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Author (up) Aikoh, T., Kubo, T., Inaba, A., Shoji, Y., pdf  url
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  Title The Actual Situation and the Attitude of Visitors toward Feeding of Wild Animals in the Japanese Suburban Forest Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 27-29  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In Japan, the number of local governments prohibiting feeding of wild animals in municipal bylaw has increased recently. Feeding of brown bears, wild boars, and Japanese monkeys for recreational purposesis prohibited in some municipalities. In Sapporo City, feeding of squirrels and wild birds in the suburban forest is causing concern, and conflict with other visitors is increasing (Aikoh & Wei, 2013). The manager cannot take specific countermeasures, because feeding is not prohibited in the suburban forest. Therefore, it is becoming necessary to understand the attitudes of visitors for feeding. In this study, we investigated the actual situation regarding feeding of wild animals in a suburban forest, and visitors’ attitudes towards feeding activities, proper distance from wild animals, and the necessity of countermeasures against feeding. We aimed to propose suggestionsbased on our results for the future management of the suburban forest in Sapporo city.  
  Call Number Serial 3868  
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Author (up) Aoki, Y.; FujitaHitoshi; Aoki, K., pdf  url
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  Title Measurement and analysis of congestion at the traditional Japanese garden “Korakuen” Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 264-270  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Nature and greenery spaces are especially required in the high-density residential areas of Megalopolis in Japan. People are looking for rich greenery spaces and they are requiring for the preservation of the greenery space in redeveloping areas. But people have recently found that parks often were too crowded, when they visited them for enjoying a quiet greenery environment. Almost all old Japanese cities have parks in traditional garden style, which have been opened to the public since Meiji revolution, i.e. a hundred years ago. Originally, the gardens were possession of the Daimyo, i.e. the feudal lord, and they were enjoyed privately. Recent increase in visitors destroyed the original use pattern and the unique atmosphere, and this, of course, confused the management of the park administration. The administration and the users therefore encouraged investigations concerning the appropriate management of park as a pleasant environment. To find a preferable carrying capacity of green spaces, the impression of congestion and quietness was analyzed in a traditional Japanese garden, using the number of visitors as an indicator. The following results were obtained. The impression of congestion is significantly correlated with the number of visitors in the park, and 700 persons on 7 hectares generates the impression of congestion for a half of visitors. To satisfy the impression of quietness for more than a half of visitors, their numbers must be reduced to less than 400 persons for 7 hectares. The decreasing in number of visitors provides a more efficient impression of congestion than that of increasing.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 494 Serial 2310  
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Author (up) Arnason, T. pdf  url
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  Title Wild thoughts – exploring the meaning(s) of wilderness among Icelandic outdoor recreationists Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 294-296  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Wilderness protection in Iceland dates back to the Nature Conservation Act of 1999 (Johannsdottir, 2016). However, to date no areas in Iceland have been formally protected as wilderness per se, partly because the identification of such areas has so far been very rudimentary. Wilderness areas in Iceland have thus up until now mainly enjoyed protection if present within the boundaries of national parks or other protected areas, in particular withinVatnajokull National Park which covers an area of 13,500 km2,, mostly in the Central Highland. According to the working criteria adopted by government agencies, the largest potential wilderness areas in Iceland are located in the Central Highland, an uninhabited region in the middle of the island which covers roughly 40.000 km2 or 40% of its total land area.  
  Call Number Serial 3951  
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Author (up) Arnberger, A., Schneider, I.E., Cottrell, S., Ebenberger, M., Schlueter, A., Eder, R., Von Ruschkowski, E., Venette, R.C., Snyder, S., Gobster, P. pdf  url
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  Title Visitors’ trade-offs between physical and social factors of bark beetle impacted recreational forests Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 192-194  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract This study used a stated preference approach to explore visitor perceptions of bark beetle outbreaks at two state parks in the USA and a national park in Germany. A visual discrete choice experiment (DCE) employed digitally calibrated images (Arnberger & Eder, 2011) to simulate forest stands with varying levels of bark beetle outbreaks, different management practices, and varying visitor uses. Translated and back-translated on-site surveys were conducted in summer 2014 with convenience samples of visitors at State Forest State Park (n=200) in Colorado, USA, Bemidji State Park (n=228) in Minnesota, USA, and Harz National Park in Germany (n=208). Each site has a history of bark beetle infestation with varying management approaches.  
