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Author Zimmermann, U.,
Title Nature Park Project “Toggenburg-Werdenberg” in Eastern Switzerland – Common Chance for a Regional Sustainable Development Type
Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 504-509
Keywords MMV3, Protected areas, regional nature park, sustainable regional development, feasibility study
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 877 Serial 2561
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Author Zinn, H.C.; Shen, S.X.,
Title Human Responses to Wildlife: Stakeholder Acceptance Capacity and Human Learning Type
Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 411-412
Keywords MMV3, Human learning, human-wildlife interaction, park and protected area management, stakeholder acceptance capacity
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 811 Serial 2528
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Author Absher, J.D.; Graefe, A.R.; Kyle, G.T.,
Title A reassessment of the encounter – norm – crowding relationship for reservoir-based recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 101-101
Keywords MMV4, Carrying capacity, recreational capacity management, reservoir-based recreation
Abstract It is generally accepted that recreation capacity decisions rely heavily on an evaluative component, especially those related to crowding. However, there are many unresolved issues in measurement and recreational capacity management arising from such an approach (e.g., Vaske & Donnelley, 2002; Manning, et al., 1999). This paper reviews the research that supports a normative approach and analyzes data from seven reservoirs in the US (California, Arizona, Nevada and Texas; n= 4,682). For each lake similar preference, expectation, and evaluative measurements were obtained. The seven lakes serve a variety of boating interests including daily launch (trailer access), marina slip, and rental boating. For this analysis we compare expectations-based norms and differences in evaluative standards and effect size indicators that are appropriate to boating recreation on these lakes. Separately we also address type of access, craft, and setting specific crowding indicators (e.g. at launch site, on open water). Crowding is measured using the now standard 9-point scale (Vaske & Shelby, 2008). Analyses rely on simple comparative tests: t-test, effect size and ANOVA. Overall, the results show that for reservoir boating there is evidence for a generalized encounter-norm relationship and further demonstrate that self reports of crowding are useful to gauge variation attributable to particular uses and settings. The paper concludes with implications for further development of the notion of carrying capacity and its reliance on crowding measures as robust social indicators useful to boating management decisions
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 930 Serial 2587
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Author Aikoh, T.; Arnberger, A.; Shoji, Y.; Mieno, T.,
Title Comparison of motivations and crowding preferences between Austrian and Japanese urban forest visitors Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 65-65
Keywords MMV4, crowding, motivation, urban forest visitor, choice mode
Abstract Do Japanese urban forest visitors have the same crowding perceptions than European visitors? Traditionally, it has been considered that an Asian is more tolerant of congestion compared to Western people, because of their different cultural backgrounds and living conditions. However, in many Asian countries, life style has been rapidly westernized, and many Asian people travel or immigrate to Western countries. Our purpose is to investigate the differences of recreation motives and crowding preferences of urban forest visitors between Austria and Japan. We compared motivations and crowding perceptions of on-site forest visitors using the same questionnaires, asked in 2006. Visitors to the Viennese part of the Danube Floodplains National Park, Austria (N = 312) and visitors to the Nopporo Forest Park in Sapporo, Japan (N = 302) were asked to rate 15 motivation items and to choose preferred scenarios of computer-generated choice set images of a discrete choice experiment. Among 15 motivation items, a statistic significant difference was found in 14 items. Both Austrian and Japanese respondents assigned high importance scores to health and nature observation. The Austrians rated highly the motives exercise/sport, quietness and recreation, whereas Japanese visitors placed more importance on experiencing nature and family. We found four motivation factors: Landscape, Solitude, Nature and Health. Results of the choice model showed that Austrian respondents preferred less walkers and dog walkers, whereas Japanese preferred less bikers, joggers and plant pickers. Japanese visitors scored higher on nature observation, and fewer bikers are in this urban forest. Conflicts with dog walkers have been one of the main management issues in the Austrian forest. We found that visitors’ crowding preferences are related to current trail use conditions, and to their motivations. Tourism and recreation become more and more globalized, and this information about differences and similarities of visitor attitudes based on different backgrounds will be helpful for urban forest management.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 906 Serial 2575
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Author Almik, A.; Maran, K.; Karoles, K.; Rammo, M.,
Title Implementation of results of visitor and environmental impact monitoring: an example of Kauksi campsite of the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 463-466
Keywords MMV4, Forest recreation, visitor and environmental impact monitoring, recreational load, campsite condition monitoring, damages on trees, soil vegetation and soil
Abstract Kauksi campsite, located in the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre, is an area of intensive and long-term recreational use. In the years 2003 and 2007 a permanent monitoring network was established in the area and the environmental situation and its changes were evaluated. Based on the results of the environmental status assessment and visitor monitoring, recommendations were made for improving the campsite condition and an action plan for performing the works was prepared. In 2004-2007 an infrastructure for the protection of campsite and the lakeshore dunes was designed and constructed, and measures of landscape protection were introduced, as a result of which the environmental condition has stabilised and for some indicators, considerably improved. This case shows that in an area of intensive use it is important to know the user and use specifics and, in order to support the periodic assessment of environmental impacts, to continuously monitor environmental status and perform preventive landscape protection works in order to maintain the stable condition and the recreational values of the area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1082 Serial 2662
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Author Aoki, Y.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Comparative research on outdoor recreation between Austria and Japan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 467-471
Keywords MMV4, Cross-cultural comparison, outdoor recreational activities, climate, Austria, Japan
Abstract The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba conducted a research project to identify differences and commonalities in outdoor recreation activities between Austria and Japan. Between 2005 and 2007 the recreational use in several recreational urban and peri-urban areas was investigated in both countries using a range of methods. Standardized data collecting procedures were established for comparative analyses. The results of this cross-cultural research project showed that although different outdoor activities were carried out, several commonalities in recreation use patterns and recreationists’ perceptions were found. This inter-area and cross-cultural comparison of green space users added to the understanding of urban green space use in Japan and Austria. Urban green space management of both countries will benefit from this cross-cultural research project.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1084 Serial 2663
