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Author (up) Aoki, Y.; FujitaHitoshi; Aoki, K., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Measurement and analysis of congestion at the traditional Japanese garden “Korakuen” Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 264-270  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Nature and greenery spaces are especially required in the high-density residential areas of Megalopolis in Japan. People are looking for rich greenery spaces and they are requiring for the preservation of the greenery space in redeveloping areas. But people have recently found that parks often were too crowded, when they visited them for enjoying a quiet greenery environment. Almost all old Japanese cities have parks in traditional garden style, which have been opened to the public since Meiji revolution, i.e. a hundred years ago. Originally, the gardens were possession of the Daimyo, i.e. the feudal lord, and they were enjoyed privately. Recent increase in visitors destroyed the original use pattern and the unique atmosphere, and this, of course, confused the management of the park administration. The administration and the users therefore encouraged investigations concerning the appropriate management of park as a pleasant environment. To find a preferable carrying capacity of green spaces, the impression of congestion and quietness was analyzed in a traditional Japanese garden, using the number of visitors as an indicator. The following results were obtained. The impression of congestion is significantly correlated with the number of visitors in the park, and 700 persons on 7 hectares generates the impression of congestion for a half of visitors. To satisfy the impression of quietness for more than a half of visitors, their numbers must be reduced to less than 400 persons for 7 hectares. The decreasing in number of visitors provides a more efficient impression of congestion than that of increasing.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 494 Serial 2310  
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Author (up) Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor Structure of a Heavily Used Conservation Area: The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 7-13  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract National parks in close proximity to large conurbations are not subject to the normal conflicts between conservation and ecological tourism but to those between conservation and urban recreational requirements. The Danube Floodplains National Park, Lower Austria is situated to the east of Vienna, the capital city of Austria, with a population of 1.6 million. Between June 2000 and May 2001, visitors were monitored in the Lower Austrian part of the National Park. An analysis of the results of the interviews, as well as their integration with the results obtained using long-term video monitoring, counts by human observers and route analysis, led to the identification of specific visitor categories with individual behavioral patterns and spatio-temporal distribution. In particular, regular recreational visitors from adjacent residential areas were very concerned about overcrowding and would react to the high visitor frequency through a change in their habits. This alteration of visiting habits would lead to grave problems for the environmental management of the National Park.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 412 Serial 2269  
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Author (up) Arnberger, A.; Brandenburg, C.; Muhar, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Preface Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages I-II  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 383 Serial 2266  
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Author (up) Arzac, S., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Environment and Rural Tourism in Bustamante, Mexico Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 384-389  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The community is Bustamante, population 3,501, in Nuevo Leon state, Mexico. It is a privileged rural landscape, made fertile in the middle of a semi-desert by springs that flow year-round. And in the vicinity of the oasis lie the internationally known caverns known locally as Grutas de Palmito. The problem are the pressures of recreation on the environment: day excursionists who come in great numbers are causing erosion near the water, both around the springs and along the river that flows from them. The waters that used to be clear are now murky because of the soil deposition. And in the cave, the visitors walk freely in the gallery spaces and trample on the formations. But because the local tourism industry is nature-based, it is imperative to conserve the natural resources that make it possible. This research considers the potential of what has come to be known as sustainable tourism to promote economic development in Bustamante and possibly in similar communities, not by replacing the agricultural base but by complementing it. Data were obtained from observations, interviews, survey questionnaires, from the Mexican census, from the regional newspaper, and from the literatures on sustainable tourism and history of the region. The study proposes that the natural and cultural resources of Bustamante had been largely conserved until recently, and that the present accelerated degradation of these resources can be reversed through approaches to sustainability that are related to tourism, so that Bustamante’s people meet their present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, measured against the standard of living currently enjoyed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 532 Serial 2329  
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Author (up) Blazejczyk, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Some Problems of Tourist Activity in the Tatra National Park Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 417-420  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Tatra Mts. is an unique alpine ridge in Poland.. The whole Polish part of Tatra is a protected area as a national park (Tatry National Park – TNP). Its area is 21,164 ha. Every year 2.5 millions of tourists visit TNP. Tourist activity is one of the factor of nature degradation in Tatras. The most transformed are the areas with the greatest tourist penetration: Morskie Oko lake, Kasprowy Wierch Mt. and Koscieliska valley. The paper presents preliminary results of the studies dealing with the problems of tourist penetration in the Morskie Oko (MO) and Kasprowy Wierch (KW) regions. In the MO area needs and desires of tourists, time budget during stay at the place and tourists’ evaluation of infrastructure were studied with the use of special questionnaires. At Kasprowy Wierch the streams of tourists were observed. The number of tourists on each tourist track crossing KW was accounted. The results of the studies point to great diversity of tourist activity in TNP (making pictures, enjoying nature, walking in the surroundings, climbing, relax). The results can be useful for managing of tourist activity, for making corrections in TNP protection system and for establishing the methods minimising degradation of tourist tracks and its surroundings.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 544 Serial 2335  