  Call Number Serial 3919  
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Author (up) Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C., pdf  url
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  Title Visitor Structure of a Heavily Used Conservation Area: The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 7-13  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract National parks in close proximity to large conurbations are not subject to the normal conflicts between conservation and ecological tourism but to those between conservation and urban recreational requirements. The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria is situated to the east of Vienna, the capital city of Austria, with a population of 1.6 million. Between June 2000 and May 2001, visitors were monitored in the Lower Austrian part of the National Park. An analysis of the results of the interviews, as well as their integration with the results obtained using long-term video monitoring, counts by human observers and route analysis, led to the identification of specific visitor categories with individual behavioral patterns and spatio-temporal distribution. In particular, regular recreational visitors from adjacent residential areas were very concerned about overcrowding and would react to the high visitor frequency through a change in their habits. This alteration of visiting habits would lead to grave problems for the environmental management of the National Park.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 412 Serial 2269  
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Author (up) Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C.; Muhar, A., pdf  url
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  Title Preface Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages I-II  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 383 Serial 2266  
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Author (up) Arnegger, J., Schaaff, C., Gokhelashvili, R. pdf  url
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  Title Supporting Georgia’s Protected Areas: Linking Conservation and Local Development Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 61-63  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract According to Aichi target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the global network of protected areas (PAs) shall be extended to cover 17% of all terrestrial areas by 2020. Internationally, progress has been achieved, with PAs now covering 12.5% of all terrestrial land. Challenges remain: Notably developing countries still lack both capacity and financial resources to adequately set up and manage PA systems, a gap that requires continuous commitment of international donors (di Minin & Toivonen, 2015). In this regard, approaches that aim to reconcile conservation and poverty reduction have been increasingly common in recent years: Between 1980 and 2008, almost three quarters of the total international aid allocated for biodiversity conservation was targeting “mixed” projects that explicitly addressed both ecological and economic objectives (Miller, 2014). This contribution presents one such project, the Support Programme for Protected Areas in Georgia (SPPA), and introduces the local context and existing challenges.  
  Call Number Serial 3878  
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Author (up) Arzac, S., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Environment and Rural Tourism in Bustamante, Mexico Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The community is Bustamante, population 3,501, in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico. It is a privileged rural landscape, made fertile in the middle of a semi-desert by springs that flow year-round. And in the vicinity of the oasis lie the internationally known caverns known locally as Grutas de Palmito. The problem are the pressures of recreation on the environment: day excursionists who come in great numbers are causing erosion near the water, both around the springs and along the river that flows from them. The waters that used to be clear are now murky because of the soil deposition. And in the cave, the visitors walk freely in the gallery spaces and trample on the formations. But because the local tourism industry is nature-based, it is imperative to conserve the natural resources that make it possible. This research considers the potential of what has come to be known as sustainable tourism to promote economic development in Bustamante and possibly in similar communities, not by replacing the agricultural base but by complementing it. Data were obtained from observations, interviews, survey questionnaires, from the Mexican census, from the regional newspaper, and from the literatures on sustainable tourism and history of the region. The study proposes that the natural and cultural resources of Bustamante had been largely conserved until recently, and that the present accelerated degradation of these resources can be reversed through approaches to sustainability that are related to tourism, so that Bustamante’s people meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, measured against the standard of living currently enjoyed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 532 Serial 2329  
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Author (up) Asan, K., Emeksiz, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Breeding racing pigeons: The serious leisure perspective Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 187-189  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Pigeon racing is based on the remarkable homing instinct of pigeons, which enables their return to their loft, usually many hundred miles away. It offers not only the thrills and excitement of racing, but also the more sedate and intellectual rewards of breeding and rearing the birds (Jones, 2015). The history of breeding and racing pigeon is somewhat ancient. Pigeon homing was immensely popular during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Nowadays, pigeon breeding continues in many countries, especially through pigeon clubs or associations. These communities primarily aim to train and race homing pigeons. Apart from this, secondary objectives relevant to sustainability are also stated, including careful breeding, and taking measures to counter the poaching of birds (Baker, 2013).  
  Call Number Serial 3918  
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Author (up) Bandeira Diniz, F.K., de Souza Pimentel, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social Carrying Capacity at a Brazilian Protected Area Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 39-41  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The modern societies reencounter the nature’s social representation in protected areas. Thus, there is a new enchantment with natural environments and concepts’ redefinition (Borrie 2012). According to this social archetype, the protected areas assume this main goal of biological diversity protection and ecosystems process maintenance (Dudley 2008). But even the most conscious visitors leave marks of their presence. A possible management action to protect resources and improve the visitor experience is to limit the number of visitors by calculating the social carrying capacity. This concept it refers to the number of visitors that can be accommodated in a protected area at the same time ensuring a satisfactory experience (Boullon 1997). The objective of this paper is to present the social carrying capacity of a high visited site in a Brazilian Park.  
