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Author Müller, M.; Mayer, M.; Woltering, M.; Job, H.,
Title Visitor attitudes towards natural disturbance: the case of the bark beetle in Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 347-352
Keywords MMV4, perception, attitudes, natural disturbance, protected areas, tourism, bark beetles
Abstract Management authorities of protected areas have recently been faced with a considerable rise of natural disturbance such as fire or insect pests in ecosystems. Incorporating visitor experience of natural disturbance into management strategies is a crucial task. The present study uses multivariate statistical analysis to examine visitors’ attitudes towards large-scale bark beetle infestation in the case of Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Findings indicate that visitors have a neutral attitude towards the bark beetle and slightly reject controlling the bark beetle in the national park. Expectations of a successful recovery of the affected areas (green-up) and low personal issue salience are the two strongest predictors for support of not controlling the bark beetle. Our findings suggest that it is well possible to position protected areas as refuges where nature is supposed to follow its course without intervention rather than as landscaped representations of cultural ideal types. In order to communicate this idea of wilderness to visitors, park management authorities should design educational measures to raise visitors’ awareness of the ecological mandate of protected areas and of the role of disturbance agents in ecosystems.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1042 Serial (up) 2642
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Author Newman, P.; Manning, R.E.; Fristrup, K.,
Title Managing Soundscapes in National Parks: an adaptive management approach in Muir Woods National monument, California Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 353-353
Keywords MMV4, Soundscapes, visitor-caused noise, adaptive management Muir Woods National Monument, national parks
Abstract Research in national parks has begun to address the issue of human-caused noise and its resource and social impacts. This paper reports the results of a study conducted in the summer of 2007 that tested the efficacy and acceptability of management actions designed to reduce visitor-caused noise The study used an experimental or “adaptive” management” approach designed to test the effectiveness of temporal and spatial zoning to protect natural quiet in Muir Woods National Monument, California, an old growth redwood forest. The adaptive management experiment consisted of two treatments and an associated control. During all three periods, visitorcaused noise was recorded at a fixed location in the park and a visitor survey was conducted. The first treatment tested the effectiveness of a spatial zoning approach by establishing a “quiet zone” in Cathedral Grove through a series of park signs. The second treatment tested the effectiveness of a temporal zoning approach by establishing “quiet days” throughout the park through a series of park signs. The control period included neither of these treatments. Study findings indicate that both the “quiet zone” and “quiet day” treatments were effective in lowering the level of visitor-caused noise in the park as measured during the control period, and that visitors were highly supportive of these management actions.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1044 Serial (up) 2643
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Author Woodward, D.B.; Bastin, L.,
Title The impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 354-359
Keywords MMV4, Kazakhstan, Almaty State Nature Reserve, ecotourism, impact on vegetation
Abstract The results of a pilot research project to assess the impact of ecotourism on vegetation cover in Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, are presented in this paper. Geobotanical, GIS, ground truth and statistical methods were used. The results proved that significant differences existed between the species richness, vegetation condition, vegetation cover and the mean height of grass stands in experimental quadrats compared to the control quadrat. The recommendations include strategies to mitigate the impact of ecotourism on vegetation in the Reserve.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1046 Serial (up) 2644
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Author Buckley, A.,
Title Right or responsibility? Local people as ‘visitors’ in protected areas on the south coast of Western Australia Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 363-367
Keywords MMV4, Australian protected areas, local people, passive and active nature-based recreation, remote areas
Abstract The environmental impact of local people recreating in nature is an under-studied aspect of protected area management. A recent review of nature-based recreation was undertaken in regional south-western Australia. Surrounded by an array of protected areas — including a national park with World Heritage status — the local residents of this remote Western Australian location have relatively unrestricted access to a variety of protected landscapes. A recent mineral resources boom in Western Australia has heralded a return to mining in the area, accompanied by a considerable population increase — both as itinerant and permanent miners. For local people and environmental managers alike, this influx has raised concerns about the carrying capacity of this fragile ecosystem to sustain the wilderness recreation activities of the newly arrived mining community. This paper draws on evidence gathered from a study commissioned by the regional environmental authority and outlines the extent to which local people, both long term and recent arrivals can be considered ‘visitors’ to these protected places.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1048 Serial (up) 2645
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Author Elmazi, L.; Gorica, K.,
Title Economic effect of alternative tourism. Events and festivals Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 368-372
Keywords MMV4, Economic effects, alternative tourism, multicultural communities
Abstract The analyze of the tourism cities within Albania show that communities as emerged tourism destination offer culture, tradition and events, and also, show us that events and festivals have the capacity to celebrate community identity particularly in multi-cultural events and festivals. The involvement of local community in creating opportunities and furthermore, competitive advantages, is very important for management and marketing of events and festivals, especially in multi-cultural communities. The research investigates the different interpretations of community, the concept of communities and the role of events and festivals in articulating community identity within distinct localities. It is necessary the compilation of a strategic marketing plan which will involve the community in tourism events and festivals, which at last will follow up with sustainability. Drafting perfect marketing strategies is always one side of the management task that should not be underestimated. This task becomes extremely difficult since in many cases a direct conflict exists between the site managers who to keep restricted numbers of visitors for preservation reasons, local people who look the events as a way to generate revenues, and national governments who like to use its image as a marketing device. Heritage and Cultural Tourism is the most important part of the Albanian tourism product and successful element of the national economy. Albania is considered as a new cultural destination in the tourism marketplace, as a Balkan country of dramatic natural beauty, with a wealth of historic buildings and ancient archaeological sites that can compare, for interest and variety with any in the Mediterranean world.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1050 Serial (up) 2646
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Author Lupp, G.; Konold, W.,
