
  Abstract Two primary information needs for managing recreation areas and the visitors to those areas are: (1) good estimates of visitation volume, and (2) accurate descriptions of visitor characteristics, such as length of stay, frequency of visit, and primary activity. For National Forests in the United States of America with large undeveloped areas, efficient sampling for the two types of information may be to a large extent incompatible. Sampling plans that address visitation volume issues allocate most of the sample days to the largest and most internally variable strata. Sampling plans for studies of visitor characteristics allocate sampling effort to locations that most efficiently provide visitor information, such as at developed sites. Additionally, sampling plans for studies of visitor characteristics may need to ensure spatial or temporal dispersion of the sample, in order to ensure adequate representation of different visitor sub-groups. A method is demonstrated for allocating days into sampling strata which balances the contribution of sample days in improving the accuracy of the total visitation estimate with the contribution of the sample day to maximizing the quantity and dispersion of visitor information. The resulting sampling allocation provides an optimal solution to address both of the information needs through a single data collection effort. A second phase of the method addresses how to ensure spatial and temporal dispersion of sampling effort. Examples of applications on National Forests in the United States are provided.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 378 Serial 2397  
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Author (up) English, D.K.; Zarnoch, S.J., White, E.M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Estimating Daily Existing Traiffic from National Forest recreation Sites Using Short-Term Observations Counts Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-254  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract Our goal was to develop estimates of daily (24-hour) exiting traffic volume using just the 6-hour observational count of exiting traffic and two variables from the interviews. More exactly, our goal was to develop 24-hour estimates from the 6-hour counts that were equivalent to the estimates generated from the current NVUM method. If our work was successful, we could eliminate the data quality issues and costs of the mechanical counters without appreciably changing the resulting estimates of visitation. We present our analytic process and results, and an evaluation of how well the process worked.  
  Call Number Serial 4123  
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Author (up) English,D.B.K.; Bowker,J.M.; Askew,A. pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title US Forest Service Wilderness visitation after 50 years Type
  Year 2014 Publication The 7th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Local Community and Outdoor Recreation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 7 - Proceedings Issue Pages 215-216  
  Keywords MMV7  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 3037  
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Author (up) Erg, B., Pezold, T., Avramoski, O., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Protected Areas-Delivering on Global Conservation Goals and Targets Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 9-12  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Tourism, conservationof biodiversity and community well-being have proved to be intimately linked processes throughout much of the recent history of nature protection.Admiration for nature and wildlandvisitation were among the primary reasons for the establishment of first protected areas in the second half of the XIX century, which marked the commencement of the modern era of nature conservation. Ever since, the importance of tourism and recreation in achieving nature conservation goals has steadily grown. Today, tourism is widely regarded an increasingly relevant tool for biodiversity conservation and a key driver of national, regional and local economic and community development. Hence the growing recognition of the role that tourism plays in sustainable management of natural resources and community development.  
  Call Number Serial 3861  
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Author (up) Erhartic, B., Smrekar, A., Smid, M., pdf  url
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Protected area within the city: Monitoring and management of visitors in Landscape park Tivoli, Rožnik and Šišenski hrib in Ljubljana (Slovenia) Type
  Year 2012 Publication The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Abbreviated Journal NULL  
  Volume MMV 6 - Proceedings Issue NULL Pages 246-247  
  Keywords MMV6  
  Abstract NULL  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 483 Serial 2927  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Itkonen, P.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Monitoring Sustainable Nature Tourism in Practice – Experiences From Pyhä-Luosto National Park, Finland Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 56-57  
  Keywords MMV3, Sustainability, nature tourism, limits of acceptable change (LAC), national park  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 592 Serial 2420  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143  
  Keywords MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring  
  Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Sievänen, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Standardisation of Visitor Surveys – Experiences from Finland Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-257  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A visitor survey standardisation project was conducted in 1998-2000 in Finland. The visitor survey standardisation project was part of a large national outdoor recreation demand and supply inventory (LVVI). There are two reasons for the standardisation of visitor surveys. First, it is possible to collect comparable information from different kind of areas. Moreover, the information gathered can be combined on a national level. Secondly, standardised measurements assure long-term monitoring of behavioural changes in each studied area. The visitor survey standardisation project developed a standardised questionnaire for the most important information gathered with the help of visitor surveys, that is visitor profiles, activities, distribution of use by area, distribution of use by time, duration of the visit, expenditure of visitors and information on visitor satisfaction and motivation. It is recommended that the data collection be carried out by means of self-conducted questionnaires. The project produced a visitor survey manual and a Microsoft Excel application for computing descriptive results in order to encourage the personnel of recreation areas to conduct visitor surveys independently. The implementation of standardised visitor surveys is mainly carried out by Metsähallitus (Forest and Park Service) which manages the majority of the state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas in Finland. At the beginning of 2002, there were 33 national parks, 7 state-owned hiking areas and some 400 other protected areas. About two million recreational visits take place annually in state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas. The number of recreational visits seems to be on the increase. All together 22 different visitor surveys have been conducted in state-owned areas in the last few years. The results of some of the surveys have almost immediately been used in management and planning of the area in question. In general, there is increasing understanding and interest in the use of visitor information as a tool in decision making: services can be improved to meet visitor expectations better and scarce resources can be allocated more effectively. Along with visitor surveys, systematical visitor counts have recently been started using electronic trail and traffic counters, guest books or manual counters in several protected and recreational areas. At the moment, the next step will be to develop a national database of the collected information, and also to develop good practice in order to benefit from the information on a national level. This paper discusses, firstly, the structure and type of information that is needed from a visitor survey, secondly, how to conduct a visitor survey as a routine method in planning processes, and the framework within which visitor information can be utilised in planning and management. Thirdly, the Finnish experience of the benefits to be gained by using a standardised model for conducting visitor surveys is discussed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 488 Serial 2307  
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Author (up) Espinoza Garcia, N.; Corbett, J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Managing Cisitors and Environments: resident Perspectives on Amenity Values in Mexico Type
  Year 2018 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 9 - Proceedings Issue Pages 218-219  
  Keywords MMV9  
  Abstract This paper draws from ongoing research in the Copalita watershed. Our central question is “How do local residents understand and make operational their sense of resource value?” Behind this question is a recognition that if residents attach value to resources consistent with the values of conservation and sustainability they will act to protect those resources in ways consistent with prospective visitors, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of San Pedro El Alto for recreational and ecological tourism.  