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Author Arca, B.; Duce, P.; Salis, M.; Spano, D.; Dore, P.,
Title Assessing the impact of recurrent wildfires and tourist activities in a Mediterranean area Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 333-336
Keywords MMV4, Coastal areas, shrubland vegetation, vulnerability, anthropogenic disturbances
Abstract The coastal landscapes of Sardinia are characterized by a mosaic of beaches, protected areas and lands subjected to several anthropogenic disturbances. The wildland fire can be considered as a permanent disturbance that induces changes in the spatial pattern of vegetation, canopy cover, and soil properties. The structural characteristics of fire prone species can support the action of other disturbances. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of both wildland fire and touristic activities on the coastal area of northern Sardinia. A coastal area was sampled by the line intercept method in order to characterize the vegetation. The study found differences in species composition, plant cover, and plant height that can be attributed primarily to the effect of fire, but also to the increased vulnerability of the fire prone ecosystems to the other disturbances.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1034 Serial 2638
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Author Arnberger, A.; Eder, R.,
Title Over- and undercrowding in the urban context: A comparison among Viennese green spaces Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 66-66
Keywords MMV4, Crowding, perception, urban recreation, urban park users
Abstract Urban green spaces are essential natural environments for densely populated areas and offer refuges from the hectic city life and work environments. They constitute spaces that provide relatively low levels of social contacts, at the same time they are settings for social gathering. High-use levels as well as too low use levels in urban recreational areas may also be associated with negative effects due to overcrowding, safety concerns or too low social stimulation levels. Given the prominence of urban recreation areas in our daily life, it is surprising that so far rather little research has focused on the crowding perceptions and the social carrying capacities of urban park users, particularly in Europe. In eight different green spaces in Vienna, about 1700 on-site visitors were interviewed on randomly selected eight sampling days in 2006. Green spaces were heavily used small inner urban parks, various historical gardens and forests, and peri-urban recreation areas with a large area size and with low visitation. Interviews lasted between 15 and 20 minutes in most cases. One or two interviewers were used per study site. Crowding issues were asked in three separate questions using bi-polar measures: Visitors were asked about their crowding perceptions of the respective recreation area for both Sundays and workdays, using a 7-point scale ranging from a too lonely situation to an overcrowded situation (global measures of crowding). Actual crowding at the time of the interview was investigated using the same 7-point scale (actual measure of crowding). Crowding expectations and perceived development of use levels since the first visit were also asked. Overcrowding and undercrowding perceptions were expressed. About 47% of respondents expressed overcrowding perceptions for Sundays, while for workdays mostly pleasant crowding perceptions were reported. All crowding measures differed significantly, and significant differences were found across the green spaces. Research was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF).
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 908 Serial 2576
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Author Barbirato, A.; Favaretto, F.; Bottazzo, S.,
Title Peregrine Falcon at Rocca Pendice: a difficult but possible relationship Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 472-474
Keywords MMV4, Protection, Peregrine falcon, alpine climbers
Abstract Among the family of Falconidae, Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) is considered to be the most beautiful and fascinating member of its family. The history and fame of this family dates back to ancient times and the frequent crisis that this species underwent in the years triggered preservation actions that often dealt with climbing and nesting of this bird. The discover in 2001 of a couple of Peregrine falcon that nested on the Eastern cliff of Rocca Pendice brought up the problem of overlapping between the two species (falcon and man) forcing the management of the Colli Euganei Park to assess the situation with LIPU and CAI in order to find a common strategy to solve the problem. From 2001 to nowadays several limitation strategies have been applied with different results depending upon the protected area along with the protection period. The action plans that are hereafter described have proved a positive effect on nesting of the bird. Although climbers have undergone disadvantages because of these decisions we have recorded an increased sensibility in the problem by them that led to a respectful use of the cliff. The encouraging results show how a good collaboration is possible to establish a peaceful cohabitation between sport tourism and endangered species in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1086 Serial 2664
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Author Beunders, N.,
Title The role of destination management in facing the challenges for protected area tourism development Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 71-71
Keywords MMV4, Innovative approach, visitor management, Pan Parks, sustainable tourism management
Abstract These are PAN Parks introduced a holistic approach to protected area management, integrating standards for conservation and management practices, visitor management, sustainable tourism strategies and partnerships. It has been field tested successfully in 10 protected areas. Simultaneously tourism in protected areas became the focus of a growing number of publications. Common ground can be identified in a predominance of strategic, process oriented approaches to tourism. Key issues: planning, visitor management, linkages with the tourism industry, community involvement. Results of the first decade: 1. A more structured and focused co-operation between PA and local stakeholders. Research shows positive results in awareness and co-operation 2. Multistakeholder approaches have proven to be effective in formulating tourism strategies 3. Tourism became an integrated part of protected area management, including a more pro-active, strategic approach. 4. The model works in diverse cultural, institutional and political contexts 4. PAN Parks has been a laboratory for sustainable tourism development for protected areas. Five main challenges can be identified: 1. Loading the brand: make value added of PAN Parks tangible for tourist. How can conservation benefits, distinctiveness and quality of the experience be guaranteed? 2. Identify success factors for development, marketing and management of competitive destinations 3. Consequently the brand lacks a decisive impact on the holiday decision making process. Economic stakeholder value is still limited 4. Leverage of local economic activities (synergy with other sectors) 5. Mind shift from process orientation (development) to focus on output (marketing, management). Suggestions for a research agenda for the next decade are listed here: Economic sustainability remains a concern for conservation based tourism development. Local stakeholders, regional economy and tour operators need healthy business perspectives. Eco-tourism markets are highly competitive. Distinctiveness and competitiveness of destinations require market oriented approaches. The positioning of protected areas as (part of) destinations requires research. Expertise must be developed for destination -development and -management. Innovative approaches for local supply chain development should strengthen the role of protected area tourism in regional development. Quality standards for destinations and local providers should be elaborated. Destination management could be the umbrella to integrating these fields of expertise. Probably a “paradigm shift” from sustainable tourism development approaches to a destination perspective is needed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 912 Serial 2578