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Author (up) Brandenburg, C.; Ploner, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Models to Predict Visitor Attendance Levels and the Presence of Specific User Groups Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 166-172  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper proposes approaches to modeling visitor flows in the context of weather and outdoor recreation. The nature conservation area and area under investigation the Lobau, which is a part of the Danube Floodplains National Park, lies in close proximity to the large conurbation of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. This circumstance presents the managers and researchers of the Lobau with a variety of challenging problems, due to the high number of visitors and the multifaceted visitor structure. An ecologically and economically sustainable management of the recreation and conservation area Lobau requires a profound knowledge of the uses visitors make of this area and a reliable prediction of the potential numbers of visitors. The investigation of the prognostic model is based on the results of a visitor monitoring project. Within this project, video-cameras were installed at several entrance points to the Lobau to monitor recreational activities throughout one year. The prognostic models were based on the dependence of the daily number of visitors on external factors such as weather and day of the week. Using a linear regression, these relationships were investigated and used to predict visitor loads. For the model, a distinction was made between workdays and weekends and/or holidays. The weather was considered in a very differentiated way: Meteorological elements, i.e. air temperature, cloud cover, precipitation, appear directly as parameters in the models as well as indirectly in thermal comfort indices, e.g. the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). Reliable models can be obtained for the daily totals of visitors as well as for specific user groups with high visitor loads, i.e. hikers and bikers. The day of the week has the greatest influence on the daily totals of visitors as well as on individual user groups. The numbers of bikers and hikers depend heavily on the Physiological Equivalent Temperature. The effects of precipitation and cloud cover during the preceding seven days are small. The usage patterns of joggers and dog walkers are more difficult to model as they are less influenced by the day of the week and weather related factors.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 462 Serial 2294  
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Author (up) Burns, R.C.; Graefe, A.R., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Segmentation of Outdoor Recreationists: A Comparison of Recreationists’ Perceptions of Importance and Satisfaction Across Activities Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 122-128  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore levels of importance and satisfaction with various attributes of customer service among selected segments of outdoor recreationists. The study also examined the nature of the relationships between satisfaction attributes and overall satisfaction. These relationships were tested for four dimensions of satisfaction (facilities, services, information, and recreation experience), across three water-based user groups (ramp users, campers, and day users). This study builds on previous customer satisfaction research conducted by both consumer behavior specialists and recreation researchers. In congruence with previous research on customer satisfaction, many of the constructs associated with quality in a recreation environment are intangible, elusive, and extremely difficult to measure. Study results showed that there are significant differences between different segments of users in reported levels of importance and satisfaction with various aspects of a recreational visit, but the nature of the relationships between the various domains and overall satisfaction varies little across the user segments.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 450 Serial 2288  
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Author (up) Cessford, G., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Perception and Reality of Conflict: Walkers and Mountain Bikes on the Queen Charlotte Track in New Zealand Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 102-108  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A variety of social and physical impacts are attributed to mountain biking. In many cases, the perception of these impacts differs from the reality of on-site experiences. This distinction is explored in two ways. First, a brief review of impact issues associated with mountain bikes is carried out. Second, results are presented from a survey of 370 walkers on a multi-day natural track where biking has been allowed on a trial basis. Walker opinions are surprisingly positive toward bikes. These opinions are found to be more positive among those walkers who had actual encounters with bikes. By contrast, more negative opinions were found among those who had no such encounters. Such distinctions between perception of a conflict and the actual outcome from an experience have important implications for park managers responsible for providing a range of different recreation opportunities.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 444 Serial 2285  
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Author (up) Cessford, G.; Cockburn, S.; Douglas, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Developing New Visitor Counters and their Applications for Management Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 14-20  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Developing visitor flow models for managing visitors to conservation areas is not possible without accurate visitor count data from the field. However, obtaining such counts in a reliable and cost-effective manner has proven to be more difficult than may be expected. Reasons for this are reviewed, and the features that park managers want in their visitor counting tools are discussed. Based on these demands, development of new visitor counters is underway, along with integrated systems for systematic collection and management of the data they provide. However, more effective direction is required from visitor flow models to guide the deployment of these new counter systems. This is an ongoing programme, and the presentation provided here summarises background information and progress to date.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 414 Serial 2270  