Title Landscape preferences and perception in Mueritz National Park (Germany) Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 373-377
Keywords MMV4, Landscape preferences and perception, lifestyle groups, national park, user survey
Abstract In Mueritz National Park, Germany, landscape changes are ongoing due to wetland restoration, reduction of agricultural acticvities and abandonment of timber oriented forest management. This study assesses the perception of the landscape and landscape preferences of both local visitors and tourists. Passers-by were interviewed at five different places inside the park. Preferences and perception of landscapes were identified in three steps: general preferences, perception of the scenery at the interview site and by using pictures. The results were differentiated and compared according to residents, first time visitors and regular visitors as well as lifestyle groups. Lakes, traditionally maintained farmland and ancient lately unmanaged beech forests (Fagus sylvatica), containing deadwood, are preferred most. The results show that background knowledge about natural processes is essential for a positive perception of these landscape features.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1052 Serial (up) 2647
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Author Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.; Sievänen, T.,
Title National park visitors’ attachment to a place, quality perceptions and visit intention Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 378-383
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor recreation, nature-based tourism, place attachment, rural tourism
Abstract National parks are often national icons and destinations for nature tourists. Park tourism is seen as a substantial cultural, social and economic phenomenon, which is going to be even more important with decreasing space and expanding human populations. Structural changes, such as decreasing primary production, in the economic base of rural communities, have forced communities to seek alternatives in order to maintain their economic viability. Park tourism is identified as an opportunity to strengthen the rural economy in regions that can provide natural amenity values and recreation services. The case study from three national parks in Finland, Seitseminen, Linnansaari and Repovesi National Park, analyses how park visitors relate to the park and surrounding rural area. The purpose of the study was to examine how the place attachment with intervening factors of quality of services and recreation environment explain the intention to visit the area again in the future. Data (N=736) was gathered by a mail questionnaire for park visitors. The majority, 64-71% of visitors planned to visit the park in next five years and 55-68% the area. About 10% of the visitors felt attached to the surrounding countryside of a national park. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied here to test how the hypothesized causal structure fits to observed data. The preliminary results showed that place attachment interacted positively and statistically significantly with the perceived quality of services and recreation environment. Those who were keen to a place are more satisfied to the services and recreation environment. Park visitors’ attachment to a region and satisfaction with the local services and hospitality correlated positively with their intention to revisit the region.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1054 Serial (up) 2648
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Author Riseth, J.Å.,
Title Parks for whom? A Norwegian policy dilemma: recreation vs indigenous interests Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389
Keywords MMV4, Commercial tourism, convention on biological diversity, indigenous interests, IUCN category VI Yellowstone model
Abstract As most countries, Norway has adopted the Yellowstone model for nature protection; limiting humans’ role to be guests in nature. The country established its first national park in 1962. In 2008, 14.3 % of the mainland is formally protected; including 29 national parks, many established newly. Recent decades’ growing concern of the insufficiency of this protection model includes the lack of seeing conservation as a social issue, not only a biological one, was confirmed by the Vth World Park Conference in 2003. The same year the Norwegian government advanced a new policy for increased use of national parks for commercial tourism, named the “Mountain Text”. The fact not addressed is that 18 of 29 parks are situated in Sámi reindeer pasture areas. The contemporary policy has revealed an unexpected conflict of objectives. Whereas the Mountain Text strengthen the goal of recreation, affected Sámi herders fear that parks instead of protection for them will mean increased disturbance of vulnerable animals and areas and accordingly have changed their basic attitudes from being positive to becoming ambiguous towards new parks and park extensions. This is a problem both in equity as well as efficiency perspective and also a source of new conflicts. Norway currently reforms its conservation legislation to reinforce biodiversity protection. Though indigenous interests have not so far become a core issue in this process; this process and the international process under the Convention on Biological Diversity together create a window of opportunities for reconciling conflicting objectives. One of the relevant instruments is the IUCN Category VI, available from 1994, which juxtaposes biodiversity protection and sustainable use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1056 Serial (up) 2649
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Author Sievänen, T.; Neuvonen, M.; Pouta, E.,
Title National park visitors’ interest to use tourism services in rural communities Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 390-395
Keywords MMV4, Nature-based tourism, visitor, visitor segmentation
Abstract National park visitation can have a considerable economic impact in rural areas. It is valuable to understand the factors, which explain the interest and use of tourism services in rural communities in the vicinity of national parks. The aim of this study were to analyse if there were visitor groups whose intention to use the services differed and what kinds of services were the most interesting for these visitor groups. The study focused on the association between the visitor segments based on service use intention, and background factors such as attitudes towards country-side in general, and visitors’ socioeconomic background. Furthermore, the relation between visitor segments and visit intentions and satisfaction were studied. We examined these topics in two regions in Finland, where tourism industry is not a strong economic actor at the present. The data was collected in two national parks, Seitseminen and Linnansaari, in Central and Eastern Finland. The number of responses was 554, and the response rate was 68. Preliminary results show that national park visitors can be divided into two main groups considering the interest in using tourism services. First part of park visitors were outdoor recreation oriented and interested to use non-motorized or motorized outdoor activities such as fishing tours, nature studying excursions and snowmobile safaris. The other part of the park visitors was ‘general tourists’ who were interested mainly in tourism services such as accommodation and restaurants, etc. The visitor groups differed with respect their intention to visit the park and the region, countryside attitudes and socioeconomic background variables. The results of this study may help tourism enterprises in surrounding rural communities to find the right clientele for their services and products. For the park managers this information is valuable when planning the future management policies and actions. The understanding and recognition of visitors’ overall needs, when visiting the park and the surrounding countryside, is also needed by actors such as municipality decision makers and inhabitants of rural communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1058 Serial (up) 2650
