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Author (up) Cole, D.N.,
Title The significance of recreation impacts: The importance of scale Type
Year 2008 Publication Management for Protection and Sustainable Development Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 4 - Proceedings Issue Pages 53-53
Keywords MMV4, Recreation ecology, special scale, ecological impact
Abstract Recreation managers often consider the ecological impacts of recreation to be serious problems that need to be mitigated. Conversely, protected area ecologists often consider such impacts to be trivial. Such differences of opinion result from applying divergent evaluative criteria to assessing the significance of recreation impacts. It reflects lack of attention to questions of significance and, in particular, inadequate exploration of scale issues in recreation ecology. Impacts might be considered significant if they represent a substantial loss of ecological integrity or if they are perceived by recreation users to be highly disagreeable. Although not mutually exclusive, impacts on ecological integrity and human perception provide different criteria for evaluating significance. Cole and Landres [1] propose that the ecological significance of an impact is a function of both impact and attribute characteristics. Significance increases with the areal extent, intensity and longevity of the impact and with the rarity and irreplaceability of the impacted attribute. To be significant, from the perspective of human perception, the impacts have to be noticeable. In addition, the most disagreeable impacts are one’s that result from what is considered inappropriate behavior. Given these relevant criteria, this paper explores research that can help in assessing the significance of ecological impacts and suggests which impacts are likely to be most critically important. In particular, the paper reviews what is known about the spatial scale of impacts, since this is relevant to assessing both the areal extent of impacts and how noticeable impacts are. The impacts that are most significant perceptually are often quite different from the impacts that are ecologically most significant.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 898 Serial 2571
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Author (up) Cole, D.N.,
Title Recreation Ecology: Learning from the Past Type
Year 2006 Publication Exploring the Nature of Management Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 3 - Proceedings Issue Pages 89-90
Keywords MMV3, Recreation ecology, visitor impacts
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 610 Serial 2429
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Author (up) Cole, D.N.,
Title Monitoring and Management of Recreation in Protected Areas: the Contributions and Limitations of Science Type
Year 2004 Publication Policies, Methods and Tools for Visitor Management Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 2 - Proceedings Issue Pages 10-17
Keywords MMV2
Abstract Scientists assist protected area managers by developing information and knowledge that can be used to better monitor and manage recreation use and its impacts. Most recreation management decisions have both a descriptive and an evaluative component. There is widespread consensus that science is well suited to discovering, synthesizing and applying descriptive information. This paper provides an overview of some of the most significant contributions of science to visitor monitoring and management. It covers the related scientific purposes of explanation, causation, prediction and assessment. As scientific enquiry moves from description to evaluation, from facts to values, from providing statements of “what is” to providing statements of “what ought to be”, it ventures into more contested territory. While some advocate a substantial role for science in the establishment of normative standards about what ought to be, others believe science should be very cautious in this arena. Recreation examples, largely drawn from wilderness management in the United States, are provided.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 296 Serial 2356
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Author (up) Cole, D.N.,
Title Simulation of Recreational Use in Backcountry Settings: an Aid to Management Planning Type
Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal
Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 478-482
Keywords MMV1
Abstract Simulation models of recreation use patterns can be a valuable tool to managers of backcountry areas, such as wilderness areas and national parks. They can help fine-tune existing management programs, particularly in places that ration recreation use or that require the use of designated campsites. They can assist managers in evaluating the likely effects of increasing recreation use and the implementation of new management programs. They also can be used as a monitoring tool, being particularly helpful in predicting encounter levels in the interior as a function of easily measured counts of recreationists entering the area. The first backcountry travel simulation models were developed in the 1970s. They were never widely used, however, primarily because simulation runs were costly and difficult. Recent improvements in computer technology have ushered in a new era of travel simulation modeling.
Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 570 Serial 2347
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