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Author Bodnár, R.,
Title Vandalism and its prevention possibilities in the region of Lake Balaton Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 337-342
Keywords MMV4, Environmental education, solution possibilities, vandalism, visitor conflicts
Abstract Lake Balaton – the largest freshwater lake in Central Europe – has been a favourite destination for hundred thousands of Hungarian and foreign visitors for long decades. The study area of the present paper, the Tapolca Basin that has a Mediterranean atmosphere is found on the northern shore of the lake. Nature protectional measures were able to impede mining damaging the basalt capped buttes of the basin providing scenery of European fame, however, they seem to be powerless against vandalism. Sad picture is gained while hiking on the study trails of the Balaton Uplands National Park experiencing that pointless destruction makes site tables unreadable. The main aim of the paper is to draw attention to that harmonizing current known methods and measures and applying new ideas significant improvement could be reached in protecting our natural values against vandalism at relatively low cost and with some care.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1036 Serial 2639
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Author Brandenburg, C.; Lexer, W.; Heckl, F.; Muhar, A.; Reimoser, F.; Zink, R.; Bartel, A.,
Title Nobody knows the trouble they cause? The behaviour of forest users and their knowledge about wildlife disturbance Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 343-343
Keywords MMV4, Awareness of wildlife disturbance, sustainable recreational use, visitor management
Abstract The Biosphere Reserve Wienerwald frames the west and south side of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. High biodiversity and conservation values are given by a large contiguous forest area and interlocked grass lands. The Wienerwald is a major large-scale wildlife habitat and part of a supra-regional ecological corridor. Due to the close proximity of the city, the area is characterised by high use intensities and pressures caused by intense recreational uses, a strong demand for hunting opportunities: high hunting pressure as well as urban sprawl, land take, habitat loss and fragmentation. In order to reduce negative impacts towards wildlife caused by recreational activities, foresting and farming, landowners and tourism management organisations developed various regulations and management regimes for the use of the Wienerwald. The aim of the presented research project funded by the Austrian Academy of Science was to investigate the familiarity with those rules as well as the level of acceptance and compliance with the site regulations. On-site interviews and mailing surveys using standardised questionnaires were taken to address the project objectives. Altogether 1334 land users like foresters and farmers as well as recreationists, like hikers, horse riders, mountain bikers and joggers were asked if they were aware of the problems and conflicts caused to wildlife and wildlife management by certain behaviour such as off-trail use, off leash dog walking, if they knew the further-reaching implications of disturbing wildlife, and in the end if they observed the rules.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1038 Serial 2640
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Author Bråtå, H.O.; Moranduzzo, M.,
Title Managing and monitoring allowance for new second homes in the Rondane Region, Norway Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 129-133
Keywords MMV4, Common pool resource, regional planning, Rondane, second homes, wild reindeer
Abstract The Rondane mountain region, in South-East Norway, is very popular for recreational purposes. The region is also the habitat for 4500 wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). The reindeer are hunted in controlled forms as part of the area management and harvesting of nature. This rural region suffers from decreasing population figures, reduced agricultural activity and declining economic activity in general. Boosting economic activity by increasing tourism, especially in second homes, is thought to be one way of mitigating this decline. Increased recreational activity may however negatively influence a sustainable development of the wild reindeer herd. In order to manage this possibly conflicting interest, local and regional authorities in 1991 set up a regional development plan, covering relevant parts of 14 municipalities in the Hedmark and Oppland counties. Research indicates that taken actions to some extent have managed to balance increase in tourism and protect vital space for wild reindeer. Still, the exact localization of existing and new second homes, and hence the development of new interventions, was until some years ago, not possible to analyse at an aggregated level. Such monitoring is important. A Norwegian real estate register, mapping the exact geographic position of buildings and their year of construction, has however become an important means for such monitoring. By the end of 2005 there were about 18,000 second homes mapped in the region. Increased GIS knowledge has now made it possible to develop detailed analysis of localization of second homes, i.e. distance from the wild reindeer core area, and analyse the development by statistic tools. This is a breakthrough and is anticipated to influence the management of the region and strengthen the potential for balancing economic activity and maintenance of biological diversity.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 944 Serial 2593
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Author Buckley, A.,
Title Right or responsibility? Local people as ‘visitors’ in protected areas on the south coast of Western Australia Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-367
Keywords MMV4, Australian protected areas, local people, passive and active nature-based recreation, remote areas
Abstract The environmental impact of local people recreating in nature is an under-studied aspect of protected area management. A recent review of nature-based recreation was undertaken in regional south-western Australia. Surrounded by an array of protected areas — including a national park with World Heritage status — the local residents of this remote Western Australian location have relatively unrestricted access to a variety of protected landscapes. A recent mineral resources boom in Western Australia has heralded a return to mining in the area, accompanied by a considerable population increase — both as itinerant and permanent miners. For local people and environmental managers alike, this influx has raised concerns about the carrying capacity of this fragile ecosystem to sustain the wilderness recreation activities of the newly arrived mining community. This paper draws on evidence gathered from a study commissioned by the regional environmental authority and outlines the extent to which local people, both long term and recent arrivals can be considered ‘visitors’ to these protected places.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1048 Serial 2645
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Author Buckley, R.,
Title Tourism as a Conservation Tool Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 19-25
Keywords MMV4, Connectivity, funding, ecotourism, wildlife