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Author Ankre, R.; Petersson Forsberg, L.; Emmelin, L.,
Title Silence – an article of short supply in outdoor recreation? Handling noise conflicts in Swedish planning Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 399-403
Keywords MMV4, Conflicts, noise, planning, outdoor recreation, zoning
Abstract Outdoor recreation areas are exposed to several causes of conflict. Many interests, along with different types of recreation activities, are competing in the same area. In these areas, conflicts are handled by spatial planning and by the separation in space of different functions. One source of conflict is noise. The lack of noisefree areas in the Swedish coastal areas has become an amenity problem. Does this make noise an important problem to consider in planning? An assumption is that the sound environment is relevant for the visitors’ experience; spending time in nature is associated with peace and quiet, where one should not be disturbed. In this study, it will be investigated how silence and noise actually are considered in the Swedish municipal planning. “Silence” is one of the amenity categories reported in the Swedish tourism data base. Is there a discrepancy between the existing municipal planning and the visitors’ opinions, attitudes and experiences? Furthermore, there will be an analysis of how silence and noise could be handled in spatial planning. One possible method is zoning. By excluding certain outdoor recreation activities from some areas, zoning may handle, or at least reduce, the problem of conflicts. The biosphere reserve concept (where zoning is an important part) will for that reason be discussed as a potential tool. A case study of the Blekinge archipelago, Sweden is the foundation of the study, which data consist of planning documents and questionnaire surveys considering outdoor recreation and nature tourism.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1060 Serial (up) 2651
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Author Kalisch, D.; Klaphake, A.,
Title The dilemma of recreational use versus nature protection – Responses from National Park authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 404-408
Keywords MMV4, national park tourism, recreation management, visitor activities, monitoring
Abstract National Parks in Central Europe, which attract millions of visitors annually, are being threatened by a wide variety of negative impacts. In this highly populated region, we find numerous hazards caused by infrastructure, agriculture and tourism. For this reason, preserving the environment is the main goal of the National park authorities. As visitor numbers increase, there is a consequential increase in environmental impacts and conflicts between different visitor groups. In order to balance tourism and conservation and to reduce and minimize negative effects on the ecosystem, authorities implement visitor management strategies. These require specified knowledge about visitor flows, visitor numbers and the main activities undertaken by visitors. Over the past years most european National Parks have adopted periodical visitor monitoring, to gather data about visitor numbers and characteristics. There exists however differences in quality and extent of monitoring programs. With this in mind, we surveyed a number of National Park authorities to gauge their perception of recreation use level, different National Park activities and the application of management tools in the parks. Overall we asked 21 authorities in Austria, Germany and Switzerland to complete a questionnaire which includes questions about current and expected visitor numbers, monitoring of the current recreation use and impacts, measures to control the recreational use, conflicts between nature and tourism and cooperation with other stakeholders in the area. The result of the survey suggests that most of the authorities (81%) simply estimate the recreational use in national park. More than half of authorities anticipate an increase of visitor numbers (especially in National Parks founded in the late 1990s) and none expect that numbers will decrease. They report various suitable protective measures that are in operation and accepted by the National Park visitors. All in all, the authorities consider any negative environmental impacts of visitor activities to be moderate.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1062 Serial (up) 2652
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Author Veress, E.,
Title Green and/or pleasant countryside? Possibilities and barriers of the mountain tourism in Transylvania, Romania Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 409-413
Keywords MMV4, Cultural and natural heritage, mountain tourism, representation of nature, Zetea/Zetelaka
Abstract One of the main changes in the mentality of both the local people and the representatives of the regional and central governments is that the economy of rural areas must not be exclusively based on agriculture. This has been a great gain for those marginal areas that did not have nor the economic nor the natural resources that could help them in developing a sustainable agriculture. Another change of the mentality came from the urban (and not only urban) people who started to appreciate the possibilities of recreation in the rural areas and especially in those ones where the landscape did not change significantly. In literature this change of mentality is most often connected to the postmodern conception of nature and environment. These two elements have led to the elaboration of projects in order to develop alternatives for sustainable rural development. As a consequence, tourism in the remote mountain areas has developed. But the old problem of poor infrastructure can still be considered as being a barrier in the evolution of this type of services. And this seriously affects the number (and quality) of tourists who would come by car or by bus. This attracts another type of tourists (usually younger ones and with less money) who are more attracted to the wilderness of the landscape. The paper intends to present the evolution of mountain tourism through a case-study from a mountain village (Zetea/Zetelaka) from the Eastern part of Transylvania.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1064 Serial (up) 2653
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Author Colson, V.; Lejeune, P.,
Title A regional travel model for predicting the number of visitors in forests: application to the Walloon region Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-421
Keywords MMV4, decay curve, forest recreation, GIS, travel model, Wallonia
Abstract The Walloon forests are visited by local people and tourists but the importance of forest recreation is very different from one part of the Region to another. As it was particularly difficult to obtain quantified information by counting, a model has been built by GIS and taking results from different surveys (telephone survey and face-to-face interviews) into account. This model makes the distinction between local visitors and one-day tourists coming from the neighbouring regions (in a buffer zone of 50 km). A decay curve based on travel time is used for predicting the number of visits throughout all Walloon forests from each departure point. An attraction function is added to the model to attribute each visit to a woodland and different scenarios have been tested to obtain a distribution of people by regions of provenance as similar as the results of surveys. At a regional level, this model is a good alternative for counting and gives a good overview of the forests for which recreation activities are more relevant and have to be taken into account in forest management plans.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1066 Serial (up) 2654
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Author Ligtenberg, A.; Van Marwijk, R.; Moelans, B.; Kuijpers, B.,
Title Recognizing patterns of movements in visitor flows in nature areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 422-427
Keywords MMV4, GIS, Movement Behavior, Spatial Temporal Analyses
