||A growing body of research reveals the important contribution that nature exposure and national parks and protected areas (NPPAs) make(s) to hu-man health and well-being (Lemieux et al., 2012; Romagosa et al., 2015). According to the studies, NPPAs can contribute to people mental health, psychological and physiological health, scien-tific/local knowledge accumulation and educa-tion, emotional improvement, transcendental experience, happiness, enjoyment, social net-work, reflection, self-actualization, personal growth, inspiration, quality of life, etc. Meanwhile, cultural ecosystem service (CES) studies also draw wide attention. The ES framework was promoted by the United Nations to better understand relationships between eco-system changes and human well-being develop-ment. And now, the framework is advocated by many researchers to be used as a decision-making tool to better govern and manage ecosystems and natural resources, and as well as to achieve human/citizen well-being. Scholars pointed out that CES and its contribution to psychological well-being is very important for visitor manage-ment (Willis, 2015); ES researchers also explored CES as beneficial outcomes of PA visitor activities (Roux et al., 2020). However, still few attentions were paid to the spatial distribution of visitor CES enjoyment and the corresponding benefit per-ception in a national park.In China, many NPPAs have long histories and are homes of local residents. National parks are usually combinations of many different types of protected areas from the former PA system. For example, Wuyishan Pilot (designated in 2016), our study area, is integrated from five former different types of protected areas (At-tachment figure 1), which are Wuyishan National Nature Reserve (1979), Wuyishan National Scenic and Historic Area (NSHA) (1982), Jiuqu River Na-tional Aquatic Germplasm Resource Reserve of Spinibarbus hollandi (2011), Wuyishan National Forest Park (2004) and Wuyi Tianchi National For-est Park (2013), and five other non-protected tourist resorts. Also, the national park area is largely overlapped with Mount Wuyi World Mixed Nature and Culture Heritage Site Area.Meanwhile, traditional Chinese and mod-ern global values make dual impacts on Chinese visitors. As traditional Chinese view of environ-ment follows a tian ren he yi (the unity of man and heaven) philosophy, which guide most Chi-nese PA visitors behaviors (Xu et al., 2014), out-door recreation fashion also influences many other visitors. Their motivational differences and cultural divergences (Cui et al., 2015) can result in totally different national park visitation para-digms, and thus different CES enjoyment and benefits perceptions.