||It is well recognised that advanced industrialised societies have become progressively ‘noisy’ over time. This has led to the health and wellbeing benefits of tranquil spaces becoming increasingly recognised – and valued – around the world. Indeed, the search for tranquil environments is often the chief reason people give for escaping urban settings for ‘natural’ environments. Tranquillity in natural environments is a combination of both ‘natural’ landscapes – and ‘natural’ soundscapes. The preservation and conservation of natural environments therefore requires the management of not just natural landscapes and ecosystems, but also their associated soundscapes. Natural soundscapes are finite: at any place and time the soundscape is 100% ‘natural’ unless affected by ‘unnatural’ human-caused sounds. Therefore, the primary challenge to preserving and conserving natural soundscapes in protected areas is the management of unwanted human-caused sound – or ‘anthropogenic noise’.