  Call Number Serial 4111  
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Author (up) Estève, L.; Le Nédic, C.; Strehler Perrin, C., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title “La Semaine du Goût”, The Beginning for a Sustainable Tourism? Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 444-445  
  Keywords MMV3, Tourism, sustainable, Switzerland, natural reserve, participation, stakeholders, heritage, fish  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 833 Serial 2539  
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Author (up) Fägerstam, E., pdf  url
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Outdoor teaching on the school grounds and in the bush Type
  Year 2012 Publication The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Abbreviated Journal NULL  
  Volume MMV 6 - Proceedings Issue NULL Pages 258-259  
  Keywords MMV6  
  Abstract NULL  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 489 Serial 2933  
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Author (up) Fang, C.-P.; Hsu, Y.-C., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Sequence Effect on Satisfaction Regarding Perceived Crowding: Whitewater Rafters in Taiwan Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-364  
  Keywords MMV3, Indicators, questionnaire design, recreational carrying capacity, standards  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 766 Serial 2506  
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Author (up) Fangel, K., Eide, N., Hagen, D., Flyen, A., Vistad, I., pdf  url
doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title A conceptual model for assessing wildlife vulnerability to human activity at visitor sites in Svalbard Type
  Year 2012 Publication The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Abbreviated Journal NULL  
  Volume MMV 6 - Proceedings Issue NULL Pages 44-45  
  Keywords MMV6  
  Abstract NULL  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 391 Serial 2835  
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Author (up) Farias-Torbidoni, E.I., Baric, D., Anic, P. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title A segmentation approach in determining visitor motivation to engage in physical activities levels. The case of Spanish protected areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-365  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In last three decades, the volume of published literature, acknowledged that wilderness and protected areas play an important role in natural ecosystem conservation and provision of wide variety of goods and services necessary for sustaining the wellbeing of human community in general. Increased demand of society for participation in outdoor recreational activities during the leisure time, to date, instigate a number of scholars and community initiatives to focus their attention on promotion of protected natural settings as key “units” for the enhancement of human physical and mental health . As protected area visitors do not represent one homogenous group, it therefore, seems crucial to provide park managers understandable empirical evidences about whether and to which extent visitors differ in terms of willingness to engage in different physical activities levels. Despite that similar investigations have been conducted, the majority of them were focused on visitors to urban parks than wilderness and protected natural settings. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to segment the visitors to five protected natural areas in Cataluña (Spain), by their motivation to engage in physically challenging activities and then after to examine the influence of socio-demographic, trip, motivational and attitudinal descriptors on segmentation membership.  
  Call Number Serial 3974  
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Author (up) Farias-Torbidoni, E.I., Baric, D., Mas-Alos, S., Planas-Anzano, A., Montserrat-Revillo, S., Gil, G. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title The influence of visitor characteristic and natural park facilities on physical activity levels. A case of study Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 493-495  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recreational and sport activities in protected natural areas (PNA) have increased in recent years. Protected natural areas are not only promising means to satisfy current health-enhancing physical activity (PA) recommendations, but they also are an ideal environment to promote physical activity (Bedimo-Rung et al., 2005, Mowen et al., 2012). However, few investigations have examined user characteristics and park facilities in relation to park-based PA levels or intensities. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of PNA visitors (socio-demographic data, recreational behaviour, motivations and preferences) and PNA facilities (PA areas, supporting activities, etc.) in respect to metabolic equivalent (MET) expenditure: sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities. The work has prominent potential to help decision makers in developing the sound policy and managerial guidance to increase understanding about the complex relationships between user physical activity level and park amenities.  
  Call Number Serial 4015  
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