Abstract This paper presents some approaches for geo-spatial analysis of movement behavior of visitors of recreational areas. The approaches are bases on the use of moving object databases containing Temporary Annotated Sequences (TAS). The TAS result from the use of GPS or mobile phones for tracking visitors. Two examples are presented for a case study carried out in the Dutch National Park Dwingelderveld. About 461 visitors were tracked using a GPS device. Based on these GPS recordings their trajectories have been reconstructed. The relation between the type of landscape in terms of openness and the speed of movement have been analyzed. Additionally a similarity analyses based on Fréchet analysis shows clusters of movements.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1068 Serial (up) 2655
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Author Van Marwijk, R.; Pitt, D.G.,
Title Where Dutch recreationists walk: path design, physical features and walker usage Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 428-432
Keywords MMV4, environmental values, outdoor recreation, spatial behaviour, physical environment
Abstract A comprehensive understanding of visitor use is fundamental for effective park management. This paper explores recreational spatial behaviour in a protected nature area with a focus on the physical environment. The current research is carried out in Dwingelderveld National Park in the north-eastern part of the Netherlands with approximately 2 million visitors a year. A total of 400 walkers carried a GPS to record their movements. We related spatial patterns to the (visible) physical environment. We characterized the physical environment in (1) the path network and (2) the surrounding environment. The environment is defined by use, experience, and narrative value variables. Hierarchical regression analyses show the importance of the use value variables signage and placement of parking areas as predictors for spatial behaviour. Experience and narrative value variables are less important. For recreational quality purposes, managers should clearly communicate recreational opportunities for each parking area to the public.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1070 Serial (up) 2656
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Author Eisenhut, A.; Haller, R.; Raper, J.,
Title How does topography influence the use of the mobile guide WebParkSNP in the Swiss National Park? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 433-437
Keywords MMV4, Location based services, Swiss National Park, Visitor management, Visitor monitoring
Abstract Since 2005, the Swiss National Park offers a mobile information system called WebParkSNP which provides content about the users surroundings using smart phone services and GPS. Up to now, little is known about the use of Location Based Services (LBS) by visitors of remote and protected areas and about the contents they are interested in. WebParkSNP logs time, location and content of each action the user conducts. Contents are not only pushed but can be accessed from every location. With the consent of 419 users, WebParkSNP’s log files of the summer season 2007 have been analysed in order to compare the user’s actions with the topography of the Park. Topography is composed of specific places (vegetation classes, aspect, and slope of the trail), facilities (resting areas, huts) and viewpoints. The results show that clustering of access occurs on steeper slopes, within facilities, and on viewpoints on certain routes. The content accessed differs between facilities and other places. Nevertheless, these patterns are not only determined by topography but also by behavioural aspects; the use of the guide depends on the daytime and on the distance from the starting point of the walk as well. These results allow the evaluation and improvement of LBS concerning content and locations. In addition, conclusions can be drawn about the development and improvement of other offers in the Park. Further analysis and the integration of other visitor surveys like census and questionnaires will show the potential for more general insights into visitor behaviour in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1072 Serial (up) 2657
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Author Duke, D.; Quinn, M.,
Title Methodological considerations for using remote cameras to monitor the ecological effects of trails users: lessons from research in Western Canada Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 441-445
Keywords MMV4, Remote cameras, access management, monitoring methods, wildlife
Abstract The Livingstone River Area in southwestern Alberta, Canada is an ecologically significant area of public land that provides an important connection between adjacent protected areas. Most of the area is zoned for multiple use; which means the area is available for resource extraction and recreational activity. Recreational use in this area consists primarily of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use, random access camping and fly fishing. Recreational use is largely unmanaged and increasing. The proliferation of trails and campsites has become extensive in the past decade. Furthermore, much of this activity is concentrated along critical riparian movement corridors and in sensitive montane, subalpine and alpine environments. Human use and associated linear disturbance is recognized as among the most significant habitat fragmentation factor limiting sensitive wildlife (especially large carnivores) in the region. We have developed a sampling method that employs remote digital infrared cameras on known human trails and wildlife trails. The cameras have proven to be very effective for monitoring all trail use. We provide a review of our methods, report on the effectiveness of the cameras and provide some guidance on the use of cameras based on the lessons we have learned.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1074 Serial (up) 2658
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Author Skov-Petersen, H.; Kefaloukos, P.; Snizek, B.,
Title Kvintus.org – a choice based agentbased simulation model integrated with Google Maps Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 446-450
Keywords MMV4, Agent-based simulation, choices, Google Map, recreation
Abstract Kvintus.org is a new agent-based simulation tool especially constructed to model recreational behavior integrated with models of animal behavior. The entire model which is available as ‘open source’ is based on the generic software package REPAST [4]. Model configuration – in terms of base parameters, entry points, timetables, agent types and state/transitions – are established, manipulated, loaded and saved via XML-files which enables a high degree of flexibility and user interaction. At run time, agents can be displayed in Google Maps [1]. This way models can be applied in most regions of the World without access to base maps, aerial photos etc. Further – which is probably even more important – using a standard Internet platform like Google Maps it is possible to enable non-expert users to ‘play with’ the models and this way focus more on communicative and participatory aspects.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1076 Serial (up) 2659
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Author Taczanowska, K.; Muhar, A.; Brandenburg, C.,
Title Potential and limitations of GPS tracking for monitoring spatial and temporal aspects of visitor behaviour in recreational areas Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 451-455
Keywords MMV4, GPS, GPS tracking, spatial behaviour, monitoring methods, visitor flows, recreation