Abstract Tourism and conservation interact principally through public visitation to public protected areas. In addition, however, tourism can generate funding and political support for conservation in multiple-use areas, community conservancies or private reserves. These tenures are likely to prove increasingly important for conservation under growing pressure from human population growth and anthropogenic climate change. The most successful model seems to be through up-market wildlife-watching lodges in private reserves adjacent to larger public protected areas in developing countries. Private companies such as Conservation Corporation Africa and Wilderness Safaris, operating principally in sub-Saharan Africa, have developed successful business models which do also make significant net contributions to conservation of biological diversity.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 888 Serial 2566
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Author Burns, R.; Graefe, A.; English, D.,
Title Visitor measuring and monitoring challenges on remote national forests: The case of Alaska, USA Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 134-134
Keywords MMV4, Alaska, recreation use, national forests, visitor monitoring
Abstract The purpose of this project was to identify and evaluate the set of issues associated with recreation use studies measuring and monitoring in Region 10 of the USDA Forest Service (Alaska), and more specifically within the Chugach and Tongass National Forests. The unique environment and conditions of Alaska have long posed significant challenges to recreation monitoring efforts, and several previous efforts have been undertaken to address this topic, both internally (Reed, 2003) and externally (Stynes, 2006). The US Forest Service uses the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) protocol to measure and monitor visitor use on all of its national forests. In 2000, an initial attempt to measure visitor use on the Tongass National Forest was conducted. Only 138 of 165 planned sampling days were completed, resulting in a completion rate of 84 percent (USDA 2001). This was the lowest achievement rate among all regions, which averaged 95 percent overall. An in depth review suggested that weather was not a factor and that the low accomplishment rate was attributable to personnel and strategic problems experienced by the sample districts. Approximately 12 interviews were conducted, along with a review of literature focusing on this issue. A series of approximately 20—25 recommendations were made to managers as a result of the review and interviews. It is intended that the results of this review will ultimately aid in customizing the survey protocol and instruments for the National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) and related recreation use monitoring studies in this region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 946 Serial 2594
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Author Campbell, M.J.; MacKay, K.J.; Walker, D.J.; Dranzoa, C.,
Title Strengthening local support for community tourism (in Uganda) through University – Community Partnerships Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 475-479
Keywords MMV4, Community tourism, GIS, partnerships, Uganda
Abstract Rural poverty, poor environmental health and the resultant threat to biodiversity are significant impediments to sustainable tourism development in Uganda. These problems reinforce one another and are compounded by: a) weak institutional linkages between rural communities, NGOs, universities, government departments and public policy makers; b) deficiencies in community oriented professional skills in sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation; c) the need to transform community attitudes to view parks and protected areas and wildlife as natural capital on which rural livelihoods can be improved; and d) the need for interdisciplinary approaches in higher learning to address intertwined problems of biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism development. The University of Manitoba in co-operation with Makerere University in Uganda has initiated a program to address these issues though the development of: 1) a master’s degree at Makerere University; 2) a strategic partner’s network and; 3) three demonstration projects in communities surrounding national parks. This poster presents initial results that illustrate how the university community-partnership is leading to stronger institutional links to not only the university and community but also to NGOs and government departments while providing much needed capacity building in local communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1088 Serial 2665
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Author Campbell, M.J.; Walker, D.,
Title The future of recreation ecology in Canada: go big or go home? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 47-52
Keywords MMV4, Big science and multi disciplinary teams, necessity and inevitability of impacts, recreation ecology, recreation habitats
Abstract In Canada, tension between the reaction to the declining number of visitors to protected areas and the potential for unmitigated impacts of the attendant attempts to increase visitation, highlights the need for an expansion of the role of recreation ecology from merely chronicling impacts to, what might hopefully be termed, “optimizing” them. Despite over four decades of significant growth and development internationally, recreation ecology remains a somewhat obscure discipline in Canada. At MMV-3 Marion (1) identified a small group of “active” recreation ecology researchers in Canada many of whose work was an extension of their primary research purpose. Indeed most researchers working in recreation ecology in Canada are unlikely to view themselves as recreational ecologists, but in terms of their source disciplines (Botany, Zoology, Ecology, Geography). As such, recreation ecology in Canada is often an avocation reflecting the intersection of the researchers’ primary interest with an opportunity presented or identified by park managers. One result of this has been an almost exclusive focus on impacts with all its attendant negative associations. Impacts associated with outdoor recreation have been recognized as inevitable (2). I would argue that they are also necessary and that much outdoor recreation cannot take place without impacts. Recent research on recreational habitats in remote areas of northern Canada highlighted the importance of impacted nodes and corridors to recreational activity (3). The rearguard action we have been engaged in with the focus on previously impacted sites has prevented the effective application of recreation ecology to as yet “undiscovered” recreation areas and the optimization of impacts for recreation. Doing so will require an investment in “big science” incorporating multi-disciplinary teams. This will be challenging given that recreation ecology has struggled to be funded even at “small science” levels, particularly so in Canada, where it falls between the cracks of the national granting councils.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 896 Serial 2570
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Author Chiari, S.; Schmid, F.; Muhar, A.; Muhar, S.,
Title Recreational functions of rivers in Austria: an approach to the visitors’ perspective Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 247-251
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour, preferences, requirements, river recreation, user survey
