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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Itkonen, P.J., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Monitoring Sustainable Nature Tourism in Practice – Experiences From Pyhä-Luosto National Park, Finland Type
  Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 56-57  
  Keywords MMV3, Sustainability, nature tourism, limits of acceptable change (LAC), national park  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 592 Serial 2420  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title The role of recreation demand and supply information in monitoring outdoor recreation sustainability Type
  Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 139-143  
  Keywords MMV4, Database applications, nature tourism, outdoor recreation, sustainability, visitor monitoring  
  Abstract Metsähallitus bears major responsibility for the development of tourism in Finland’s state-owned protected and recreational areas. In order to further develop the existing potential for high-quality recreation and nature tourism in these areas, Metsähallitus is implementing a set of key measures for the development of sustainable nature tourism. The measures are applied through sustainable nature tourism management plans, which are implemented in all areas in which recreation and/or nature tourism exists to a significant degree. An essential aspect of the drafting process of the sustainable nature tourism management plans is the setting of standards, i.e. limits, of acceptable change for selected sustainable recreation and nature tourism criteria by means of participatory planning. Metsähallitus started out with an extensive range of applicable criteria. On the basis of experiences gained from pilot projects and a targeted evaluation and selection process, the number of criteria was subsequently significantly narrowed down to a set of around 20 key criteria. This was found to be a manageable and effective number once the most essential variables had been selected and their measurement standardised. For information management, Metsähallitus uses database applications for the demand and supply data, which can be used to produce reports on current figures and trends, ranging in scale from individual areas to regions and to the national level. This paper describes the development process of the approach and methods applied by Metsähallitus in monitoring the sustainability of outdoor recreation and nature tourism in Finland. In addition, a case study example from Pyhä-Luosto National Park is used to illustrate the system at the park level.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 950 Serial 2596  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Sievänen, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Standardisation of Visitor Surveys – Experiences from Finland Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-257  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A visitor survey standardisation project was conducted in 1998-2000 in Finland. The visitor survey standardisation project was part of a large national outdoor recreation demand and supply inventory (LVVI). There are two reasons for the standardisation of visitor surveys. First, it is possible to collect comparable information from different kind of areas. Moreover, the information gathered can be combined on a national level. Secondly, standardised measurements assure long-term monitoring of behavioural changes in each studied area. The visitor survey standardisation project developed a standardised questionnaire for the most important information gathered with the help of visitor surveys, that is visitor profiles, activities, distribution of use by area, distribution of use by time, duration of the visit, expenditure of visitors and information on visitor satisfaction and motivation. It is recommended that the data collection be carried out by means of self-conducted questionnaires. The project produced a visitor survey manual and a Microsoft Excel application for computing descriptive results in order to encourage the personnel of recreation areas to conduct visitor surveys independently. The implementation of standardised visitor surveys is mainly carried out by Metsähallitus (Forest and Park Service) which manages the majority of the state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas in Finland. At the beginning of 2002, there were 33 national parks, 7 state-owned hiking areas and some 400 other protected areas. About two million recreational visits take place annually in state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas. The number of recreational visits seems to be on the increase. All together 22 different visitor surveys have been conducted in state-owned areas in the last few years. The results of some of the surveys have almost immediately been used in management and planning of the area in question. In general, there is increasing understanding and interest in the use of visitor information as a tool in decision making: services can be improved to meet visitor expectations better and scarce resources can be allocated more effectively. Along with visitor surveys, systematical visitor counts have recently been started using electronic trail and traffic counters, guest books or manual counters in several protected and recreational areas. At the moment, the next step will be to develop a national database of the collected information, and also to develop good practice in order to benefit from the information on a national level. This paper discusses, firstly, the structure and type of information that is needed from a visitor survey, secondly, how to conduct a visitor survey as a routine method in planning processes, and the framework within which visitor information can be utilised in planning and management. Thirdly, the Finnish experience of the benefits to be gained by using a standardised model for conducting visitor surveys is discussed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 488 Serial 2307  