Abstract The application of satellite based navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) to record spatial/temporal aspects of visitor behaviour has received more attention in recent years. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potentials and the limitations of GPS-tracking, based on empirical data collected in the Danube Floodplains National Park in Austria (Nationalpark Donau-Auen). A total amount of 485 hiking itineraries were collected in the field using Garmin e-Trex devices. After returning the GPS receiver visitors were interviewed and additionally asked to draw their route on the map. 372 complete records (GPS tracks plus map sketches) were thereby obtained for further analysis. The highly detailed spatial resolution of the data allowed deriving more exact route characteristics compared to traditional data collection methods such as trip diaries. GPS-tracking was more accurate than map sketches in areas with poorly defined trail network. Some respondents were not able to report the exact route, due to insufficient map reading skills or orientation problems in the outdoor environment. In such cases, in particular, the GPS approach proved its intrinsic advantages. Nevertheless, some limitations of the GPS use have also been identified. In particular, problems with the quality of the satellite signal in areas covered by dense deciduous forest turned out to be a major limiting factor for GPS-tracking in the presented National Park setting.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1078 Serial (up) 2660
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Author Wachowicz, M.; Orellana, D.; Renso, C.; Muñoz Moraga, E.; Parada, J.,
Title The spatial knowledge representation of players movement in mobile outdoor gaming Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 456-460
Keywords MMV4, Recreation planning, mobile outdoor gaming, spatial knowlegde representation, ontology
Abstract This paper describes an innovative approach for developing a spatial knowledge representation based on the existence of multi tier spaces as a mental construction of human movement. The three “spaces” paradigm has been proposed to support the reasoning process in terms of sensing, symbolic, and social spaces. The spatial knowledge representation was implemented as a computational ontology in Protégé, and it has been applied to provide new insight about the actual behavioural patterns of players within a recreation site, accordingly to checkpoints and similar players´ interactions. This first experiment consisted of an educational game in Amsterdam using mobile phones and GPS-technology for 200 students having the age of 12-14. The results demonstrate that different types of inferences play a different role accordingly to what a recreational planner needs to infer, that is, the location of interactions among players and the environment.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1080 Serial (up) 2661
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Author Almik, A.; Maran, K.; Karoles, K.; Rammo, M.,
Title Implementation of results of visitor and environmental impact monitoring: an example of Kauksi campsite of the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 463-466
Keywords MMV4, Forest recreation, visitor and environmental impact monitoring, recreational load, campsite condition monitoring, damages on trees, soil vegetation and soil
Abstract Kauksi campsite, located in the recreation area along the northern coast of Lake Peipsi of Estonian State Forest Management Centre, is an area of intensive and long-term recreational use. In the years 2003 and 2007 a permanent monitoring network was established in the area and the environmental situation and its changes were evaluated. Based on the results of the environmental status assessment and visitor monitoring, recommendations were made for improving the campsite condition and an action plan for performing the works was prepared. In 2004-2007 an infrastructure for the protection of campsite and the lakeshore dunes was designed and constructed, and measures of landscape protection were introduced, as a result of which the environmental condition has stabilised and for some indicators, considerably improved. This case shows that in an area of intensive use it is important to know the user and use specifics and, in order to support the periodic assessment of environmental impacts, to continuously monitor environmental status and perform preventive landscape protection works in order to maintain the stable condition and the recreational values of the area.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1082 Serial (up) 2662
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Author Aoki, Y.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Comparative research on outdoor recreation between Austria and Japan Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 467-471
Keywords MMV4, Cross-cultural comparison, outdoor recreational activities, climate, Austria, Japan
Abstract The University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna and the National Institute of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba conducted a research project to identify differences and commonalities in outdoor recreation activities between Austria and Japan. Between 2005 and 2007 the recreational use in several recreational urban and peri-urban areas was investigated in both countries using a range of methods. Standardized data collecting procedures were established for comparative analyses. The results of this cross-cultural research project showed that although different outdoor activities were carried out, several commonalities in recreation use patterns and recreationists’ perceptions were found. This inter-area and cross-cultural comparison of green space users added to the understanding of urban green space use in Japan and Austria. Urban green space management of both countries will benefit from this cross-cultural research project.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1084 Serial (up) 2663
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Author Barbirato, A.; Favaretto, F.; Bottazzo, S.,
Title Peregrine Falcon at Rocca Pendice: a difficult but possible relationship Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 472-474
Keywords MMV4, Protection, Peregrine falcon, alpine climbers
Abstract Among the family of Falconidae, Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) is considered to be the most beautiful and fascinating member of its family. The history and fame of this family dates back to ancient times and the frequent crisis that this species underwent in the years triggered preservation actions that often dealt with climbing and nesting of this bird. The discover in 2001 of a couple of Peregrine falcon that nested on the Eastern cliff of Rocca Pendice brought up the problem of overlapping between the two species (falcon and man) forcing the management of the Colli Euganei Park to assess the situation with LIPU and CAI in order to find a common strategy to solve the problem. From 2001 to nowadays several limitation strategies have been applied with different results depending upon the protected area along with the protection period. The action plans that are hereafter described have proved a positive effect on nesting of the bird. Although climbers have undergone disadvantages because of these decisions we have recorded an increased sensibility in the problem by them that led to a respectful use of the cliff. The encouraging results show how a good collaboration is possible to establish a peaceful cohabitation between sport tourism and endangered species in protected areas.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1086 Serial (up) 2664
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Author Campbell, M.J.; MacKay, K.J.; Walker, D.J.; Dranzoa, C.,
Title Strengthening local support for community tourism (in Uganda) through University – Community Partnerships Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 475-479
Keywords MMV4, Community tourism, GIS, partnerships, Uganda