  Call Number Serial 3872  
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Author (up) Banjac, M., Tesanovic, D., Kalenjuk, B., Nikolic, M., Radivojevic, G. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Gastronomic offer of Gornje Podunavlje Special Nature Reserve for the purpose of authentic development of tourism Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 503-504  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Special Nature Reserves (SNR) represent the protected areas (PA) of intact and preserved nature. Due to their environmental value and presence of rare wild species, the protected areas are gaining more attention of tourists, so there is indication of upward trend in the number of visitors in these areas (McCool and Spenceley, 2014). It is anticipated that the high growth in the number of visitors will continue in the future. By visiting the protected areas, visitors have the opportunity to get acquainted not only with natural values, but also with cultural heritage that makes each destination more authentic and allows tourists take away unforgettable and synergetic experience. Regardless of the reason for the visit, the food is an integral part of tourism offer and completes the experience of the destination itself. The aim of this study is to explore the gastronomic offer in restaurants that are located in the area of the selected Special Nature Reserve in order to determine the current offer in the facilities, with an emphasis on the offer of local agricultural, food and culinary products.  
  Call Number Serial 4018  
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Author (up) Baric, D., Anic, P., Toncic, M., Macias Bedoya, A. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Exploring visitors’ desired benefits in Paklenica National Park, Croatia: Development, validation and management implications of measurement instrument Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 328-330  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In recent decades, a number investigations that addressed visitors desired benefits in protected areas have attracted considerable attention from various research teams (Ballantine & Eagles 1994, Pierskalla et al. 2004, Weber & Anderson 2010). Despite the differences in methodological approaches and the statistical techniques employed, the key findings revealed that the desire to enjoy and admire nature, learning about cultural and natural features, escaping and solitude, social affiliation and personal achievement were considered as the most important benefit sought to bring visitors to protected areas. The main purpose of this study was to develop a simple and cost-effective measurement instrument to monitor visitors desired benefits in Paklenica National Park in Croatia. Precisely we used a literature-driven approach to test the relevancy of five hypothesized benefit dimensions, composed of eighteen recreational experience items, on the general visitor sample. These were: Enjoy nature, Novelty and learning, Socializing, Escape and solitude and Personal achievement.  
  Call Number Serial 3963  
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Author (up) Bartoletti, C.T., Magro, T.C. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Recreational use in Natural Protected Areas: Adventure Races Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 114-116  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract This research aimed to analyse Adventure Races’ rules as well as to interview races’ organizers and athletes in search of trends in Adventure Races’ organization in Brazil. It also sought whether or not, and to which extent these organizers and adventure sports’ consumers took into consideration environmental issues and not only logistical and financial factors when choosing the location, date and rules for a race. Finally, national park managers were too questioned about their professional perceptions towards the positive and negative impacts that Adventure Races had or may have on their work areas. Based on the information gathered from these tree stakeholders the final goal was to aid the establishment of better management actions focused on developing Adventure Races so that they will better meet the demands in public use and the objectives of conservation in natural protected areas.  
  Call Number Serial 3895  
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Author (up) Began, M., Visnic, T., Bozic, S., Vasiljevic, Dj. pdf  url
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  Title Degradation of in situ geosites caused by anthropogenic factors – analysis of tourists’ attitudes Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 427-428  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Geological diversity values are extremely vast, but are also most reasons for its degradation. Only at the beginning of the XXI century, with the popularization of science, the role of geological heritage started to be accepted and the need for its protection recognized in developing countries, such as Serbia. However, the papers available are mainly engaged with the essence of geoconservation and its basic steps: geosites inventory, examining their values and threats and suggesting the best solution or geoconservation method, etc. The authors returned to revise the part that concerns the study of the very threatening factors. Threatening factors can be divided into those arising from natural processes and those arising from anthropogenic activities – more numerous, but weaker.  
  Call Number Serial 3996  
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Author (up) Bergsma, M., Kadijk, H. pdf  url
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  Title Tourism Markers for National Parks – The Case of the Netherlands Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 72-73  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In the Dutch nature conservation tradition and the management of National Parks, the focus has mainly been on nature protection, education and research. In other countries the NP’s have much more economic value for consumers and entrepreneurs (Van der Windt, 2012). Especially well established parks attract overnight visitors which spend money on accommodation and food in the surroundings of the national Park (Mayer et al, 2010). So tourists who are on holiday and visit a National Park in a particular country, are of economic value for the management of the protected area and local residents and gateway communities (Thomas, Huber & Koontz, 2015, King et al, 2012). In many regions National Parks and other protected areas have become an important attraction and play an important role in destination development (Reinius and Fredman, 2007). Such attractions are very important for the development of a tourism destination and the major motivator for tourists to travel to a certain destination. Effective marketing of the heritage values of the attractions will enhance revenue streams from tourism (King et al, 2012). A technique to build visitor awareness about the heritage values, is to present the tangible and intangible elements of the National Park prominently, consistently and repeatedly throughout the customer journey. This is not only important for the visitor experience but also for building positive beliefs and behaviours among decision makers, local inhabitants and tourism businesses (King et al, 2012).  