Abstract In the past Austrian rivers faced a series of human impacts leading to a loss of both ecological and social functionality. River restoration measures aim to improve this functionality, however, they are currently mostly targeted at ecological functions rather than at recreation. To prevent conflicts between ecological integrity and recreational needs integrated river management is demanded. So far river recreation in Austria is an unknown quantity, as profound data are lacking. The range of present river-based recreational activities can only roughly be estimated. The ongoing project “Future options for the development of riverine landscapes – space requirements for multifunctionality” aims to fill this gap. Concerning recreationists’ dispersion, behaviour and preferences data is collected along three rivers (Enns, Drau, Lech). The first step of the methodological approach was an explorative preparatory study conducted in 2007. Qualitative face-to-face interviews should clarify which factors influence river recreationists in terms of how they perceive the river, what they appreciate about the setting and what compromises their quality of experience. Based on these results a semi-standardised questionnaire was developed for a quantitative survey conducted in 2008, covering topics such as visitation motives, use patterns, habits, and perceptive aspects using image-based choice statements. Additionally the extent of river recreation is assessed via peak-day observations documenting recreational characteristics like number of visits, length of stay and activities. Preliminary results indicate that most people associate calmness and relaxation with river recreation rather than adventure and action. In particular, the acoustic scenery and certain natural attributes play a major role. Most people state, that they prefer natural river sections for recreational purposes. However, some ecologically valuable features such as woody debris seem to bother them. Further steps aim to identify key factors for the usability of rivers, integrating both objective factors such as the biophysical setting and subjective issues such as aesthetics and personal preferences.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 998 Serial 2620
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Author Chilman, K.; Wadzinski, L.; West, A.,
Title A new recreation visitor inventory that parallels other resource inventories Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 301-304
Keywords MMV4, Decision-making, management, public participation, visitor inventory
Abstract A Rapid Assessment Visitor Inventory (RAVI) has been developed for inexpensively obtaining representative samples of place-specific visitor numbers and perceptions of attributes of their visit experience. It has been tested in 13 studies on 7 federal and state parks and conservation areas in 4 states. The inventory data are used by field-level managers in decision meetings with other persons in the management organization and with individuals and groups external to the organization. Examples of the application and use of a RAVI study, and a repeat measurement for monitoring purposes are discussed.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1022 Serial 2632
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Author Cihar, M.; Trebicky, V.; Stankova, J.,
Title Stakeholder’s monitoring and involvement: management option for Sumava National Park (Czech Republic) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 271-276
Keywords MMV4, Local people, management, monitoring, nature tourism, public administration, visitors
Abstract The paper presents the results of long-term monitoring and surveys of three major stakeholder’s groups in Sumava National Park (SNP) – visitors, local people and public administration (mayors). SNP is the largest Czech national park situated in the southeast part of the country. In 1990s and 2000s the park became a popular nature tourism destination, mainly for domestic visitors. Views and attitudes of stakeholder groups to conservation and environmental management activities were analysed and compared. Primary data was statistically treated using the χ2 test for evaluation of homogeneity of results from different years of monitoring and different stakeholder groups. The results show that management, development and nature tourism in SNP went through significant changes over the last ten years. Monitoring of stakeholder’s opinions and attitudes and their involvement in a local decision making process is crucial for development of a new management plan of SNP.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1010 Serial 2626
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Author Clivaz, C.; Favre, N.,
Title Valais excellence: a system to better manage visitor flows during sport events Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-106
Keywords MMV4, Impact analysis, Management system, Sport events
Abstract The tourist areas seek more and more to organize (outdoor) sport events. These events generate many impacts from the point of view of sustainable development. Often proceeding in rural and/or protected landscapes, their environmental impact must be managed in an optimal way by the organizers. In the same time, these events have to maximize their social and economic benefits for the host area. This paper presents the management system “Valais excellence” developed in Switzerland and discusses its contribution to a sustainable management of the various impacts of sport events.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 932 Serial 2588
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Author Cocchi, P.,
Title Preface Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 9-9
Keywords MMV4
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 879 Serial 2562
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Author Colas, S.; Fitton, M.; Thaxter, P.,
Title The progress project: the dynamics of involving the public in managing Peri-Urban Forests Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 165-168
Keywords MMV4
Abstract The EU Forest Action Plan gives special emphasis to the benefits of Urban and Peri-urban forests for public recreation and as an aid to public understanding of conservation issues. At the same time forest and green recreation is being promoted in national agendas because of perceived therapeutic benefits. This strong promotion of forest recreation has re-kindled the concerns that recreation use would damage the resource and have major detrimental impact on biodiversity. The PROGRESS project, which focussed on two peri-urban forests in England and France, offered the opportunity to review these issues.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 962 Serial 2602
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Author Cole, D.N.,
Title The significance of recreation impacts: The importance of scale Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 53-53
Keywords MMV4, Recreation ecology, special scale, ecological impact
Abstract Recreation managers often consider the ecological impacts of recreation to be serious problems that need to be mitigated. Conversely, protected area ecologists often consider such impacts to be trivial. Such differences of opinion result from applying divergent evaluative criteria to assessing the significance of recreation impacts. It reflects lack of attention to questions of significance and, in particular, inadequate exploration of scale issues in recreation ecology. Impacts might be considered significant if they represent a substantial loss of ecological integrity or if they are perceived by recreation users to be highly disagreeable. Although not mutually exclusive, impacts on ecological integrity and human perception provide different criteria for evaluating significance. Cole and Landres [1] propose that the ecological significance of an impact is a function of both impact and attribute characteristics. Significance increases with the areal extent, intensity and longevity of the impact and with the rarity and irreplaceability of the impacted attribute. To be significant, from the perspective of human perception, the impacts have to be noticeable. In addition, the most disagreeable impacts are one’s that result from what is considered inappropriate behavior. Given these relevant criteria, this paper explores research that can help in assessing the significance of ecological impacts and suggests which impacts are likely to be most critically important. In particular, the paper reviews what is known about the spatial scale of impacts, since this is relevant to assessing both the areal extent of impacts and how noticeable impacts are. The impacts that are most significant perceptually are often quite different from the impacts that are ecologically most significant.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 898 Serial 2571
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Author Colson, V.; Lejeune, P.,
Title A regional travel model for predicting the number of visitors in forests: application to the Walloon region Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-421