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Author (up) Cihar, M.; Stursa, J.; Trebicky, V., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Monitoring of Tourism in the Czech National Parks Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 240-245  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Recreational and tourist exploitation of selected parts of four Czech National Parks has been investigated since the year 1997. The article presents cross-section data from 2000. During a nine-day period in the high summer season the basic quantitative census of tourists, cyclists and cars on selected crossroads of tourist paths in the core area of national parks had been carried out and qualitative characteristics, opinions and attitudes of visitors were evaluated. Relation between socio-demographic structure of visitors and their behaviour and attitudes to conservation management activities of the national park’s Authorities was analysed using a special type of a questionnaire based on interviews with a random and representative sample of visitors. There are evident differences between various National Parks (Krkonose, Sumava, Podyji, Ceske Svycarsko) and between the attitudes of foreign visitors and Czech visitors. Investigation has been focused also on local inhabitants and elected representatives of local communities. Results are used by NP Authorities within the process of estimation of ecological and psychological carrying capacity as well as the one of appropriate indicators of sustainable development of the Czech National Parks. Monitoring will continue in the next years.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 484 Serial 2305  
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Author (up) Coch, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Observing visitors behaviour as a methodical alternative to questionnaires – a proposal Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 474-477  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Basing on case studies in South-West- and North-East-Germany techniques of hidden observation such as observing visitors behaviour with binoculars from far distance are discussed. Their origin in ethological field studies is reflected, ethical aspects are mentioned and the conditions to produce valid data are qualified. Especially in case of analysing non-legal behaviours direct questionnaires are often not be able to clear whether serious damages in the protection areas are resulting or not. Also the intentions of “breaking the rules” cannot be reflected totally by socio-empiric methods. On the other hand behaviour observations require a lot of time and energy and should be limited on serious indications because of ethical aspects. So it is necessary to describe conditions and cases, where observing techniques can be implemented successfully.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 568 Serial 2346  
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Author (up) Cole, D.N., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Simulation of Recreational Use in Backcountry Settings: an Aid to Management Planning Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 478-482  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Simulation models of recreation use patterns can be a valuable tool to managers of backcountry areas, such as wilderness areas and national parks. They can help fine-tune existing management programs, particularly in places that ration recreation use or that require the use of designated campsites. They can assist managers in evaluating the likely effects of increasing recreation use and the implementation of new management programs. They also can be used as a monitoring tool, being particularly helpful in predicting encounter levels in the interior as a function of easily measured counts of recreationists entering the area. The first backcountry travel simulation models were developed in the 1970s. They were never widely used, however, primarily because simulation runs were costly and difficult. Recent improvements in computer technology have ushered in a new era of travel simulation modeling.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 570 Serial 2347  
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Author (up) Cottrell, S., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Predictive Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour: Application as a Visitor-Monitoring Tool Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 129-135  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This working paper presents a framework for understanding responsible environmental behaviour as a visitor-monitoring tool. Visitor use data forms the basis of any successful visitor management plan to understand user knowledge, awareness and attitudes about pollution issues in order to develop management policies and actions that enhance appropriate visitor behaviour. A case study of the application of a predictive behavioural model on the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA involving boater environmental behaviour as a social indicator is discussed. Results indicate that knowledge of water pollution issues, awareness of the consequences, equipment issues such as boat length and boat type, and situational factors that constrain or hinder appropriate behaviour were indicators of appropriate behaviour. A structural equation path diagram model was tested using AMOS student version 4.01 using up to seven of the eight predictors from boating behaviour case study to demonstrate the strength of a path analysis procedure. Results model those of the stepwise regression procedures used in the original study, yet the path diagrams demonstrate ease of interpreting the structural relationships among variables in a regression equation. Implications for management actions in the case study situation are given followed by a proposed researchmonitoring program coupling social science techniques with the natural sciences.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 452 Serial 2289  
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Author (up) Curtis, N., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Managing Commercial Recreation on Crown Land: The Commercial Recreation Transition Plan for the Sea to Sky Corridor, BC Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 314-319  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Monitoring and management of visitor flows in parks and recreational areas has traditionally focused on public recreation. However, there is a growing need to find management tools to address commercial operations as well as public recreation, and to manage activities outside of protected areas as well as within them. The implementation of a program to manage previously unregulated commercial recreation operations in the Sea to Sky Corridor, north of Whistler, British Columbia is described. It is argued that commercial recreation (CR) is not only different in kind from public recreation, but also offers significantly different challenges and opportunities with respect to visitor management.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 508 Serial 2317  
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Author (up) Daniel, T.C., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Modelling Visitor Flow from the Visitor Perspective: The Psychology of Landscape Navigation Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 159-165  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper reviews basic issues underlying the monitoring and modeling of the movements of visitors in large-scale natural parks and recreation areas. Modeling of “visitor flow” is related to research and methods in associated fields, including environmental preference, environmental values/attitudes and wayfinding. Relevant psychophysiological and neurological research and theory is also reviewed to reveal the fundamental basis of dissociations between verbal reports and actions. It is argued that traditional verbal survey methods cannot in principle provide an adequate basis for models of human landscape navigation.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 460 Serial 2293  