Abstract Rural poverty, poor environmental health and the resultant threat to biodiversity are significant impediments to sustainable tourism development in Uganda. These problems reinforce one another and are compounded by: a) weak institutional linkages between rural communities, NGOs, universities, government departments and public policy makers; b) deficiencies in community oriented professional skills in sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation; c) the need to transform community attitudes to view parks and protected areas and wildlife as natural capital on which rural livelihoods can be improved; and d) the need for interdisciplinary approaches in higher learning to address intertwined problems of biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism development. The University of Manitoba in co-operation with Makerere University in Uganda has initiated a program to address these issues though the development of: 1) a master’s degree at Makerere University; 2) a strategic partner’s network and; 3) three demonstration projects in communities surrounding national parks. This poster presents initial results that illustrate how the university community-partnership is leading to stronger institutional links to not only the university and community but also to NGOs and government departments while providing much needed capacity building in local communities.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1088 Serial (up) 2665
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Author Eder, R.; Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title Assessment of a passive infrared counter with a remote data transfer facility Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 480-482
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, remote data transfer, video monitoring
Abstract This study evaluated the reliability of the Ecocounter – Ecotwin© equipped with a remote control facility (Eco-GSM-unit) under different conditions. The counter is connected to a modem, which allows transferring data from the counter to the office via internet. We will discuss the reliability of the modem and the influences of the different locations and surroundings on it.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1090 Serial (up) 2666
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Author Fredman, P.; Ernerfeldt Burman, L.,
Title Outdoor recreation in change. A Swedish program on outdoor recreation research Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 483-483
Keywords MMV4, Outdoor, recreation, change, sweden
Abstract Outdoor Recreation in Change is an interdisciplinary research program which will analyze current dynamics of outdoor recreation and nature based tourism in Sweden, forming a thorough knowledge base for future research and monitoring. The program is organized into six projects to emphasize the diversity of outdoor recreation research. (1) The research is integrated through a common empirical arena that includes case studies of recreation landscapes and a national survey to provide information on outdoor recreation activities, participation and constraints. This will give a comprehensive input to five deepening projects: (2) Outdoor recreation patterns (motives, access, urban-rural tensions, gender, immigrants, youth, non-users and trends); (3) Urban proximate nature (outdoor recreational opportunities, economics and health); (4) Outdoor recreation in spatial planning (land use, conflict resolution, impact assessment and local management); (5) Outdoor recreation and nature conservation (integrated land management, environmental education and guiding); and (6) Nature-based tourism for regional development (demand, supply, impacts, protected areas and governance). Communication at three levels (information, dialogue and collaboration) will establish strong linkages and ensure that results are disseminated to a broad group of external stakeholders and practitioners. The program, which is financed by the Environmental Protection Agency, is planned for six years and involves 18 researchers at seven universities in Sweden. This presentation will give an overview of the program, current program activities, and highlights of recent results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1092 Serial (up) 2667
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Author Jodlowski, M.,
Title Climbing management in protected areas of southern Poland Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 484-484
Keywords MMV4, Rock climbing, climbing management, environmental impact, bolts, Southern Poland
Abstract Hundreds of rock cliffs and isolated rocks can be found in Southern Poland within upland, mid-mountain or high-mountain landscapes. Most of these sites are, to a various extent, protected by law – within national parks, landscape parks, nature reserves or nature monuments. They are major tourist attractions for visitors of the respective protected areas who generally do not interfere with cliffs ecosystems. This is not the case with climbing activities which remain a subject of an unremitting controversy.This work focuses on the analysis of the climbing management with respect to the assessment of the impact of climbing activities on cliff environment. Polish environmental law does not regulate climbing management, referring it to the competence of protected area managers. However, in the majority of protected areas management consists only in a total closure of some areas to any climbing activities. Trees have been frequently planted in the vicinity of rocks; rock surfaces on which climbing had been curtailed are now overgrown with mosses and herbaceous vegetation, while natural xerophyte and heliophyte communities have been destroyed. Resulting landscape changes largely decreased many geosites’ attractiveness not only for climbing but tourism in general. Only recently in some climbing areas trees and shrubs in the vicinity of cliffs have been cleared, however, frequently such actions are not previously consulted with reserve or national park managers. With the growing popularity of this type of qualified tourism, it is necessary to create a modern system of climbing management, based on environmental conservation. Conservation and management plans for protected areas should contain detailed regulations of access to particular geosites where climbing activities are to be allowed. Such regulations may impose seasonal closure of particular cliffs or parts of cliffs to climbing during bird nesting periods or closures due to protection of cliff plant communities. Specified should be the types of permitted climbing activities together with protection method. Finally, monitoring of climbing intensity and environmental impact should be carried out for sustainable tourism development
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1094 Serial (up) 2668
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Author Kahler, A.; Arnberger, A.,
Title A comparison of passive infrared counter results with time lapse video monitoring at a shared urban recreational trail Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 485-489
Keywords MMV4, Passive infrared sensor, shared trail, video monitoring, Vienna
Abstract This study compared two visitor counting methods at a heavily used multi-use access trail to the Donau-Auen National Park in Vienna, Austria. We compared visitor numbers gained by video monitoring with passive infrared counter results (Ecocounter – Ecotwin©). Both devices were installed at the same place and recorded the recreation use along the trail between December 2007 and January 2008. During daylight the video camera took pictures every 1.6 seconds. Counting by Ecotwin resulted in 3477 counts, while the total amount of counts by video monitoring was 4405. We will discuss causes for the differences in visitor numbers, and the pro and cons of both methods.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1096 Serial (up) 2669
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Author Karacsonyi, J.; Karacsonyi, Z.,
Title Solutions for a new challenge in the field of visitor flows: paragliding and nature protection Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 490-490
Keywords MMV4, Paragliding, visitor flows, harmonization efforts, stakeholders’ workshop