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Author (up) Kajala, L.; Erkkonen, J.; Perttula, M., pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Measures for Developing Sustainability of Nature Tourism in Protected Areas Type
  Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 236-241  
  Keywords MMV2  
  Abstract Nature protection areas are often significant and attractive recreation areas and tourist destinations. In Finland, Metsähallitus manages most of state owned protected areas. Thus, Metsähallitus also has a significant responsibility for tourism development in these areas. As a part of a larger Metsähallitus project to promote sustainable nature tourism in protected areas, the organization has developed measures for estimating the environmental impacts of nature tourism in protected areas. The measures are derived from Metsähallitus’ nine principles of for sustainable nature tourism, including the aspects of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability. The indicators have been tested in six pilot areas across Finland. This article describes the process of developing indicators, and the ways in which the indicators are being and will be used through incorporating them into the overall planning process. Sustainability is approached by setting standards, i.e. defining the limits of acceptable change, for each indicator. While some of the indicators are ready to be used, further development and testing is still required.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 344 Serial 2380  
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Author (up) Rauhala, J.; Erkkonen, J.; Iisalo, H., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Standardisation of Visitor Counting– Experiences from Finland Type
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 258-263  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract In 2000 we started to test visitor counters for the Natural Heritage Services of Southern Finland, in the Teijo Hiking Area. At the same time we tested both an appropriate method for visitor counting and counting equipment. Encouraged by this experience, we started systematic visitor counting in nine southern national parks in 2001. Traditional everyman's rights (right of public access) guarantee all people – Finnish or otherwise – free access to Finland's forests, whether the forests be privately or publicly owned. This makes reliable visitor counting difficult, but at the same time extremely challenging. The main reason for visitor counting is the fact that the total number of visitors is not known well enough in protected and recreational areas. We also need to have comparable and reliable visitor information from different types of area and in the long run we need to know the trends as regards the number of visitors. Besides being very important for Metsahallitus itself, the reliable estimates we are able to produce are also of great regional significance. Visitors can be counted by electronic and mechanical counters of different kinds. We have four types of counter in use. Three electronic types can be used in trail and traffic counting and also indoors. In addition there is one mechanical type which can be used indoors, for example. At the moment the Natural Heritage Services of Southern Finland have about 40 counters in use. Each counter calculates visitors somewhat differently, depending on the installation of the counter, its placement and the quality of the counter. Also, different weather conditions may affect the counters. For these reasons, each counter must be calibrated independently, after which each counter has its own coefficient. After calibration one can calculate the counter’s final result. Thereafter it is possible to calculate the estimated total number of visitors in a specific area. Metsahallitus also carries out visitor counting in other parts of Finland, but not yet as systematically as in southern Finland. Naturally there is a connection between visitor surveys and visitor counting, as both qualitative and quantitative information is important in planning and management processes. This paper presents practical experiences of visitor counting from the Finnish perspective. The presentation deals with the process of planning visitor counting, the special equipment needed in counting and ways of transforming the figures from the calculators into estimates of the number of visits in a specific area. In addition, the results of a pilot study from the Teijo Hiking Area are presented as a case.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 490 Serial 2308  
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Author (up) Tapaninen, M., Kajala, L., Erkkonen, J., Aarnio, M., pdf  url
doi  isbn
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  Title Healthy parks healthy people Finland Type
  Year 2012 Publication The 6th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Outdoor Recreation in Change – Current Knowledge and Future Challenges Abbreviated Journal NULL  
  Volume MMV 6 - Proceedings Issue NULL Pages 320-321  
  Keywords MMV6  
  Abstract NULL  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 516 Serial 2960  
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Author (up) Virkkunen,V.; Erkkonen, J.; Kajala, L.; Aarnio,M.; Mansikkaviita, R.; Lepikkö,T.; Kaikkonen, H.; Korpelainen, R. pdf  url
isbn  openurl
  Title Identifying health and wellbeing benefits perceived by visitors in Finnish protected areas Type
  Year 2014 Publication The 7th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas: Local Community and Outdoor Recreation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 7 - Proceedings Issue Pages 130-131  
  Keywords MMV7  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Serial 3126  
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