  Call Number Serial 3881  
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Author (up) Beunen, R. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Innovation in Protected Area Governance: Competing Models and Their Impact in Different Places Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 5-6  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Innovation has become a key topic in the ongoing search for more effective, efficient and legitimate forms of protected area governance. In response to changing circumstances, new management challenges, and failed policies, managers of protected areas are continuously rethinking and adapting their policies and practices and exploring new ones. Over the years it has become clear that the sustainable management of protected areas remains a difficult challenge. The huge diversity of practices shows that protected areas can be governed in many different ways and that approaches should be dynamic. Management practices regularly need to be revised in order to adapt to changing social and ecological circumstances. Managers for example need to deal with increasing visitor numbers, changing visitor’ demands, environmental pressures due to recreational activities, budget cuts, or changing organizational beliefs. To some extend such changes reflect wider societal developments, such as emerging trends in outdoor activities, a changing political landscape, or economic ups and downs.  
  Call Number Serial 3860  
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Author (up) Bihunova, M., Kutny, L. pdf  url
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  Title Arboretum Mlynany (Slovakia) – what can we learn and experience more? Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 164-166  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Recreational activities are connected with the leisure time of human. They have passive or active form, individual or social mode, organised/regular or occasional way and could be realised in urban, periurban or rural environment. Rural recreation and rural tourism are important for the economic growth of rural areas and contributes to the protection and improvement of environmental values. It is based on the attractiveness of the environment and landscape. It can develop and protect cultural, historical and natural heredity of the site (Flekalová, 2015). In Slovakia, the recreational activities in the protected areas is regulated by The Act. No. 543/2002 on Nature and Landscape Protection. According to the degree of the protection, different activities could be provided on the site. Arboretum Mlynany belongs to the fourth level of Nature Protection (there is a five degree scale of Nature and Landscape Protection in Slovakia) (Štepánková et al, 2012). Signs, trails and wayside exhibits are connectors between the site and visitors. They give meaning to the experience of the moment. Effective trails and interpretative sites are important components for telling the story of a site (Gross et al, 2006).  
  Call Number Serial 3910  
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Author (up) Bishop, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Outdoor recreation and protection of Iceland’s Central Highland: conditions for a consensus among domestic users Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 338-340  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The Icelandic Central Highland cover about 40% of the country, gathering a wide range of landscapes combining large glaciers, vast black sand desert, powerful geothermal areas and rivers, rough lava fields and important wetlands. As a result from such a diversity, the area as a whole consist of an outstanding venue for nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation. Other natural resources are also found in the area, as it has been used since historical times for hunting, fishing or as summer pasture or more recently to produce electricity from renewable sources. Similar to any other use of the natural resource, perspectives of development of the area for nature-based activities are raising serious issues as such highly sensitive environments may be irreversibly impacted by human activities. The establishment of protected areas is presented by various stakeholders as a potential solution to address the issues induced by the exponential growth of tourism. This study aimed to approach the attitudes of outdoor recreationist to the Central Highland and land-use management issues related to its protection. While there seems to be a certain consensus regarding the need to address issues related to the development of tourism in the Central Highland, views gets very polarized when it comes to the idea of a National Park, with a striking gap between opinions expressed by users of motorized and non-motorized activities.  
  Call Number Serial 3966  
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Author (up) Bizarro, S., Nogueira Mendes, R.M., Santos, T., Juliao, R.P. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Monitoring Outdoor recreation in Serra da Estrela Natural Park, Portugal Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 140-142  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Using the information made available by new technologies and social networks specialized in this segment, the study proposes, based on Voluntary Geographic Information (VGI), the development of planning tools for an efficient characterization of this reality. The methodology intends to study, through an analysis of the available voluntary information, the users’ preferences towards the trail system of Serra da Estrela Natural Park (PNSE). The study results will contribute to the definition of standard criteria used in the design of a trail network, optimized according to the users’ profile and preferences.  
  Call Number Serial 3903  
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Author (up) Bjelajac, D., Lukic, T., Micic, T., Miljkovic, Dj., Sakulski, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Rainfall erosivity as an indicator of potential threat to erosion vulnerability in protected areas of Vojvodina (North Serbia) Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 478-480  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Soil erosion is one of the main environmental problems in Southeastern Europe. The major climatic variable affecting water erosion is precipitation. In order to illustrate the role of rainfall erosivity, it is necessary to examine the changes in the amount of precipitation over a certain period of time. Recent studies indicate that climate variabilityon global basis will affect the changes in precipitation in Southeastern Europe. Sinceclimate change is an inevitable natural process, it is necessary to make certain predictions based on analysis of all available rainfalldata in order to protect potentially endangered ecosystems and important areas of distinct natural values.Erosion and precipitation distribution are important elements concerning the implications of climate variability in the Panonnian basin. Vojvodina (North Serbia) is a region located in its eastern part. It is widely known as an important regionwhich consists of a great number of protected bio and geo-diversity areas. Therefore, it is very important to draw attention to the above mentioned areas vulnerabletopluvial erosion in order to create and implement adequate preventive and mitigation measures (Lukic et al., 2016).  