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Author (up) De Vries, S.; Goossen, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Predicting transgressions of the social capacity of natural areas Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 21-27  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Within the urbanized Dutch society, the social function of forests and nature areas is becoming more and more important. The same holds for agricultural areas. However, planning and management tools for this social function are almost absent. This paper presents a tool to be used by policy makers at regional and higher levels. By means of a normative analysis the local supply of and demand for nature-based recreation are confronted with each other. Because of its normative nature, the analysis does not offer a good description or prediction of actual recreational behavior. However, it does offer insight into where, according to the policy norms, the local supply of nature-based recreation opportunities cannot accommodate local demands. The method has been applied nation-wide and outcomes are momentarily used to substantiate spatial claims to develop new recreation areas.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 416 Serial 2271  
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Author (up) English, D.B.K.; Kocis, S.M.; Arnold, J.R.; Zarnoch, S.J.; Warren, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor Use of USDA Forest Service Recreation Areas: Methods and Results from the National Visitor Use Monitoring Effort Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 246-251  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract One stratum of survey sites in the USDA Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring (NVUM) effort contains agency-managed elements of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two related methods are used to estimate the amount of visitation that occurs in these areas. One utilizes annual information on the number of use permits at the sites where these are mandatory; the other employs a double-sampling approach to estimate visitation. In both cases, on-site visitor sampling is required to obtain the information necessary to estimate actual visitation. A few additional questions on the survey enable us to describe visitor demographics, evaluate customer satisfaction, and estimate economic values and impacts of these visits. The presentation discusses development of the sampling design as well as calibration issues for both use estimation methods. A comparison of the statistical accuracy and cost of each is made. Because the sample design is based on the spatial-temporal combination of Wilderness exit points and the days they are open, some analytic adjustment to the sample survey data is required (beyond simple sample means) to get results that describe the visiting population. The analytic framework is presented, along with some empirical results from the first year of sampling at six selected National Forests to give the flavor of the managerially-relevant information we have so far obtained. The presentation concludes with a discussion of how we plan to extend the analysis that can include issues such as developing models of visitor flows and relating visitation levels to perceptions of crowding.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 486 Serial 2306  
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Author (up) Erkkonen, J.; Sievänen, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Standardisation of Visitor Surveys – Experiences from Finland Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 252-257  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A visitor survey standardisation project was conducted in 1998-2000 in Finland. The visitor survey standardisation project was part of a large national outdoor recreation demand and supply inventory (LVVI). There are two reasons for the standardisation of visitor surveys. First, it is possible to collect comparable information from different kind of areas. Moreover, the information gathered can be combined on a national level. Secondly, standardised measurements assure long-term monitoring of behavioural changes in each studied area. The visitor survey standardisation project developed a standardised questionnaire for the most important information gathered with the help of visitor surveys, that is visitor profiles, activities, distribution of use by area, distribution of use by time, duration of the visit, expenditure of visitors and information on visitor satisfaction and motivation. It is recommended that the data collection be carried out by means of self-conducted questionnaires. The project produced a visitor survey manual and a Microsoft Excel application for computing descriptive results in order to encourage the personnel of recreation areas to conduct visitor surveys independently. The implementation of standardised visitor surveys is mainly carried out by Metsähallitus (Forest and Park Service) which manages the majority of the state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas in Finland. At the beginning of 2002, there were 33 national parks, 7 state-owned hiking areas and some 400 other protected areas. About two million recreational visits take place annually in state-owned protected areas and national hiking areas. The number of recreational visits seems to be on the increase. All together 22 different visitor surveys have been conducted in state-owned areas in the last few years. The results of some of the surveys have almost immediately been used in management and planning of the area in question. In general, there is increasing understanding and interest in the use of visitor information as a tool in decision making: services can be improved to meet visitor expectations better and scarce resources can be allocated more effectively. Along with visitor surveys, systematical visitor counts have recently been started using electronic trail and traffic counters, guest books or manual counters in several protected and recreational areas. At the moment, the next step will be to develop a national database of the collected information, and also to develop good practice in order to benefit from the information on a national level. This paper discusses, firstly, the structure and type of information that is needed from a visitor survey, secondly, how to conduct a visitor survey as a routine method in planning processes, and the framework within which visitor information can be utilised in planning and management. Thirdly, the Finnish experience of the benefits to be gained by using a standardised model for conducting visitor surveys is discussed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 488 Serial 2307  