Abstract One segment of the increasing number of visitors of nature areas are the visitors with sporting purpose. Among these the technical sports have essentially different characteristics. The relationship between exercisers of technical sports and nature, landscape involves the possibility of a non-harmonic relation and notrarely the fact of that. We delineate the characteristics of the paragliding sport its practice and its relationship with nature, landscape by examining the Hungarian situation. We review the status of the paragliding sport, the increasing number of sportsman and the paragliding clubs. We introduce the decisive authorisation procedures of paragliding (Civil Aviation Authority of Hungary, nature conservation) and its adaptation and problems. Presentation of the outcome of the workshop organized with the presence of the concerned parties (paragliders, national parks, aviation authorities) which was set up to formulate and negotiate the interest and opinion of the actors. It was the first time that a workshop gave the opportunity for the reconciliation, harmonization of the two differing demand. Tasks of the near future was formulated for create a long lasting co-operation between the paragliding sport and the demand for protecting the natural values.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1098 Serial (up) 2670
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Author Kissling, M.,
Title The impact of experimental trampling on the biodiversity of beech forests: basic knowledge for the management of urban forest for recreation Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 491-491
Keywords MMV4, Experimental trampling, soil enzyme activity, outdoor recreation, urban forest, ground vegetation
Abstract In the last few years forests became an important function as natural recreation sites, especially in the surroundings of urban areas. Nowadays, large numbers of forest visitors can lead to conflicts between recreation and nature conservation The extent of damage to the forest vegetation depends not only on the kind of recreational activity and frequency of visitors, but also on the type of soil and forest vegetation. The effects of trampling on soil microorganisms and the level of disturbance that will cause changes are mostly unknown. In order to gain a better understanding of these relationships I investigated the effect of different trampling regime – single trampling versus repeated trampling – on the ground vegetation, soil microbial biomass and the activity of dehydrogenase (an indicator for the total metabolic activity of soil micro-organisms), glucosidase and phosphomonoesterase (both key enzymes in the nutrient cycle)
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1100 Serial (up) 2671
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Author Marandola, D.; Raschi, A.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Are Natura2000 SPAs and SACs perceived by local communities like important elements for local development? The case study of Fortore-Alto Tammaro, a rural area on the mid-southern Apennines Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 492-493
Keywords MMV4, Natural resources, eco-agri-tourism, rural development
Abstract Apenninic areas cover a wide part of the italian surface and represent an important element of conservation for cultural, biological, economical and social diversity. Many difficulties, however, expose these internal areas to high risks of abandonment and loss of diversity. A long-run research project aims to calibrate action models for sustainable rural development based on eco-agri-tourism, also to promote conservation and knowledge of local natural resources.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1102 Serial (up) 2672
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Author Marandola, D.; Malvolti, M.E.; Tognetti, R.,
Title Biodiversity and rural development: the case-study of the “Shepherd’s walnut”. An action model for sustainable rural development shaped on the peculiar features of a rural area Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 494-496
Keywords MMV4, Biodiversity, local resources, rural development
Abstract Walnut tree, for nutritional value, wood and its connections to local culture and society, is a very typical product of the Apennine rural areas. Anyway, the economical value of the traditional/local varieties is today very reduced and this may expose rural areas to a loss of biodiversity, cultural values and landscape elements. FIMONT is a research project which aims to calibrate action models to increase the value of mountain traditional food products. The research, starting from some specific morpho-genetic analisys carried out by IBAF, has considered the possibility to increase the value of local walnut calibrating a model based on the peculiar features of the rural territory. An ancient path for sheeps transhumance has been choosen like a “red line” for the model.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1104 Serial (up) 2673
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Author Maresi, G.; Didonato, F.,
Title Towards a sustainable tourism for the Italian mountains: the role of CAI Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 497-501
Keywords MMV4, Alpine club, climbing, hiking, refuges, protected area
Abstract Since its foundation in 1863, The “Club Alpino Italiano” has been playing an active and often decisive role for the invention, the spread and the development of mountain tourism either on Alps and Apennines. In the last years this role has been more and more related to a clear attention to sustainability and protection of mountain environment. Both Association’ activities (hiking, climbing, caving and sky-tourism) and structures (refuges and paths) were object of a practical and cultural work aimed to reduce impact especially in protected areas. For activities, the main work is still based on improving knowledge of mountain environment in association members during technical formation courses, focusing to all the attentions to be adopted to avoid damages at wildlife and vegetation. Refuges proved to be experimental sites for innovative application of alternative source of energy and new solution of waste management. Creation of new paths and management of old ones are now carried out following practical criteria adopted at national scale and aiming to reduce damages due to erosion and impact on vegetation and wildlife. A GIS approach for excursionist paths net has been adopted in different situation, proving effective as a tool for a environmentally sustainable planning and management. Parks and protected area were strongly supported by CAI in the last years, when the Association was between the more active promoters of new protected areas. A strong collaboration is now working on with Parks, both national and regional: the target is a responsible frequentation protection of mountain endangered habitat.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1106 Serial (up) 2674
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Author Roberts, J.,
Title An audience based approach to communication intervention Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 502-504
Keywords MMV4, Audience-based communication, Codes of conduct, Recreational impacts
Abstract Communication Interventions (CIs) are often used by the environmental and outdoor sectors to try to manage and mitigate the impacts of recreation. This research audited the CIs currently being used in Wales, reviewed the process of creating them and explored the way that audiences gather and responded to advice, instruction and guidance. It found that currently most CIs are too narrow in their delivery and do not consider behaviour change sufficiently, tending to over focus on the message. The study recommends that CIs should utilise a broad range of integrated media, linked, if possible, to direct ‘points of contact’. A guide to creating effective audience based CIs is being developed using the results and recommendations.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1108 Serial (up) 2675
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Author Melendez, G.C.N.; Magro, T.C.,
Title Can tourism change the traditional use of Potsotaroki (Trichilia pallida)? Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 505-509
Keywords MMV4, Asháninka People, Indigenous handcraft, Potsotaroki, Trichilia pallida