  Call Number Serial 4011  
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Author (up) Blazejczyk, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Some Problems of Tourist Activity in the Tatra National Park Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-420  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Tatra Mts. is an unique alpine ridge in Poland.. The whole Polish part of Tatra is a protected area as a national park (Tatry National Park – TNP). Its area is 21,164 ha. Every year 2.5 millions of tourists visit TNP. Tourist activity is one of the factor of nature degradation in Tatras. The most transformed are the areas with the greatest tourist penetration: Morskie Oko lake, Kasprowy Wierch Mt. and Koscieliska valley. The paper presents preliminary results of the studies dealing with the problems of tourist penetration in the Morskie Oko (MO) and Kasprowy Wierch (KW) regions. In the MO area needs and desires of tourists, time budget during stay at the place and tourists’ evaluation of infrastructure were studied with the use of special questionnaires. At Kasprowy Wierch the streams of tourists were observed. The number of tourists on each tourist track crossing KW was accounted. The results of the studies point to great diversity of tourist activity in TNP (making pictures, enjoying nature, walking in the surroundings, climbing, relax). The results can be useful for managing of tourist activity, for making corrections in TNP protection system and for establishing the methods minimising degradation of tourist tracks and its surroundings.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 544 Serial 2335  
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Author (up) Blye, C.-J., Halpenny, E. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Do Canadian’s Leave No Trace? A study examining the pro-environmental behaviours of front-country and back-country overnight park visitors Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 454-457  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Inherent in the term outdoor recreation is the interaction between humans and the natural environment. However, this interaction creates inevitable impacts on the natural environment, such as soil compaction and habitat fragmentation(Hammitt, Cole, & Monz, 2015). Some research has been done to investigate how back-country (BC) overnight visitors mitigate these negative impacts through low-impact camping practices, however little has been done on the millions of front-country (FC) overnight visitors. The purpose of this study was to understand the level of engagement in pro-environmental behviours of Canadian provincial parks users and compare those practices of FC and BC overnight visitors. Park visitors’ knowledge of, intent to engage in and actual practice of Leave No Trace (LNT) practices were measured. Guided by value beliefs norm theory and the theory of planned behavior, additional factors that influence these visitors’ engagement in pro-environmental practice were also measured(Ajzen, 1991, Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, & Kalof, 1999).  
  Call Number Serial 4004  
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Author (up) Bradic, M., Blesic, I., Vukosav, S., Ivkov, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Eco-labels in tourism and hospitality industry Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 216-218  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Ecolabelling is a voluntary method of environmental performance certification and labelling that is practised around the world. At the end of the last century only environmentaly oriented tourists could hear or learn something about ecological labels like Green globe or Heritage Environmental Rating Programme. After decades of specific behavior patterns of tourists the current trend is returning from the mass to the individual both environmentally friendly tourism, where new eco-labels come into play.  
  Call Number Serial 3927  
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Author (up) Brandenburg, C.; Ploner, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Models to Predict Visitor Attendance Levels and the Presence of Specific User Groups Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 166-172  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper proposes approaches to modeling visitor flows in the context of weather and outdoor recreation. The nature conservation area and area under investigation the Lobau, which is a part of the Danube Floodplains National Park, lies in close proximity to the large conurbation of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. This circumstance presents the managers and researchers of the Lobau with a variety of challenging problems, due to the high number of visitors and the multifaceted visitor structure. An ecologically and economically sustainable management of the recreation and conservation area Lobau requires a profound knowledge of the uses visitors make of this area and a reliable prediction of the potential numbers of visitors. The investigation of the prognostic model is based on the results of a visitor monitoring project. Within this project, video-cameras were installed at several entrance points to the Lobau to monitor recreational activities throughout one year. The prognostic models were based on the dependence of the daily number of visitors on external factors such as weather and day of the week. Using a linear regression, these relationships were investigated and used to predict visitor loads. For the model, a distinction was made between workdays and weekends and/or holidays. The weather was considered in a very differentiated way: Meteorological elements, i.e. air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, appear directly as parameters in the models as well as indirectly in thermal comfort indices, e.g. the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). Reliable models can be obtained for the daily totals of visitors as well as for specific user groups with high visitor loads, i.e. hikers and bikers. The day of the week has the greatest influence on the daily totals of visitors as well as on individual user groups. The numbers of bikers and hikers depend heavily on the Physiological Equivalent Temperature. The effects of precipitation and cloud cover during the preceding seven days are small. The usage patterns of joggers and dog walkers are more difficult to model as they are less influenced by the day of the week and weather related factors.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 462 Serial 2294  
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Author (up) Burns, R.C., English, D. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Testing the use of wild game cameras for US Forest Service recreational visitor monitoring in Oregon/Washington, USA Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 245-247  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In 2015 a university research groupbegan developing new methods for data collection using wildlife cameras (game cameras) for short-term (7-day) and long-term (year-round) data collection at pre-selected recreation sites. The pilot study is in support of the US Forest Service (Region 6) National Visitor Use Monitoring Program (NVUM) program. NVUM has been the sole method of understanding visitor use within the US Forest Service since 2000. The USFS NVUM program manager selected 13 sites across Region 6 for the pilot study. Game camera methodology includes 16 short-term data collection sites scheduled for data collection at various times throughout the FY 2016 (four sites per Forest). These are a selection of low use sites and the goal is to continue to collect better quality data, reduce potential safety concerns, and at a reduced financial cost. Long-term data collection involves deploying cameras for year-round data collection.These is a selection of Permanent Traffic Counter sites where other monitoring methods pneumatic and infrared counters) are not appropriate for long-term monitoring due to factors such as geography (e.g. destruction by snow-plows) and limitations of the units (e.g. failure of some infrared counters to register high use counts).For both short-term and long-term sites, cameras can be used to collect valuable data pertaining to trail use (group size, overnight or day use, length of stay, etc.) and vehicle use (vehicles counts entering/exiting the Forest, vehicle type, etc.). Accordingly, we sought to a) Determine appropriate interval settings for cameras based on site type (i.e. necessary frequency of the recording of images to capture use of trails, roads) and b) Gather more information to contribute to the protocol in development for short-term (7-day) and long-term sites.  