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Author (up) Findlay, C.; Southwell, K.; Ward Thompson, C.; Salheen, M.; Aspinall, P., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title The Effectiveness of Wayfinding Systems with Forest Users Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 328-334  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Forest wayfinding systems include the sources of information, content and presentation, that potential visitors use to find forest sites and maximise their experience of forest recreation. This paper presents original research from an on-going user-led study of signage at forest recreational sites across the UK, and is part-funded by the Forestry Commission. Research methods used in the study included structured interviews with forest users, a signage audit, observation-based behavioural studies and exploratory work with space syntax. The starting point for the study was an apparent low rating of satisfaction with road signs by visitors to Forestry Commission sites in annual visitor surveys. Signs are “…the most visible manifestation of corporate face” and function to “…provide reliable and accessible information to encourage and welcome visitors” (Forest Enterprise Signs Manual, 1997). Good signs also form part of a positive perception of woodlands (Burgess, 1995) and may be considered within the context of removing barriers to the use of the countryside by disabled people and socially excluded groups. The research found evidence that there were some problems with forest wayfinding, but that these problems are related more to the context, content and location of signs, rather than the materials and details of sign design. More consideration needs to be given to identifying the minimum but key information needs of users at key locations within the forest site. Signs are costly to design, construct, install and maintain, and a crucial concern must be to provide the minimum information for maximum benefit, based on what the user needs to know at each stage of the journey and forest experience. The study also highlighted the role of signage in site promotion, visitor expectations, conflicts between different user groups and accessibility of information. A model for signage to satisfy visitor information needs was developed. The results presented here cover phase 1 of the project and it is anticipated that the methodology developed during the research will have practical applications in evaluating and developing new signage systems, and the training of forest and other recreational site managers.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 512 Serial 2319  
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Author (up) Forer, P., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Serial Experiences : Monitoring, Modelling and Visualising the Free Independent Traveller in New Zealand at Multiple Scales with GIS Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 173-179  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper outlines a number of approaches and methodologies, based on utilising itinerary analysis and Geographic Information Systems, which have sought to explore tourism flows and their impacts at a range of temporal and spatial resolutions. As such its basic records are the sequential movement patterns of individual tourists, either from night to night or from stop to stop. It draws from a data base of some 50,000 journeys nationally, and three major regional surveys in Northland, the West Coast and Rotorua conducted between 1997 and 2001. The paper initially deals with analysis and integration issues relating to existing national data sets on international and domestic visitors and their overnight stays. It then describes and critiques the development of map-based sample surveys applied to detailed information on intra-regional flows, with reference to work in both Tai Tokerau (Northland) and the South Island's West Coast. These surveys record the 'informal' stopping behaviour of visitors in greater detail, and allow initial analysis of movement and positioning of tourists at various times of the day. Insights gained from these data are explored, and their relationship to other data sets such as attraction visitation and accommodation usage surveys are reviewed. Finally, the significance of the data for tourism (in areas such as development strategies and impact assessment) and for wider geo-demographic applications are discussed, as are new data collection opportunities for recording itineraries and flows.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 464 Serial 2295  
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Author (up) Gätje, C.; Möller, A.; Feige, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Visitor Management by Visitor Monitoring? Methodological Approach and Empirical Results from the Wadden Sea National Park in Schleswig-Holstein Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 68-73  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Even today monitoring in most large nature reserves is mainly concerned with ecological environmental observations. Socio-economical parameters and special parameters concerned with tourism are rarely part of such programmes. This is not the case in the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (SH-WSNP). During an extensive ecosystem research project the necessary basis for a better understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Wadden Sea was made. The local population and economy of the Wadden Sea region, especially tourism, played an important role in the project right from the start. The knowledge gained by the project was used as a basis for the revision of the national park law and in the concept for an interstate monitoring programme for the Wadden Sea. The three modules of the socio-economic monitoring (SEM): SEM-Regional, SEM-Trend and SEM-Poll document the, for Germany, unique and thus innovative character of this monitoring programme which is orientated towards comprehensive data collection and assessment. Extensive experience with different methods and results of the quantitative and qualitative monitoring of visitors were gathered during a three year test phase. The possible use of the results for an optimisation of the management of visitor flow in and adjacent to the National park and for more targeted information and public relations work are discussed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 432 Serial 2279  
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Author (up) Gimblett, R.; Lynch, J.; Daniel, T.; Ribes, L.; Oye, G., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Deriving Artificial Models of Visitors From Dispersed Patterns of Use in Sierra Nevada Wilderness Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 180-186  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Natural resource managers are faced with a complex problem of understanding human use patterns and associated impacts in dispersed recreation wilderness settings. This is further complicated by the subsequent synthesis and modeling of those behaviors that affect such patterns of use. While conventional approaches to modeling have limited use in acquiring and understanding such complex associations, spatial simulation models have been proposed as an alternative. The purpose of this paper is to describe a project whose focus is on a dispersed recreation context of backpacking trips and commercial packstock operations in the John Muir Wilderness in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. This paper will discuss the data collection and synthesis to derive agent profiles and rules as a precursor to the development of a dynamic, agent based model that represent the spatial distribution of visitation patterns.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 466 Serial 2296  