Keywords MMV4, decay curve, forest recreation, GIS, travel model, Wallonia
Abstract The Walloon forests are visited by local people and tourists but the importance of forest recreation is very different from one part of the Region to another. As it was particularly difficult to obtain quantified information by counting, a model has been built by GIS and taking results from different surveys (telephone survey and face-to-face interviews) into account. This model makes the distinction between local visitors and one-day tourists coming from the neighbouring regions (in a buffer zone of 50 km). A decay curve based on travel time is used for predicting the number of visits throughout all Walloon forests from each departure point. An attraction function is added to the model to attribute each visit to a woodland and different scenarios have been tested to obtain a distribution of people by regions of provenance as similar as the results of surveys. At a regional level, this model is a good alternative for counting and gives a good overview of the forests for which recreation activities are more relevant and have to be taken into account in forest management plans.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1066 Serial 2654
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Author Cottrell, S.P.,
Title Perceptions, attitudes and perceived benefits of local residents about tourism development in and around European Protected Area Network Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 72-76
Keywords MMV4, Sustainability, tourism, indicators, monitoring
Abstract This paper presents the European Protected Area Network (PAN Parks) approach (mixed methods) for monitoring resident beliefs about the benefits of PAN Parks status and satisfaction with tourism development. Comparison of results and lessons learned from studies done in Poland, Bulgaria, and Finland are given. Hypothesizes imply that economic, socio-cultural, ecological, and institutional dimensions of sustainable tourism influence perceived benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development. As residents’ satisfaction with the economic, socio-cultural, institutional and ecological aspects of sustainable tourism increase, so do beliefs about the benefits of PAN Park status and satisfaction with tourism development in the PAN Park regions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 914 Serial 2579
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Author Duke, D.; Quinn, M.,
Title Methodological considerations for using remote cameras to monitor the ecological effects of trails users: lessons from research in Western Canada Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 441-445
Keywords MMV4, Remote cameras, access management, monitoring methods, wildlife
Abstract The Livingstone River Area in southwestern Alberta, Canada is an ecologically significant area of public land that provides an important connection between adjacent protected areas. Most of the area is zoned for multiple use; which means the area is available for resource extraction and recreational activity. Recreational use in this area consists primarily of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, random access camping and fly fishing. Recreational use is largely unmanaged and increasing. The proliferation of trails and campsites has become extensive in the past decade. Furthermore, much of this activity is concentrated along critical riparian movement corridors and in sensitive montane, subalpine and alpine environments. Human use and associated linear disturbance is recognized as among the most significant habitat fragmentation factor limiting sensitive wildlife (especially large carnivores) in the region. We have developed a sampling method that employs remote digital infrared cameras on known human trails and wildlife trails. The cameras have proven to be very effective for monitoring all trail use. We provide a review of our methods, report on the effectiveness of the cameras and provide some guidance on the use of cameras based on the lessons we have learned.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1074 Serial 2658
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Author Eder, R.; Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Assessment of a passive infrared counter with a remote data transfer facility Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 480-482
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, remote data transfer, video monitoring
Abstract This study evaluated the reliability of the Ecocounter – Ecotwin© equipped with a remote control facility (Eco-GSM-unit) under different conditions. The counter is connected to a modem, which allows transferring data from the counter to the office via internet. We will discuss the reliability of the modem and the influences of the different locations and surroundings on it.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1090 Serial 2666
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Author Eisenhut, A.; Haller, R.; Raper, J.,
Title How does topography influence the use of the mobile guide WebParkSNP in the Swiss National Park? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 433-437
Keywords MMV4, Location based services, Swiss National Park, Visitor management, Visitor monitoring
Abstract Since 2005, the Swiss National Park offers a mobile information system called WebParkSNP which provides content about the users surroundings using smart phone services and GPS. Up to now, little is known about the use of Location Based Services (LBS) by visitors of remote and protected areas and about the contents they are interested in. WebParkSNP logs time, location and content of each action the user conducts. Contents are not only pushed but can be accessed from every location. With the consent of 419 users, WebParkSNP’s log files of the summer season 2007 have been analysed in order to compare the user’s actions with the topography of the Park. Topography is composed of specific places (vegetation classes, aspect, and slope of the trail), facilities (resting areas, huts) and viewpoints. The results show that clustering of access occurs on steeper slopes, within facilities, and on viewpoints on certain routes. The content accessed differs between facilities and other places. Nevertheless, these patterns are not only determined by topography but also by behavioural aspects; the use of the guide depends on the daytime and on the distance from the starting point of the walk as well. These results allow the evaluation and improvement of LBS concerning content and locations. In addition, conclusions can be drawn about the development and improvement of other offers in the Park. Further analysis and the integration of other visitor surveys like census and questionnaires will show the potential for more general insights into visitor behaviour in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1072 Serial 2657
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Author Elmazi, L.; Gorica, K.,
Title Economic effect of alternative tourism. Events and festivals Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 368-372
Keywords MMV4, Economic effects, alternative tourism, multicultural communities