  Call Number Serial 3936  
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Author (up) Burns, R.C.; Graefe, A.R., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Segmentation of Outdoor Recreationists: A Comparison of Recreationists’ Perceptions of Importance and Satisfaction Across Activities Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 122-128  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore levels of importance and satisfaction with various attributes of customer service among selected segments of outdoor recreationists. The study also examined the nature of the relationships between satisfaction attributes and overall satisfaction. These relationships were tested for four dimensions of satisfaction (facilities, services, information, and recreation experience), across three water-based user groups (ramp users, campers, and day users). This study builds on previous customer satisfaction research conducted by both consumer behavior specialists and recreation researchers. In congruence with previous research on customer satisfaction, many of the constructs associated with quality in a recreation environment are intangible, elusive, and extremely difficult to measure. Study results showed that there are significant differences between different segments of users in reported levels of importance and satisfaction with various aspects of a recreational visit, but the nature of the relationships between the various domains and overall satisfaction varies little across the user segments.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 450 Serial 2288  
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Author (up) Bussolotti, J.M., De Lima Guimaraes, S.T., De Jesus Robim, M. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Perception, interpretation and valuation of multifunctional landscapes of protected areas: a contribution to visitor management Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 397-399  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract The work presented was discussion of the thesis entitled “ Building indicators for the landscape of the State Park of Serra do Mar: Santa Virginia.” The Park covers the northern portion of the Atlantic Forest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, considered the owner of a valuable biological and cultural wealth. The conceptual bases used in the research were the Landscape Ecology and the phenomenological perspective of humanistic geography, basing the analysis of lived space and the lived world and the concept of multifunction Naveh landscape, taking into account the implicit values in the three areas of functions the landscape of this protected area: the bioecological, the socio-ecological- cultural and socioeconomic. It was established as main objective to create parameters for environmental valuation indicators in protected areas from the perceptions of those who experience it.  
  Call Number Serial 3986  
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Author (up) Cessford, G., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Perception and Reality of Conflict: Walkers and Mountain Bikes on the Queen Charlotte Track in New Zealand Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-108  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A variety of social and physical impacts are attributed to mountain biking. In many cases, the perception of these impacts differs from the reality of on-site experiences. This distinction is explored in two ways. First, a brief review of impact issues associated with mountain bikes is carried out. Second, results are presented from a survey of 370 walkers on a multi-day natural track where biking has been allowed on a trial basis. Walker opinions are surprisingly positive toward bikes. These opinions are found to be more positive among those walkers who had actual encounters with bikes. By contrast, more negative opinions were found among those who had no such encounters. Such distinctions between perception of a conflict and the actual outcome from an experience have important implications for park managers responsible for providing a range of different recreation opportunities.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 444 Serial 2285  
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Author (up) Cessford, G.; Cockburn, S.; Douglas, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Developing New Visitor Counters and their Applications for Management Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 14-20  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Developing visitor flow models for managing visitors to conservation areas is not possible without accurate visitor count data from the field. However, obtaining such counts in a reliable and cost-effective manner has proven to be more difficult than may be expected. Reasons for this are reviewed, and the features that park managers want in their visitor counting tools are discussed. Based on these demands, development of new visitor counters is underway, along with integrated systems for systematic collection and management of the data they provide. However, more effective direction is required from visitor flow models to guide the deployment of these new counter systems. This is an ongoing programme, and the presentation provided here summarises background information and progress to date.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 414 Serial 2270  
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Author (up) Chazée, L., Réquier Desjardins, M., Khechimi, W. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Monitoring Recreational and Educational Services Provided by Mediterranean Wetlands: How Natural Capital Impact Human and Social Capital? Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 49-52  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Since 2011, the Mediterranean Wetlands Observatory (MWO) is a wetlands management tool of the MedWet regional Initiative (1991) working under the umbrella of the Ramsar convention (1971) and managed by the Tour du Valat Institute for Research and Conservation of Wetlands (TdV). MWO is developing its first indicator on cultural ecosystem services as an “impact” indicator to be integrated in the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) conceptual model adopted by MWO. The overarching objective of this indicator is to develop additional advocacy based on sound scientific work among local and national decision-makers as well as planners involved in development options achievement and territorial management. This indicator also intends to help site managers to adapt their services to recreational and educational visitors. It aims concretely at measuring how ecosystem services biophysical value and function of wetlands provide human and social advantages to societies.  