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Author (up) Gokhelashvili, R.; Gavashelishvili, A.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Azniashvili, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Tourism Infrastructure Planning in Tusheti National Park of Georgia Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 74-77  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper provides an example of using biodiversity information for tourism infrastructure and management planning in national parks to avoid conflicts between nature conservation, recreational goals, and other users. Within the area of the proposed Tusheti National Park in Georgia, we used field survey data of seventeen focal species within a GIS analytical environment to assess the consistency of planned management categories zoning and administrative and visitor infrastructure (including tourist trails) with biodiversity conservation requirements. A map, comprised of layers for each focal species, was overlaid onto maps of proposed zoning, infrastructure and tourist trails. Numerous conflicts in planning were detected and recommendations were made to improve zoning and infrastructure planning in the national park, and to minimize negative effects of tourism on biodiversity conservation.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 434 Serial 2280  
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Author (up) Gulinck, H.; Dumont, B., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Simulating Visitors’ Dispersion in a Nature Reserve based on a Friction Model Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 187-190  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract A friction model is used for predicting the risk of human penetration of fragile vegetation and bird breeding sites in a nature reserve in central Belgium. The basic components of the study are the terrain classification and the determination of friction values. Different sets of friction values are proposed: based on expert estimation, on walking speed, on energy consumption estimation and on willingness to trespass. The results are compared with spatial data derived from visitor’s observations and interviews. The model is to be improved in a later stage by incorporating the effects of visitor's goals, and of attractors and detractors such as vistas, free roaming cattle or physical challenges. The outcome of this study will be used as basis for the evaluation, and eventually of the redesign, of the current management decisions provided in and around the reserve. Also it should help in following-up the effects of the rapidly changing vegetation and terrain conditions on the behaviour of visitors.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 468 Serial 2297  
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Author (up) Haider, W., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Stated Preference & Choice Models – A Versatile Alternative to Traditional Recreation Research Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 115-121  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract In outdoor recreation research and visitor management applications, stated preference and choice methods have not enjoyed the same amount of popularity when compared to other directions of applied research. This is somewhat surprising considering the fact that decisions that managers of protected areas and outdoor recreation in general face are typically multiattribute in nature and require an understanding of the trade-offs that decision-makers of clients are willing to make. This paper provides an overview to stated choice research by explaining the essential considerations during the design and analysis of this approach. The various stages will be explained on hand of a simple example. Then the versatility of the approach will be demonstrated by discussing research design options in more detail.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 448 Serial 2287  
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Author (up) Hinterberger, B.; Arnberger, A.; Muhar, A., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title GIS-Supported Network Analysis of Visitor Flows in Recreational Areas Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 28-32  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The application of GIS tools for visitor monitoring facilitates a profound analysis of visitor flow patterns. Giving a visual impression of the distribution of visitors within an area via maps, interpretation of visitor use data is much easier and better. Furthermore, a GIS also allows to determine and analyse quantitative parameters of visitor use such as trail and visitor density. These parameters can also be used to characterise and compare different areas within a park. With a standardised approach, also comparisons between parks can be realised. Therefore, GIS is increasingly used in the area of visitor monitoring to assist recreation planners and park managers in their everyday work. This paper demonstrates how a GIS-based trail network analysis was used in the framework of a visitor monitoring project in the Danube Flood Plains National Park, Austria.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 418 Serial 2272  
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Author (up) Itami, R.; Raulings, R.; MacLaren, G.; Hirst, K.; Gimblett, R.; Zanon, D.; Chladek, P., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title RBSim 2: Simulating the Complex Interactions between Human Movement and the Outdoor Recreation Environment Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 191-198  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract This paper describes advancements in recreation management using new technology that couples Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with Intelligent Agents to simulate recreation behaviour in real world settings. RBSim 2 (Recreation Behaviour Simulator) is a computer simulation program that enables recreation managers to explore the consequences of change to any one or more variables so that the goal of accommodating increasing visitor use is achieved while maintaining the quality of visitor experience. RBSim provides both a qualitative understanding of management scenarios by the use of map graphics from a GIS as well as a quantitative understanding of management consequences by generating statistics during the simulation. Managers are able to identify points of over crowding, bottlenecks in circulation systems, and conflicts between different user groups. RBSim 2 is a tool designed specifically for the purposes of simulating human recreation behaviour in outdoor environments. The software is designed to allow recreation researchers and managers to simulate any recreation environment where visitors are restricted to movement on a network (roads, trails, rivers, etc.). The software architecture is comprised of the following components: • GIS module to enter travel network, facilities, and elevation data • Agent module to specify tourist personality types, travel modes, and agent rules • Typical Trip planner to specify trips as an aggregation of entry/exit nodes, arrival curves, destinations and agents • Scenario designer to specify combinations of travel networks, and typical trip plans • Statistical module to specify outputs and summarize simulation results. This paper describes the RBSim software architecture with specific reference to the trip planning algorithms used by the recreation agents.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 470 Serial 2298  
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Author (up) Ivy, M.I., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Video Monitoring Visitors as a Management Tool: Identifying the Issues Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 483-483  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 572 Serial 2348  