Abstract The analyze of the tourism cities within Albania show that communities as emerged tourism destination offer culture, tradition and events, and also, show us that events and festivals have the capacity to celebrate community identity particularly in multi-cultural events and festivals. The involvement of local community in creating opportunities and furthermore, competitive advantages, is very important for management and marketing of events and festivals, especially in multi-cultural communities. The research investigates the different interpretations of community, the concept of communities and the role of events and festivals in articulating community identity within distinct localities. It is necessary the compilation of a strategic marketing plan which will involve the community in tourism events and festivals, which at last will follow up with sustainability. Drafting perfect marketing strategies is always one side of the management task that should not be underestimated. This task becomes extremely difficult since in many cases a direct conflict exists between the site managers who to keep restricted numbers of visitors for preservation reasons, local people who look the events as a way to generate revenues, and national governments who like to use its image as a marketing device. Heritage and Cultural Tourism is the most important part of the Albanian tourism product and successful element of the national economy. Albania is considered as a new cultural destination in the tourism marketplace, as a Balkan country of dramatic natural beauty, with a wealth of historic buildings and ancient archaeological sites that can compare, for interest and variety with any in the Mediterranean world.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1050 Serial 2646
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Author English, D.B.K.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Bowker, J.M.,
Title Trap shyness in onsite visitor surveys; evidence from the U.S Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 135-138
Keywords MMV4, Estimation bias, onsite surveys, recreation visitation, trap shyness
Abstract In onsite surveys of visitors, whether the purpose is estimating visitation volume or characteristics of the visit population, those who visit the area multiple times per year are candidates to be surveyed more than one time. In such surveys, each visit represents a unique sampling unit. However, individuals may be unwilling to be surveyed after the first contact. The phenomenon is similar to ‘trap shyness’ in wildlife studies wherein an animal learns to avoid traps after the initial experience. If trap shyness exists, it has the potential to bias the results for either or both visitation estimation or describing the average visit characteristics. There is some anecdotal evidence that trap shyness does exist, and could be problematic for long-term surveys such as the National Visitor Use Monitoring program used by the US Forest Service. This paper describes the conceptual framework for how trap shyness can affect both visitation estimates and visit characteristics, identify empirical hypotheses to be tested that provide evidence of trap shyness, present results for the hypotheses, and describe possible improvements to sampling processes that could determine it existence and extent. Data for the paper come from onsite surveying collected during the period October 2004 – September 2007 for about three dozen National Forests.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 948 Serial 2595
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Author Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L.,
Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143
Keywords MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring
Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596
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Author Figueiredo, E.,
Title Quiet struggles – conflicts between residents, visitors and protected and recreational areas’ administrations Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 26-32
Keywords MMV4, remote rural areas, rural protected and recreational areas, social conflicts, social perceptions
Abstract The paper aims to discuss the conflicting situations which can occur between residents, visitors and political and administrative entities in protected and recreational areas, particularly in the ones located in remote rural spaces. Rural areas (both legally protected and without protection status) are increasingly valued in contemporary societies as environmental reserves. Consequently rural areas are progressively perceived as amenities and as objects of consumption mainly by urban or non local populations. The visitors’ demands and consumptions of rural protected and recreational areas tend to prevail over the local populations’ needs and aspirations in terms of socioeconomic development. The non coincidence between the desired and the lived rural environment tends to create a number of conflicts among the various stakeholders. These areas tend to become the scenario for both latent and manifest struggles, considering the contradictory perceptions, needs, interests and desires held by the different social actors. Based on empirical evidence from some Portuguese rural protected and recreational areas we will debate not only the existence of two clearly contrasting visions, but also the consequences these can have in terms of future social and economic development and environmental protection strategies.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 890 Serial 2567
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Author Fredman, P.; Ernerfeldt Burman, L.,
Title Outdoor recreation in change. A Swedish program on outdoor recreation research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 483-483
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor, recreation, change, sweden
Abstract Outdoor Recreation in Change is an interdisciplinary research program which will analyze current dynamics of outdoor recreation and nature based tourism in Sweden, forming a thorough knowledge base for future research and monitoring. The program is organized into six projects to emphasize the diversity of outdoor recreation research. (1) The research is integrated through a common empirical arena that includes case studies of recreation landscapes and a national survey to provide information on outdoor recreation activities, participation and constraints. This will give a comprehensive input to five deepening projects: (2) Outdoor recreation patterns (motives, access, urban-rural tensions, gender, immigrants, youth, non-users and trends); (3) Urban proximate nature (outdoor recreational opportunities, economics and health); (4) Outdoor recreation in spatial planning (land use, conflict resolution, impact assessment and local management); (5) Outdoor recreation and nature conservation (integrated land management, environmental education and guiding); and (6) Nature-based tourism for regional development (demand, supply, impacts, protected areas and governance). Communication at three levels (information, dialogue and collaboration) will establish strong linkages and ensure that results are disseminated to a broad group of external stakeholders and practitioners. The program, which is financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, is planned for six years and involves 18 researchers at seven universities in Sweden. This presentation will give an overview of the program, current program activities, and highlights of recent results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1092 Serial 2667
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Author García-Ventura, D.; Tejedo, P.; Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Potential interpretation index: a tool for assessing landscape diversity from pathways Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 510-510
Keywords MMV4, Landscape, pathways, ecological divesity index
Abstract Nowadays, a well developed net of pathways allows people to enjoy nature in countryside. Into natural protected areas, the pathway network is generally used to bring closer natural /cultural values and visitors. However, the design of these interpretation pathways usually doesn’t bear in mind how much representative are them to make a complete visit through all landscapes of the natural protected area. We have developed an index based on useful and popular ecological diversity index (Shannon-Wiener, 1948), which has been applied to 56 pathways open to visitors in 6 Spanish National Parks. This Potential Interpretation Index takes into account several factors with high attractiveness to visitors, like environmental units, water bodies and slopes. In addition, we consider these topics either crossed by the pathways than observed from these ones. Spatial data was processed by GIS tools in order to obtain landscape diversity and viewshed from each pathway in these National Parks. The result of this work is an index easier to apply in natural protected areas and the whole countryside, in order to asses its significance for interpretation activities and for guaranteeing a representative visit to the area. This tool could be added to others planning models in natural protected areas management, with the aim of reconcile conservation and visitors use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1112 Serial 2677