  Call Number Serial 3875  
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Author (up) Cihar, M.; Stursa, J.; Trebicky, V., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Monitoring of Tourism in the Czech National Parks Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 240-245  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Recreational and tourist exploitation of selected parts of four Czech National Parks has been investigated since the year 1997. The article presents cross-section data from 2000. During a nine-day period in the high summer season the basic quantitative census of tourists, cyclists and cars on selected crossroads of tourist paths in the core area of national parks had been carried out and qualitative characteristics, opinions and attitudes of visitors were evaluated. Relation between socio-demographic structure of visitors and their behaviour and attitudes to conservation management activities of the national park’s Authorities was analysed using a special type of a questionnaire based on interviews with a random and representative sample of visitors. There are evident differences between various National Parks (Krkonose, Sumava, Podyji, Ceske Svycarsko) and between the attitudes of foreign visitors and Czech visitors. Investigation has been focused also on local inhabitants and elected representatives of local communities. Results are used by NP Authorities within the process of estimation of ecological and psychological carrying capacity as well as the one of appropriate indicators of sustainable development of the Czech National Parks. Monitoring will continue in the next years.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 484 Serial 2305  
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Author (up) Cimbaljevic, M., Milentijevic, N. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title ICT in promoting and interpretation in protected areas – example of Serbian national parks Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 82-83  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract In recent years, the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the environment protection and promotion has attracted great attention. ICT can improve the understanding of environmental issues in humans, as well as their political implications. In research, ICT application is generally considered as a way to use this technology for the benefit of the environment. Today, communication processes are strongly associated with the use of Web 2.0 tools, working on desktop computers and mobile devices. Such advantages and challenges of modern ICT’s are quite relevant for large protected areas (e.g. national parks). Nonetheless, destination success depends on its capacity to create and promote the competitive tourism product according to preferences and requirements of potential and existing demand. For these purposes, in addition to ICT’s, geographic information systems (GIS) play an important role.  
  Call Number Serial 3885  
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Author (up) Coch, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Observing visitors behaviour as a methodical alternative to questionnaires – a proposal Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 474-477  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Basing on case studies in South-West- and North-East-Germany techniques of hidden observation such as observing visitors behaviour with binoculars from far distance are discussed. Their origin in ethological field studies is reflected, ethical aspects are mentioned and the conditions to produce valid data are qualified. Especially in case of analysing non-legal behaviours direct questionnaires are often not be able to clear whether serious damages in the protection areas are resulting or not. Also the intentions of “breaking the rules” cannot be reflected totally by socio-empiric methods. On the other hand behaviour observations require a lot of time and energy and should be limited on serious indications because of ethical aspects. So it is necessary to describe conditions and cases, where observing techniques can be implemented successfully.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 568 Serial 2346  
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Author (up) Cole, D.N., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Simulation of Recreational Use in Backcountry Settings: an Aid to Management Planning Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 478-482  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Simulation models of recreation use patterns can be a valuable tool to managers of backcountry areas, such as wilderness areas and national parks. They can help fine-tune existing management programs, particularly in places that ration recreation use or that require the use of designated campsites. They can assist managers in evaluating the likely effects of increasing recreation use and the implementation of new management programs. They also can be used as a monitoring tool, being particularly helpful in predicting encounter levels in the interior as a function of easily measured counts of recreationists entering the area. The first backcountry travel simulation models were developed in the 1970s. They were never widely used, however, primarily because simulation runs were costly and difficult. Recent improvements in computer technology have ushered in a new era of travel simulation modeling.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 570 Serial 2347  
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Author (up) Corbett, J., Robles, N., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Dispersed Visitation in Mexico’s Mountains: Challenges to Sustainable Management Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 25-26  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract References to “managing and monitoring visitors” generally bring to mind the grand concentrations of visitors thronging Angkor Wat, the Coliseum of Rome, or Teotihuacan, locations that by their fame and accessibility draw large numbers from around the world. Management becomes in effect synonymous with crowd control, carrying capacity, and dealing with periodic surges in visitation related to seasonal vacation periods or other circumstances influencing visitor flow. Rarely do we think of low or sporadic flows or tourism as presenting their own challenges, particularly when institutional support and management processes themselves confront serious constraints. In this paper we examine challenges to sustainable management under conditions of emerging but minimal, intermittent visitor traffic in mountain sites where historically suchvisitation has been non-existent.  