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Author (up) Jackson, S.; Haider, W.; Elliot, T., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Resolving Inter-Group Conflict in Winter Recreation: Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, British Columbia Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 109-114  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site, in British Columbia, Canada, is wellknown for its summer historic gold rush hiking route, and is popular in the winter with local residents for skiing, snowmobiling and other winter sports. Park managers implemented a strategy of temporal segregation to mitigate known conflicts between motorised and nonmotorised winter users. This study evaluated the effectiveness of separating users, by monitoring visitor satisfaction and support for the management strategy, and assessing the key differences between user groups within the theory of asymmetrical conflict. The results show that separating users does increase satisfaction for non-motorised users; however, support for controlled access is moderate to low among all users. This study alerts park managers using direct tools such as controlled access, in that dissatisfaction may shift from those who were most affected by the inter-group conflict (non-motorised users) to the motorised group, who are dissatisfied with increased access limitations and loss of freedom.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 446 Serial 2286  
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Author (up) Karácsonyi, Z.; Aradi, C.; Lisztes, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title From the Beginning Until the World Heritage Title: The Tendencies and Management of Visitor Flows at the Hortobágy National Park Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 421-422  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The Hortobágy was always in the center of interest because of its special natural values and its characteristic landscape. Even since 1973, when the Hortobágy National Park was established (as the first national park in Hungary) the visitor flows has been significant. However, this mainly meant a 1 or 2 days mass visits. The successive management plans paid increased attention to the problems and issues related to the visitor flows and the possible solutions. The developed zoning-system and the management regulations based on this deal with the tourism. The recently built Epona Rider Village and then the private tourism organizations appeared in increasingly large numbers, and require a new management approach. The important developments of the recent years (educational center, museums, demonstrational centers) also had a great influence on visitor flow management. The practice applied in each stage of the development process, their modifications and further developments, which is to meet the requirements of the World Heritage title, will be introduced.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 546 Serial 2336  
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Author (up) Keirle, I., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Observation as a Technique for Establishing the Use made of the Wider Countryside: a Welsh Case Study Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 40-45  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Surveying the use made of the wider countryside for recreation is problematic due to the scale of the area to be covered. In particular the distribution, numbers and activities of countryside visitors are difficult to ascertain using conventional methodologies such as questionnaires and counters. This paper describes an observational methodology that has been used investigate recreational activity in a 466 square kilometre area of Mid Wales. The results illustrate the countryside resources that are being utilised, the activities undertaken and the number of people involved. It is concluded that observation is a valuable tool in understanding the nature of recreation in the wider countryside.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 422 Serial 2274  
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Author (up) Keßel, A.; Klüpfel, H.; Meyer-König, T.; Schreckenberg, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title A Concept for Coupling Empirical Data and Microscopic Simulation of Pedestrian Flows Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 199-204  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract In this paper we present a concept for coupling empirical data and a microscopic simulation of pedestrian motion. Since there is no automatic detection method available for this task up to now the main focus is on developing such a system. A review of the different detection methods is presented and the requirements are given an automatic system has to fulfil. Additionally, a possible realisation of such a detector is described. Experiences with such a system for vehicular traffic are reviewed.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 472 Serial 2299  
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Author (up) Krämer, A.; Roth, R., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Spatial Requirements of Outdoor Sports in the Nature Park Southern Blackforest – GIS-based Conflict Analysis and Solutions for Visitor Flow Management Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 33-39  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 420 Serial 2273  
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Author (up) Kubícková, S.; Grega, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Willingness to Pay for Rural Landscape Preservation Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 335-339  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract In this paper we present welfare estimates from a contingent valuation (CV) study, which investigates the potential benefits derived by tourists from the implementation of a programme aimed at preserving the traditional agricultural landscape in the Protected Landscape Area Bílé Karpaty. This area belongs to the most species-rich of the Central Europe. Since 1996 Bílé Karpary has been a biosphere reserve. Our hypothesis is that the agricultural working landscape is a visual resource that is an important attraction to tourists. Here due to the current market conditions arises a danger, that farming activities will be gradually abandoned. The supply of traditional agricultural landscape, which is characteristic for this area, generates economic benefits for which farmers receive little if any remuneration. Any policy aimed at correcting this market failure and providing a socially optimal level of landscape supply needs to be informed about the social demand for this peculiar public good. In this study we estimate the value of rural landscape in the area of Bílé Karpaty for tourism. The magnitude of this form of social benefits turns out to be sizeable and would probably justify – at least in part – a conservation policy aimed at correcting current market tendencies which cause the abandonment of traditional farming practices.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 514 Serial 2320  