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Author Ghelichipour, Z.; Muhar, A.,
Title Visitor risk management in core zones of protected areas: First results from a survey of European park administrations Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 107-111
Keywords MMV4, Conservation regulations, European Protected Areas, Questionnaire, Visitor Risk Management
Abstract Effective visitor risk management practices play an important role in the management of outdoor recreation. Many forms of outdoor recreation have inherent risks associated with them, indeed for many recreational activities risk and challenge are integral components. In many European countries, the administrations of protected areas are legally liable for some kinds of visitors’ injuries, e.g. caused by falling trees or damaged handrails. Sometimes this liability may cause legal problems for the managers, as management measures (e.g. removal of trees) might be in conflict with conservation regulations. These problems are particularly serious in core zones of protected areas, because of their stronger conservation status. In this study, visitor safety management and likely conflicts with conservation regulations in different European protected areas has been surveyed. The findings imply that today visitor risk management is not considered as an important aspect of the management process in core zones of protected areas. This might change in the future: In many core zones of European parks regular forest management for timber production has only recently been discontinued, which will lead to an increased visitor risk when natural processes of ecosystem development take over.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 934 Serial 2589
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Author Goossen, M.,
Title What do people want in National Landscapes Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 211-211
Keywords MMV4, European Landscape Convention, protection, policy, Netherlands
Abstract The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is the first European Treaty that is aimed specifically at the landscape. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning. A main point is that the landscape contributes to the shaping of local cultures. Landscape is a basic component of European nature and cultural heritage. Landscape contributes to the well-being of people and the strengthening of the European identity. This produces everyone rights and responsibilities for protection, management and planning of the landscape. The ELC promotes the involvement of citizens at “their” landscape and stimulates the regional and national governments in Europe to create good conditions for the development and the management of the landscape. The ELC cover all landscapes, urban or rural, nicely or ugly. On the 10th of June 2005 the Dutch minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food quality announced that The Netherlands will ratify the European Landscape Convention. The Dutch landscape policy has been renewed and is entirely in line with this Convention. There are 20 National Landscapes in the Netherlands, which cover approx. 25% of the surface. In the Netherlands important spatial changes are in preparation, varying from new house construction projects to catching the impact of climate change. So involvement of citizens is very important. Therefore the government was interested in the opinion of inhabitants of these National Landscapes, and what their attitude is and what their preferences are. An on-line research with 4000 respondents was carried out to give the answers. The most important result is that the inhabitants agree with the policy. Their attitude is that (economic) development must continue, but with great care of the typical characteristics of the landscape. The preferences depend on the different recreation motives, but the desire for nature development is very popular.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 978 Serial 2610
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Author Griffin, T.; Moore, S.A.; Darcy, S.; Crilley, G.,
Title Developing a national approach to visitor data collection, management and use for protected areas: thoughts from Australian research and practice Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 305-309
Keywords MMV4, Benchmarking, national approach, performance indicators, protected area management, visitor data
Abstract Information on visitor numbers, activities, expectations and satisfaction is vital for protected areas managers on two counts: to assist in the provision of the services and facilities that visitors need and want; and to determine if managers have been efficient and effective in meeting these demands. This paper builds on a recently completed national study in Australia of visitor data collection and usage, and the future visitor data needs, of protected area management agencies. Australia is a federation of states and provides a challenging backdrop for developing a national approach as most responsibilities for protected areas rest with the states rather than the national government. Thus, the success of such an approach rests on cooperation rather than an overarching national regulatory responsibility. The study found that all protected area agencies collected visitor data, however, their approaches were highly variable in what was measured, how the measurements were applied and how data were managed and used. This variability was problematic because it becomes very difficult to determine issues of general importance for protected area management or to benchmark performance across areas. Based on these findings and knowledge of the institutional settings for protected area management in Australia, this paper poses some ideas for progressing a national approach for standardising the measures and measurement of key variables so that comparisons and benchmarking become possible and reliable. Core and supplementary visitor data variables can be identified, with the former being of national interest and hence requiring collection and storage under national coordination and guidance. Implementing such an approach will require working creatively and collaboratively within the current institutional settings.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1024 Serial 2633
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Author Grigel, F.P.,
Title Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose: visit types across Canada’s National Parks Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal (down)
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 310-314
Keywords MMV4, Behaviour patterns, national parks, latent class modelling, trip diaries, activities
Abstract Parks Canada is continuing to use latent class analysis to identify behaviour-based ‘visit type’ segments (created through the analysis of reported activities and the places visited) in different national parks. The current paper reviews three studies conducted in different national parks. We will discuss improvements in the efficiency of data collection and highlight the consistency in visit type segments across different national parks. The appearance of consistent visit type segments across national parks serves to reinforce Parks Canada’s move to behaviour-based segmentation. These visit type segments contrast with the different visitor profiles of each national park (as measured by origin and motivations for visiting). Identifying consistent visit type segments across different national parks allows Parks Canada to develop regional-level programs and products for each of these groups, rather than continuing to develop products for each park in isolation.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1026 Serial 2634
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