Abstract The traditional people who live from the resources that come from the forest had kept an almost symbiotic relation with their surrounding land, using the resources. However the contact with factors that are different from their culture, including tourism, can generate variations in the way of traditional handling, causing impacts in the environment. In this paper we analyze the traditional employment of the tree bark from “Potsotaroki” (Trichilia pallida), used as dye in the production of cotton handcrafts. The evaluated factors have the goal of registering the status of this forest species, and its relation with the natural process of insertion of the indigenous communities in the dominant social system. The research was done in an Asháninka community, from the high forest in the Peruvian Amazon.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1110 Serial (up) 2676
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Author García-Ventura, D.; Tejedo, P.; Muñoz-Santos, M.; Benayas, J.,
Title Potential interpretation index: a tool for assessing landscape diversity from pathways Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 510-510
Keywords MMV4, Landscape, pathways, ecological divesity index
Abstract Nowadays, a well developed net of pathways allows people to enjoy nature in countryside. Into natural protected areas, the pathway network is generally used to bring closer natural /cultural values and visitors. However, the design of these interpretation pathways usually doesn’t bear in mind how much representative are them to make a complete visit through all landscapes of the natural protected area. We have developed an index based on useful and popular ecological diversity index (Shannon-Wiener, 1948), which has been applied to 56 pathways open to visitors in 6 Spanish National Parks. This Potential Interpretation Index takes into account several factors with high attractiveness to visitors, like environmental units, water bodies and slopes. In addition, we consider these topics either crossed by the pathways than observed from these ones. Spatial data was processed by GIS tools in order to obtain landscape diversity and viewshed from each pathway in these National Parks. The result of this work is an index easier to apply in natural protected areas and the whole countryside, in order to asses its significance for interpretation activities and for guaranteeing a representative visit to the area. This tool could be added to others planning models in natural protected areas management, with the aim of reconcile conservation and visitors use.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1112 Serial (up) 2677
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Author Saparbayev, S.K.; Woodward, D.B.,
Title Snow leopard (Uncia uncia) as an indicator species and increasing recreation loads in the Almaty Nature Reserve Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 511-515
Keywords MMV4, Snow leopard (Uncia uncia), Siberian ibex (Capra sibirica), Almaty Nature Reserve, Kazakhstan, ecotrail
Abstract The purpose of this research is to analyze the data on ecology, biology and dynamics of snow leopard population in the Almaty Nature Reserve and to identify if the increasing numbers of ecotourists could contribute to the decrease of Uncia uncia population. The results of the study show that increasing recreation loads in the Reserve and adjacent territories elevate the disturbance level to the snow leopard’s main prey Siberian Ibex and to the predator itself that could result in a decrease of population of this endangered species or its total extinction.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1114 Serial (up) 2678
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Author Takayama, N.,
Title The therapeutic effect of taking in the atmosphere of a forest Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 516-520
Keywords MMV4, Profile of mood states, Semantic differential method, Taking in the atmosphere of the forest (Sinrin-yoku), Therapeutic effect
Abstract The concept of “Taking in the atmosphere of a Forest” (shinrin-yoku, in Japanese) was proposed in 1982 by the Japanese Forestry Agency to help people to relax and revitalize their body and soul (therapeutic effect). Previously, the therapeutic effect had been based on only empirical evidence. However, thanks to the rapid improvement of measurement technology and equipment, the government has been scientifically examining the therapeutic effect of forests and using the resulting data for the benefit of the public. The effect is thought to differ depending on the kinds of trees, the spatial structure and the specific atmosphere of the forest environment. Therefore, we decided to study the therapeutic effect of two old-growth forests. As a control, we selected a wellmaintained artificial forest. We measured and compared the therapeutic effect on the subjects, paying attention to 1) their impression of the forest space and 2) how their feeling changed after walking through each forest. Consequently, we found that subjects considered the old-growth forests with huge trees as more sacred, more comfortable, more serene and more natural than the control forest. Moreover, in the control forest there was no difference in any of the indicators used in the survey, while in the old-growth forests the therapeutic effect was confirmed by several indicators.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1116 Serial (up) 2679
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Author Thaxter, P.; Colas, S.,
Title Public participation Forests – conserve, protect, enjoy Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 521-521
Keywords MMV4, Public participation, forest, wildlife monitoring
Abstract The PROGRESS Project is a joint EU funded project between France (Office National des Forêts and Comité Départemental du Tourisme de Seine et Marne), England (Forestry Commission and Natural England) and the Netherlands (Alterra Research Institute). It aims at improving recreation management in the New Forest (120 km south of London) and Fontainebleau Forest (60 km south of Paris), both protected areas. The main objective was to use a range of tools for a better understanding of forest biodiversity and recreation to help reconcile the needs of conservation and recreation. The strategy was to work closely with stakeholder groups and the general public using a participatory approach to help plan the environment for local people and tourists whilst optimising the benefit for the wildlife. This involved very detailed recreation surveys and information about ecological issues being discussed with the stakeholders, to allow changes about channelling the public and alternative facilities off Natura 2000 to be proposed. This was followed by consultation with the public to get acceptance and ownership of these proposals. This led to a variety of actions being implemented including totally new facilities, signage and access control. It also involved a communication program, sustainability program, and other initiatives such as computer-based lessons for schools, promotion of health walks and best practice guides. All of this was done in differing ways in France and England, and the presentation will document the clear success this had in legitimising management changes required for a sustainable balance, and also some insight to lessons learnt. This is being followed up by a five year program of recreation and wildlife monitoring to give long term results.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1118 Serial (up) 2680
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Author Vaccari, F.; Baronti, S.; Magno, R.; Trampetti, S.; Giannini, F.; Raschi, A.,
Title TuristiCO2: a carrying capacity assessment for sustainable tourism in a park island Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 522-525
Keywords MMV4, Carrying Capacity, Carbon Sequestration, Greenhouse effect, Park Islands
Abstract Carrying capacity has been a long-standing issue in management of parks, outdoor recreation and tourism. This paper describes the first analysis concerning a project on touristic carrying capacity assessment on Pianosa, an island of the Parco Nazionale of Arcipelago Toscano, using an Eddy-Covariance tower for CO2 fluxes measurement. The preliminary results show that Pianosa represents a sink of carbon, thus actively contribute to reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 1120 Serial (up) 2681
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