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Author (up) Kun, Z., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Managing Visitors Through Certification of Protected Areas’ Business Partners – A Practical Application in Bialowieza National Park, Poland Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 423-428  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract WWF and its business partner, the Molecaten groep Bv initiated PAN Parks concept in 1997 to develop third party verification for measuring management effectiveness of protected areas. PAN Parks wishes to introduce a marriage between nature conservation and sustainable tourism. Business partners have an important role in the project as service and facility provider for visitors. The implementation of the concept of building cooperation between the management and local entrepreneurs started in Bialowieza National Park in 1998. 30 local entrepreneurs signed a letter of intent to work as candidate PAN Parks’ business partners. The concept is that guests visiting these entrepreneurs can get extra information about the Bialowieza National Park, and also about the events in the region. Local entrepreneurs can join if they pay an annual fee, and if they fulfil certain criteria.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 548 Serial 2337  
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Author (up) Lawson, S.; Manning, R., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Integrating Multiple Wilderness Values into a Decision-Making Model for Denali National Park and Preserve Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 136-142  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Decisions about how to manage wilderness recreation in Denali National Park and Preserve require managers to integrate a diverse set of public values, a process that typically involves balancing tradeoffs among multiple and often competing values. While decisions about how to manage wilderness are often contentious, previous research suggests that if managers are able to predict public support for various management alternatives the decisions become more tractable. This study develops a decision-making model that integrates social, resource, and managerial values associated with the Denali wilderness experience. Specifically, stated choice analysis is used to evaluate the choices overnight wilderness visitors make when faced with hypothetical tradeoffs among the conditions of social, resource, and management attributes of the Denali wilderness. Study findings offer an empirical approach for predicting and evaluating the likelihood of public support for Denali wilderness management alternatives.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 454 Serial 2290  
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Author (up) Lawson, S.; Manning, R.; Valliere, W.; Wang, B.; Budruk, M., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Using Simulation Modeling to Facilitate Proactive Monitoring and Adaptive Management of Social Carrying Capacity in Arches National Park, Utah, USA Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 205-210  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract Recent research and management experience has led to several frameworks for defining and managing carrying capacity of national parks and protected areas. The process outlined in contemporary carrying capacity frameworks embodies the principles of adaptive management. That is, management decisions are guided and adapted within these frameworks by monitoring indicator variables to ensure that standards of quality are maintained. The objective of this study was to develop a computer simulation model to estimate the relationships between total park use and the condition of indicator variables. In this way, simulation modeling might facilitate proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity of parks and protected areas.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 474 Serial 2300  
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Author (up) Liebel, G., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Opening Address Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages III-III  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 408 Serial 2267  
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Author (up) Lovén, L., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Customer Satisfaction as an Indicator of Social Carrying Capacity – Case Heritage Centre Ukko in Koli National Park, Finland Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 340-345  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The systematic and spontaneous customer feedback from nature tourism customers is studied in the context of social capital created by social welfare services within the national park, especially the visitor centre services. The feedback is considered as an indicator of social carrying capacity. A model has been developed for assessing the impact of different options for developing services in the visitor centre or giving priority to them. The reliability of the model is studied in relation to different customer profiles. As a special case we study on site the customer’s reactions and attitudes about a key responsibility issue in nature tourism development– responsibility of resources. A ”Partnership in Management” experiment was created in Koli National Park, in Finland, where a local supporting association (NGO) produced 18 months visitor services in visitor centre in co-operation with the official park management organisation. According to the customer feedback the majority of visitors considered this arrangement as a very positive idea. They were also willing to pay the marginal costs, which they have caused, when using the services of the association.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 516 Serial 2321  
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Author (up) Lukac, G., pdf  url
openurl 
  Title The Visitor Flows and the Bird Communities in the Paklenica National Park, Croatia (between 1997-2001) Type Conference Article
  Year 2002 Publication Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume MMV 1 - Proceedings Issue Pages 78-83  
  Keywords MMV1  
  Abstract The paper shows the visitor flow in the Great Paklenica canyon, the most visited part of Paklenica National Park. This area is the greatest climbing center in Croatia. About 500-800 visitors reside on average in this area daily from mid-April to the end of October. The maximum number of visitors, 90.000, was reached in 2001. Up until now we have noted more than 200 bird species the National Park area, and between 1997 and 2001 we have recorded 56 species breed in the Velika Paklenica canyon. This most visited canyon, is known as the breedding area of 18 rocky bird species, such as as Peregrine Falcon, Short–toed Eagle, Kestrel, Rock Partridge, Eagle owl, Rock Dove, Alpine swift, Raven, Rock Nuthach, Blue Rock Thrush, Rock Thrush, Crag Martin, House Martin, Red-rumped Swallow, Black Redstart, Black-eared Wheatear. One pair of Golden Eagles moved to an inaccessible area of the Mala Paklenica canyon. The small colonies of Griffon Vultures have ceased to exist in the National Park. The Egyptian Vulture have disappeared from Croatia at the end of the 1980-ties. This paper discusses the influences of visitor flows, climbing and other recreational activites on the breeding bird communities.  
  Call Number ILEN @ m.sokopp @ 436 Serial 2281  
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