  Call Number Serial 3865  
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Author (up) Cottrell, S., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Predictive Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour: Application as a Visitor-Monitoring Tool Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 129-135  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This working paper presents a framework for understanding responsible environmental behaviour as a visitor-monitoring tool. Visitor use data forms the basis of any successful visitor management plan to understand user knowledge, awareness and attitudes about pollution issues in order to develop management policies and actions that enhance appropriate visitor behaviour. A case study of the application of a predictive behavioural model on the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA involving boater environmental behaviour as a social indicator is discussed. Results indicate that knowledge of water pollution issues, awareness of the consequences, equipment issues such as boat length and boat type, and situational factors that constrain or hinder appropriate behaviour were indicators of appropriate behaviour. A structural equation path diagram model was tested using AMOS student version 4.01 using up to seven of the eight predictors from boating behaviour case study to demonstrate the strength of a path analysis procedure. Results model those of the stepwise regression procedures used in the original study, yet the path diagrams demonstrate ease of interpreting the structural relationships among variables in a regression equation. Implications for management actions in the case study situation are given followed by a proposed researchmonitoring program coupling social science techniques with the natural sciences.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 452 Serial 2289  
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Author (up) Curtis, N., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Managing Commercial Recreation on Crown Land: The Commercial Recreation Transition Plan for the Sea to Sky Corridor, BC Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 314-319  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Monitoring and management of visitor flows in parks and recreational areas has traditionally focused on public recreation. However, there is a growing need to find management tools to address commercial operations as well as public recreation, and to manage activities outside of protected areas as well as within them. The implementation of a program to manage previously unregulated commercial recreation operations in the Sea to Sky Corridor, north of Whistler, British Columbia is described. It is argued that commercial recreation (CR) is not only different in kind from public recreation, but also offers significantly different challenges and opportunities with respect to visitor management.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 508 Serial 2317  
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Author (up) Dalley, J. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Tranquility mapping: A tool for the equitable allocation of soundscapes in protected areas Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 451-453  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract It is well recognised that advanced industrialised societies have become progressively ‘noisy’ over time. This has led to the health and wellbeing benefits of tranquil spaces becoming increasingly recognised – and valued – around the world. Indeed, the search for tranquil environments is often the chief reason people give for escaping urban settings for ‘natural’ environments. Tranquillity in natural environments is a combination of both ‘natural’ landscapes – and ‘natural’ soundscapes. The preservation and conservation of natural environments therefore requires the management of not just natural landscapes and ecosystems, but also their associated soundscapes. Natural soundscapes are finite: at any place and time the soundscape is 100% ‘natural’ unless affected by ‘unnatural’ human-caused sounds. Therefore, the primary challenge to preserving and conserving natural soundscapes in protected areas is the management of unwanted human-caused sound – or ‘anthropogenic noise’.  
  Call Number Serial 4003  
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Author (up) Danelutti C., Santarossa, L. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Creating a transnational ecotourism offer: The MEET Experience Type
  Year 2016 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas – ABSTRACT BOOK Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 8 - Proceedings Issue Pages 372-374  
  Keywords MMV8  
  Abstract Despite the environmental and cultural importance of the Mediterranean, many immediate and long-term threats to biodiversity and local cultures persist, including the region’s reliance on revenue from mass tourism. Ecotourism has been demonstrated to be a form of tourism that is respectful to nature and culture which engages local people and brings significant economic benefits to local communities without the disruptive effects that mass tourism brings in its wake. The Mediterranean Experience of Ecotourism (MEET) is an EU-funded initiative, designed to harness the potential of ecotourism in the region. Having recently completed its three-year project life at the end of 2015, and involved 25 protected areas in 8 countries, MEET’s goal is to continue integrating new protected areas to expand the conservation and economic benefits of sustainable, respectful and nature-oriented tourism across the Mediterranean Basin.  
  Call Number Serial 3977  
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Author (up) Daniel, T.C., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Modelling Visitor Flow from the Visitor Perspective: The Psychology of Landscape Navigation Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 159-165  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper reviews basic issues underlying the monitoring and modeling of the movements of visitors in large-scale natural parks and recreation areas. Modeling of “visitor flow” is related to research and methods in associated fields, including environmental preference, environmental values/attitudes and wayfinding. Relevant psychophysiological and neurological research and theory is also reviewed to reveal the fundamental basis of dissociations between verbal reports and actions. It is argued that traditional verbal survey methods cannot in principle provide an adequate basis for models of human landscape navigation.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 460 Serial 2293  
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